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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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Researchers know that there are several that can lead to cancer. For example, human can cause cervical and several other cancers. And hepatitis C can lead to Cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Studying viruses and cancer is helping researchers vaccines and other ways to reduce cancer risk. We speak Harry Torres, MD, associate professor of Infectious Diseases, to learn more. That's what had to say. Viruses are very small organisms. They are up of genes-DNA or RNA-surround by protein coating. There are several viruses that cause cancer: Epstein-Barr virus is herpes virus thats spread through saliva. EBV infection increases risk of Burkitt lymphoma, some types of Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and stomach Cancer. There is currently vaccine for Epstein-Barr virus. Hepatitis B Virus Is Spread Through Infected Blood, Semen And Other Body Fluids. Hepatitis B is leading cause of liver Cancer. Hepatitis B Vaccine Is Recommended For All Children And Adults. If you are not sure youve been vaccinate, talk to your doctor. Hepatitis C Virus Is Spread Through Infected Blood. Hepatitis C is leading cause of liver Cancer, and can cause non-Hodgkins lymphoma. There is vaccine against hepatitis C, but it is highly treatable. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Is Spread Through Infected Semen, Vaginal Fluids, Blood And Breast Milk. While it does not cause cancer directly, researchers believe it increases risk of cancer by damaging immune system, which reduces body defenses against other It can enable others to cause cancer. HIV-associate cancers include Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkins and Hodgkins lymphoma, cervical Cancer, and cancers of liver, mouth and throat and lung. There is vaccine against HIV. Human herpes virus is related to Kaposi sarcoma in people who have weakened immune system. That includes patients with HIV. Human Papillomavirus Has At Least 12 Strains That Can Cause Cancer In Men And Women, Including Anal, Cervical, Penile, Throat, Vaginal And Vulvar Cancer. Boys and girls aged 11-12 should get HPV vaccine. It is available for from age 9-26. Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type, Also Called Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, Is Linked To Adult T-cell Leukemia / Lymphoma. It is spread through infected semen, vaginal fluids, blood breast milk. Infections are rarely found in United States. Effects Of These Viruses On Cancer Development Are Highly Complicate. Experts do fully understand most known cause cancer. What is is that viruses highjack cells and insert their own DNA or RNA into host cell. This can cause host cells become cancerous. What can people do avoid getting these cancer-causing viruses? You can take steps to reduce your risk getting Get vaccinated. HPV Vaccine Can Help Reduce Risk Of HPV-related Cancer. Hepatitis B Vaccine Can Help Reduce Your Liver Cancer Risk. Get screen. Screening is available for cancer-related viruses, like HPV, HIV and hepatitis B and C. If youre at risk, get screen.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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Proto-oncogenes are group of genes that cause normal cells to become cancerous when they mutate. Mutations in proto-oncogenes are typically dominant in and mutated version of proto-oncogene is called oncogene. Often, proto-oncogenes encode proteins that function to stimulate cell division, inhibit cell differentiation, halt cell death. All of these processes important for normal human development and for maintenance of tissues and organs. Oncogenes, however, typically exhibit increased production of these proteins, thus leading to increased division, decreased cell differentiation, and inhibition of cell death; taken together, these phenotypes define Cancer cells. Thus, oncogenes are currently major molecular target for anti-Cancer drug design. Of course, viruses cause common cold, flu, and pneumonia, but they can cause cancer. American Scientist Named Peyton Rous Discovered First Tumor-causing Virus, Called Rous Sarcoma Virus, Early In Twentieth Century. Rous was transmission of tumors in chickens. He found that he could induce tumor formation in once-healthy chicken by injecting small pieces of tumor from cancer-prone chicken. Rous then make extracts from chicken tumors and filters them through small pores that block of bacteria. Interestingly, he that these cell-free extracts also induce tumor formation in healthy chickens. Because pore size of filter was not small enough to exclude viruses, Rous concluded that virus must be responsible for induction of tumor formation. For his seminal discoveries, Rous won Nobel Prize in 1966. In his Nobel lecture, Rous acknowledged work of Ellerman and Bang, who discovered in 1908 that virus-containing filtrate could transmit leukemia to chickens. Despite these findings, Ellerman and Bang's discovery was not widely recognized at time because leukemia was not yet associated with cancer. Rous was only first in long list of Nobel Prize-winning scientists who uncovered previously unknown links between Rous sarcoma virus and cancer. For instance, Rous sarcoma virus was later shown to be retrovirus through series of Nobel Prize-winning studies in laboratories of David Baltimore, Howard Tenin, and Renato Dulbecco. In addition, in 1975, Nobel Prize winners Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus concluded that Rous sarcoma viral gene responsible for causing Cancer was in fact host gene that had been hijacked by virus. Host Cell Proto-oncogene Was Called C-SRC, And Rous Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Was Called V-SRC. Bishop and Varmus used different strains of Rous sarcoma virus in their research, and in all of strains, they identified v-SRC oncogene as responsible for causing Cancer. These scientists started by generating nucleic acid probe for use in hybridization experiments, and they found that C-SRC gene was present in genome of many species. They then show that host cell C-SRC gene was normally involved in positive regulation of cell growth and cell division.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Causes Cancer?

Although most cancer seems arise from environmental exposures to chemicals and radiation or lifestyle choices, large number of cases are caused by infections. As more is learnt about different types of cancer, additional links with infectious agents are likely be find. Parasites One of first connections between infections and cancer was provided by Dr. Johannes Fibiger. Dr. Fibiger noticed association between cancer in his laboratory rats and infection with parasitic worm. He name worm Spiroptera carcinoma. While it was later shown that worms were not primary cause of cancer, link between infection and cancer has withstood test of time. 13 Several different of worm-like parasites are known to cause Cancer. Parasites are usually very small and have complicated life cycles, living in several different hosts at different in their lives. Life Cycle Of Clonorchis Sinensis Is Shown Above. Schistosoma haematobium causes bladder Cancer. Image is highly magified view of schistosome. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini: These two 'flukes' infect bile duct and are associated with cancer of bile duct and liver. 14 15 bacteria Helicobacter pylori is bacteria that is able to survive in mucosa of gastric epithelium for long time and is main cause of stomach and duodenal diseases. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that H. Pylori is associated with development of lymphoma in m ucosa-ssociated l ymphoid t issue and gastric adenocarcinoma. 16 recent research suggests that populations of bacteria that live in instestines / Colon can increase or decrease their of developing Colon Cancer. 17 18 19 viruses Some viruses have also been associated with initiation promotion of tumor growth based on both epidemiological and experimental evidence. Some DNA viruses contain genes whose products can take control of cell division in host cell. They promote development of tumors by increasing proliferation rates shutting down normal systems that prevent cells from dividing. These viruses include human papillomavirus, most significant risk factor development of cervical Cancer. HPV also causes cancers of / neck, anal cancer, and urogenital cancers. 20 21 Similarly, RNA virus, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 leads to adult T-cell leukemia by stimulating proliferation of infected T-cells. 22 23 24 Epstein-Barr virus another virus that increases cell proliferation. This virus also protects cells from death. EBV infects more than 90 percentage of world's adult population and has been implicated as cause of Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. 25 26 Some viruses also have indirect effects tumor development. Hepatitis B Cause damage that leads to increased cell division and inflammation in liver, potentially promoting growth of tumors. 27 human immunodeficiency virus greatly reduces function of immune system and is cause of AIDS.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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