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Last Updated: 02 December 2020

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Researchers know that there are several viruses that can lead to cancer. For example, human papillomavirus can cause cervical and several other cancers. And hepatitis C can lead to liver Cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Studying viruses and cancer is helping researchers develop vaccines and other ways to reduce cancer risk. We speak with Harry Torres, MD, associate professor of Infectious Diseases, to learn more. That's what he had to say. Viruses are very small organisms. They are made up of genes-DNA or RNA-surround by protein coating. There are several viruses that cause cancer: Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus thats spread through saliva. EBV infection increases the risk of Burkitt lymphoma, some types of Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and stomach Cancer. There is currently no vaccine for Epstein-Barr virus. The Hepatitis B virus is spread through infected blood, semen and other body fluids. Hepatitis B is the leading cause of liver Cancer. The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all children and adults. If you are not sure if youve been vaccinate, talk to your doctor. The Hepatitis C virus is spread through infected blood. Hepatitis C is the leading cause of liver Cancer, and can cause non-Hodgkins lymphoma. There is no vaccine against hepatitis C, but it is highly treatable. The Human immunodeficiency virus is spread through infected semen, vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk. While it does not cause cancer directly, researchers believe it increases the risk of cancer by damaging the immune system, which reduces body defenses against other It can enable others to cause cancer. HIV-associate cancers include Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkins and Hodgkins lymphoma, cervical Cancer, and cancers of anus, liver, mouth and throat and lung. There is no vaccine against HIV. Human herpes virus 8 is related to Kaposi sarcoma in people who have weakened immune system. That includes patients with HIV. The Human papillomavirus has at least 12 strains that can cause cancer in men and women, including anal, cervical, penile, throat, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Boys and girls aged 11-12 should get the HPV vaccine. It is available for patients from age 9-26. The Human T-cell leukemia virus type, also called human T-lymphotrophic virus, is linked to adult T-cell leukemia / lymphoma. It is spread through infected semen, vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk. Infections are rarely found in the United States. The effects of these viruses on cancer development are highly complicate. Experts do fully understand how most known cause cancer. What is know is that viruses highjack cells and insert their own DNA or RNA into host cell. This can cause host cells to become cancerous. What can people do to avoid getting these cancer-causing viruses? You can take steps to reduce your risk of getting Get vaccinated. The HPV vaccine can help reduce the risk of HPV-related Cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine can help reduce your liver cancer risk. Get screen. Screening is available for some cancer-related viruses, like HPV, HIV and hepatitis B and C. If youre at risk, get screen.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Be specific

Proto-oncogenes are a group of genes that cause normal cells to become cancerous when they mutate. Mutations in proto-oncogenes are typically dominant in nature, and mutated version of proto-oncogene is called oncogene. Often, proto-oncogenes encode proteins that function to stimulate cell division, inhibit cell differentiation, and halt cell death. All of these processes are important for normal human development and for maintenance of tissues and organs. Oncogenes, however, typically exhibit increased production of these proteins, thus leading to increased cell division, decreased cell differentiation, and inhibition of cell death; taken together, these phenotypes define Cancer cells. Thus, oncogenes are currently the major molecular target for anti-Cancer drug design. Of course, viruses cause common cold, flu, and pneumonia, but they can also cause cancer. An American scientist named Peyton Rous discovered the first tumor-causing virus, called Rous sarcoma virus, early in the twentieth century. Rous was studying transmission of tumors in chickens. He found that he could induce tumor formation in once-healthy chicken by injecting small pieces of tumor taken from cancer-prone chicken. Rous then make extracts from chicken tumors and filters them through small pores that block passage of bacteria. Interestingly, he notes that these cell-free extracts also induce tumor formation in healthy chickens. Because the pore size of the filter was not small enough to exclude viruses, Rous concluded that virus must be responsible for the induction of tumor formation. For his seminal discoveries, Rous won the Nobel Prize in 1966. In his Nobel lecture, Rous acknowledged the work of Ellerman and Bang, who discovered in 1908 that virus-containing filtrate could transmit leukemia to chickens. Despite these findings, Ellerman and Bang's discovery was not widely recognized at the time because leukemia was not yet associated with cancer. Rous was only the first in a long list of Nobel Prize-winning scientists who uncovered previously unknown links between the Rous sarcoma virus and cancer. For instance, Rous sarcoma virus was later shown to be retrovirus through a series of Nobel Prize-winning studies in laboratories of David Baltimore, Howard Tenin, and Renato Dulbecco. In addition, in 1975, Nobel Prize winners Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus concluded that the Rous sarcoma viral gene responsible for causing Cancer was in fact the host gene that had been hijacked by virus. The Host cell proto-oncogene was called C-SRC, and the Rous sarcoma viral oncogene was called v-SRC. Bishop and Varmus used different strains of Rous sarcoma virus in their research, and in all of the strains, they identified v-SRC oncogene as responsible for causing Cancer. These scientists started by generating nucleic acid probe for use in hybridization experiments, and they found that the C-SRC gene was present in the genome of many species. They then show that the host cell C-SRC gene was normally involved in positive regulation of cell growth and cell division.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Causes Cancer?

List of Carcinogens and the Cancers They Cause

AgentCancer Type
Benzo -pyrene (Tobacco)Lung
AlcoholMouth, Pharynx, Larynx, Espohagus
Dietary FatBreast
AsbestosRespiratory-tract, Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelioma
Fermented FoodsStomach
EstrogensEndometrial, Ovarian, Breast
UV LightSkin
X-Radiation and Gamma RadiationLeukemia , Thyroid, Breast , Lung , Mouth, Stomach , Colon , Bladder, Ovarian, Skin , Central Nervous System
In-Utero DiethylstilbestrolChildhood Cancer
Transabdominal RadiationChildhood Cancer
Soot, Coal (Chimney Sweeping)Scrotal
Nickel (Nickel Refining)Lung , Nasal
Wood Dust (Woodworking)Nasal
Cr(VI) (Leatherworking)Lung
Mustard GasRespiratory-tract, Lung
HPVCervical , Oral, Pharyngeal, Vaginal, Vulvar, Head/Neck, Scrotal, Anal 21
H. pyloriStomach
EBVB-cell Lymphoma , Nasal, Pharyngeal, Stomach
Herpes VirusesKaposi's Sarcoma
Polyomaviruses (ex. JCV)Brain
HTLV-1T-cell Leukemia
Hepatitis B and CLiver

Although most cancer seems to arise from environmental exposures to chemicals and radiation or lifestyle choices, large number of cases are caused by infections. As more is learnt about different types of cancer, additional links with infectious agents are likely to be find. Parasites One of the first connections between infections and cancer was provided by Dr. Johannes Fibiger. Dr. Fibiger noticed an association between cancer in his laboratory rats and infection with parasitic worm. He name worm Spiroptera carcinoma. While it was later shown that worms were not the primary cause of cancer, link between infection and cancer has withstood test of time. 13 Several different kinds of worm-like parasites are known to cause Cancer. Parasites are usually very small and have complicated life cycles, living in several different hosts at different stages in their lives. The life cycle of Clonorchis sinensis is shown above. Schistosoma haematobium causes bladder Cancer. Image is a highly magified view of schistosome. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini: These two 'flukes' infect the bile duct and are associated with cancer of the bile duct and liver. 14 15 bacteria Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria that is able to survive in mucosa of gastric epithelium for a long time and is the main cause of stomach and duodenal diseases. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that H. Pylori is associated with the development of lymphoma in m ucosa-ssociated l ymphoid t issue and gastric adenocarcinoma. 16 recent research suggests that populations of bacteria that live in person's instestines / Colon can increase or decrease their of developing Colon Cancer. 17 18 19 viruses Some viruses have also been associated with initiation and promotion of tumor growth based on both epidemiological and experimental evidence. Some DNA viruses contain genes whose products can take control of cell division in the host cell. They promote development of tumors by increasing proliferation rates and shutting down normal systems that prevent cells from dividing. These viruses include human papillomavirus, most significant risk factor for development of cervical Cancer. HPV also causes cancers of head / neck, anal cancer, and urogenital cancers. 20 21 Similarly, RNA virus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 leads to adult T-cell leukemia by stimulating proliferation of infected T-cells. 22 23 24 Epstein-Barr virus is another virus that increases cell proliferation. This virus also protects infected cells from death. EBV infects more than 90% of the world's adult population and has been implicated as the cause of Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. 25 26 Some viruses also have indirect effects on tumor development. Hepatitis B Cause damage that leads to increased cell division and inflammation in the liver, potentially promoting growth of tumors. 27 human immunodeficiency virus greatly reduces function of the immune system and is the cause of AIDS.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.


AdipokinesSignificance for Cancer
LeptinLeptins normal job is to tell the brain when a person is full. In obese bodies, however, there is so much leptin that the brain essentially disregards the signal (leptin resistance). This leptin has been shown to activate pro-cell division pathways, which would lead to excessive cell proliferation 37 34 .
AdiponectinAdiponectin works to counteract the effects of leptin. It can bind to growth factors to prevent them from signaling cells to divide 38 . It also activates a tumor suppressor (LKB1), which inhibits metastasis 39 . In addition, it can help to increase insulin sensitivity 33 and suppress expression of TNF- and IL-6. Unfortunately, levels of adiponectin are relatively low in obese individuals.
I nter l eukin-6 (IL-6)IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine that is found at higher levels in obese people and during cancer development. IL-6 has been shown to activate the STAT3 pathway, which has roles in tumor cell growth and survival 40 .
M onocyte c hemotactic p rotein-1 (MCP-1)MCP-1 is a chemokine, or a molecule that signals other cells to move. Adipocytes release MCP-1 to recruit immune cells, called macrophages, into the fat tissue. Expression of MCP-1, and the resulting macrophage infiltration and inflammation, is associated with angiogenesis and tumor progression 41 .
T umor n ecrosis f actor-alpha (TNF-)TNF- is a n inflammatory cytokine that contributes to insulin resistance by down-regulating insulin receptors and glucose transporters 42 ; it can also activate the transcription factor NF-B 32 (which leads to the expression of tumor-survival genes), and it promotes tumor cell migration and invasion 43 . TNF- is also suggested to induce adipocyte degeneration and free DNA release, which is implicated in inflammation and insulin resistance 44 . See the section below on insulin resistance.
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How do e-cigarettes work?

Research so far suggests that vaping devices might be less harmful than combustible cigarettes when people who regularly smoke switch to them as a complete replacement. But nicotine in any form is a highly addictive drug. Research suggests it can even prime the brain reward system, putting vapers at risk for addiction to other drugs. 9 also, E-cigarette use exposes lungs to a variety of chemicals, including those added to E-liquids, and other chemicals produced during the heating / vaporizing process. 10 study of some E-cigarette products found vapor contains known carcinogens and toxic chemicals, as well as potentially toxic metal nanoparticles from the device itself. Study show that E-liquids of certain cig-alike brands contain high levels of nickel and chromium, which may come from nichrome heating coils of vaporizing device. Cig-alikes may also contain low levels of cadmium, toxic metal also found in cigarette smoke that can cause breathing problems and disease. 11 More research is needed on the health consequences of repeated exposure to these chemicals. There are also reports of lung illnesses and deaths relating to inhalation of certain vaping oils into lungs, which have no way to filter out toxic ingredients. Teen years are critical for brain development, which continues into young adulthood. Young people who use nicotine products in any form, including E-cigarettes, are uniquely at risk for long-lasting effects. Because Nicotine affects development of the brain's reward system, continue Nicotine vaping can not only lead to Nicotine addiction, but it also can make other drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine more pleasurable to teen's developing brain. 12 Nicotine also affects development of brain circuits that control attention and learning. Other risks include mood disorders and permanent problems with impulse control to fight urges or impulse that may harm oneself or others. 12 Food and Drug Administration has alerted the public to thousands of reports of serious lung illnesses associated with vaping, including dozens of deaths. They are working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to investigate the cause of these illnesses. Many of suspect products tested by state or federal health officials have been identified as vaping products containing THC, main psychotropic ingredient in marijuana. Some patients report a mixture of THC and Nicotine; and some report vaping Nicotine alone. While CDC and FDA continue to investigate possible other contributing substances, CDC has identified the thickening agentVitamin E acetateas chemical of concern among people with E-cigarette or vaping associated lung injuries. They recommend that people should not use any product containing Vitamin E acetate, or any vaping products containing THC; particularly from informal sources like friends, family, or in-person and online dealers. They also warn against modifying any products purchased in stores, or using any vaping products bought on the street. People, including health professionals, should r eport any adverse effects of vaping products. The CDC has an information page for consumers.

What are vaping devices?

Vaping devices, also know as E-cigarettes, E-vaporizers, or electronic nicotine delivery systems, are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale aerosol, which typically contain nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals. They can resemble traditional tobacco cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, or even everyday items like pens or USB memory sticks. Other devices, such as those with fillable tanks, may look different. Regardless of their design and appearance, these devices generally operate in similar manner and are made of similar components. More than 460 different E-cigarette brands are currently on the market. 1 Some common nicknames for E-cigarettes are: E-cigs E-hookahs hookah pen vapes vape pen mods

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions


* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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