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0203 Run On A Brain

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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General | Latest Info

Do migraines damage brain? This is enquiry often received at Migraine Trust, especially following stories appearing in media that raise questions about whether Migraine can cause harmful changes in brain, so we ask our medical Trustees for some help in interpreting research. Migraine Research sometimes includes use of imaging technology, or scans, to examine brain structure and compare brain of Migraine sufferers with those who are not sufferers. Therefore, trying to understand whether there are differences in structure of Migraine brain might help in developing new and more effective treatments for Migraine. In paper by Dr Bashir and others, authors review 19 earlier studies, 13 of which were studies of people who attend Migraine clinics. Compared with non-migraineurs, those with Migraine with aura had small but statistically significant increase in appearance of white-matter abnormalities. Infarct-like lesions were statistically more common in people Migraine with aura than in those who had Migraine without aura. However, reassuringly, these were no more in either group of migraineurs than in people without Migraine. Research shows that people who have Migraine without aura are not at any important risk for either white-matter abnormalities or infarct-like lesions to people without Migraine. In addition, there are no cognitive problems caused by Migraine or by MRI scan similar to those in studies. Research shows that current recommended treatment for Migraine do not need to be change, and there is no need for scans for those who have definite diagnosis of Migraine with no unusual symptoms. Unusual symptoms that raise concern and warrant further investigation like MRI are usually picked up when doctors do neurological examination. People with Migraine also had more volume in some parts of their brain, and less volume in other parts their brain, compared to people without Migraine. Differences in volume that were seen in different parts of brain seem to be static, that is, not something that appears to be progressive or caused by Migraine attacks. Again, there are no cognitive consequences or implications for of Migraine, based on what is currently know. However, much more research needed before any further interpretation can be made and these findings may simply mark inheritance of Migraine. Professor Peter Goadsby, Director of NIHR-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility at Kings College Hospital, London, and Trustee of Migraine Trust, believes that resolving these types of questions is hugely important and will require well-fund, large-scale, population-base imaging study.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

It is well known that temperature affects of all physicochemical processes governing neural activity. It is also known that brain has high levels of metabolic activity, and all energy used for brain metabolism is finally transformed into heat. However, issue of brain temperature As factor reflecting neural activity and affecting various neural functions remains in and is usually ignored by most physiologists and neuroscientists. Data presented in this review demonstrate that brain temperature is not stable, showing relatively large fluctuations within physiological and behavioral continuum. I consider mechanisms underlying these fluctuations and discuss Brain thermorecording as important tool to assess basic changes in neural activity associated with different natural and drug-induce motivated behaviors. I also consider how naturally occurring changes in brain temperature affect neural activity, various homeostatic parameters, structural integrity of brain cells as well as results of neurochemical evaluations conducted in awake animals. While physiological hyperthermia appears to be adaptive, enhancing efficiency of neural functions, under specific environmental conditions and following exposure to certain psychoactive drugs, brain temperature could exceed its upper limits, resulting in multiple brain abnormalities and life-threatening health complications. Temperature is traditionally viewed as one of basic homeostatic parameters of living organisms and its regulation is essential topic of physiology, which considers mechanisms determining relative stability of core body temperature following highly variable changes in environmental temperatures. Aristotle was probably first to define temperature as one of five basic biological processes and provided logical account for what we now call temperature regulation. Although it is known that temperature affects neural activity and neural functions, we limited knowledge of normal and pathological fluctuations of brain temperature and mechanisms underlying Brain thermal homeostasis and its alterations. These issues are usually ignored by thermophysiologists, who examine mechanisms underlying stability of body temperature and development of fever, stable increase in body temperature usually associated with viral and bacterial infections. While not clearly stated in most conceptualizations describing body temperature regulation, brain temperature is usually viewed either as stable, tightly regulated homeostatic parameter or parameter that passively follows body temperature changes. It is well known that brain plays crucial role in regulation of body temperature by detecting changes in environmental temperatures, integrating sensory information, and adjusting, via effector mechanisms, heat production and / or heat loss to external environment. However, brain itself has high levels of metabolic activity, generating significant amount of heat. Being only fraction of human body mass, brain accounts for ~20 percentage of organisms ' total oxygen consumption in resting conditions. Most energy used for neuronal metabolism is expended during restoration of membrane potential electrical discharges, but significant energy is also used for neural processes not directly related to neuronal electrical activity, particularly for synthesis of macromolecules as well as for functioning of glial, endothelial and epithelial cells, which greatly outnumber amount of neurons.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Patients and methods

There are variety of ways to assess mobility in rehabilitation setting 27 as described elsewhere in this issue. This review focus on capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness. How to assess physiologic and metabolic aspects of mobility are important considerations. Understanding acute responses and long term adaptations are keys to understanding whether exercise intervention will have positive effect on overall health. Gold Standard For Measuring Physical Fitness Is To Measure Peak VO 2 During Maximal Grade Exercise Test In Which Workload Progressively Increase. These tests are often performed on treadmills or cycle ergometers or some other device on which workload can be increased incrementally. Protocols have been designed that are similar to standard cardiac stress tests that measure heart blood pressure and electrocardiogram. Optimally, these tests should include collection of expired gases so subject's metabolic response can be assess. In addition to peak oxygen uptake, metabolic response provides additional information carbon dioxide production and pulmonary ventilation. Simple calculations with these variables allow one to estimate cardiac stroke volume and efficiency breathing during exercise. Since all variables are measured continuously, submaximal responses can be monitored to provide estimate of efficiency of movement. Movement efficiency is particularly important when one considers high incidence of neuromusculoskeletal abnormalities in patients with TBI. Because of balance and gait impairments many patients with TBI demonstrate, cycle ergometer, upright or recumbent, is commonly used for exercise testing. However, patients with TBI elicit higher peak VO 2 when being tested on treadmill versus bicycle ergometer due to localized muscle fatigue. Using test-retest designs, both leg cycle ergometry 17 and treadmill testing 28 have been shown be reliable in patients recovering from TBI. Besides eliciting higher peak VO 2, treadmill testing is recommend, when feasible and because it is more functional. Body weight support harness systems can be used to provide added level of security for individual being test. Since testing of peak VO 2 requires expensive equipment and highly trained personnel, alternative methods of testing have been develop. One can estimate aerobic capacity using timed walk or run test. First proposed by Cooper, 29 these tests have been used frequently in variety of patient populations. 30 31 most common is six minute walk and is measure of total distance walked in 6 minutes with minimal number of turns or changes in direction. It is best to combine with measure of heart rate so estimate of energy expenditure can be calculate. Test Has Been Shown To Be Reliable In Subjects With TBI. 32 modified 20 meter shuttle run 33, another variation of walk / run test used to estimate peak oxygen consumption, was also one of first to be evaluated for reliability in patients with TBI.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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