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1830 in rail transport

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The evolution of rail transportation in the United States can be conceptualized as a cycle composed of phases of introduction, rapid growth, maturity, and rationalization. Introduction. From modest beginnings and untested technology, rail transportation emerged in the 1830s with the construction of numerous local lines, dominantly in the Northeast. By 1840, 3 000 miles of tracks were laid but rail transportation was still uncompetitive in regard to waterways, which had wider coverage. Many of the first rail lines were actually portage segments within the Canal system or routes aimed at complementing existing canals. A set of independent feeder rail networks were also being establish. As the network extend, Appalachian mountains were crossed in the early 1850s, and rail transportation was able to compete more effectively in the resource-rich Midwest with 30 000 miles of tracks laid by 1860. The cost of moving farm products and manufactured goods over long distances fell by 95 % between 1815 and 1860. This underlined the capacity of the rail system to answer needs of the national economy and its subsequent phase of rapid expansion. Growth. As the advantages of rail transportation become widely acknowledge, massive phase of growth ensue with rail achieving dominance over roads and waterways. One priority was construction of the transcontinental line linking the East and West coasts, which was completed in 1869. From that point, numerous branches and trunks were construct, leading to interconnected national Rail system. Standard gauge of 1. 4351 meters was also agreed upon. However, there were complaints made by users stating that rates charged by railroad companies were high and discriminatory, particularly because of the monopoly they had on several parts of the emerging railway system. In response, US Congress created the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887, with authority to regulate rates railroads could charge. The growing level of regulation of the rail sector was associated with the end of its spatial growth. The extent of the rail system peaked in 1916, with 254 000 road-miles. Maturity. This period mark age of rail transportation dominance, as by 1930, 250 000 miles rail network accounted for about 65 % of all freight tonnage carried in the United States and is close to the totality of long-distance passenger transport. Rail technology was standardized and show little improvements in terms of speed. Competition from trucks was, however, beginning to be felt, notably for short hauls. Mileage started to slowly decline with unprofitable lines being abandon. The Great Depression of 1930s marked the first significant rationalization with the abandonment of more than 16 000 road-miles between 1930 and 1940. By 1950 the system was downsize to 224 000 road-miles. In addition, heavy regulations from the ICC lead to standard private sector response; lack of investments, increased accidents, reduced punctuality, and bankruptcy of several companies. Rationalization. The Post World War II era was one of intense rationalization for rail transportation. In the 1970s, US railway system was facing serious financial difficulties; several railway companies were going bankrupt.

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Events

Although they were servants on the job, porters take pride in their professionalism. At home, they were respected members of their communities. Porters travel extensively and connect their communities to the wider world. From the 1920s through 1940s, porters helped Southern blacks migrate by bringing back information on jobs and housing in the North. Porters were also involved in Civil Rights activity. Pullman porter E. D. Nixon helped plan the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott of 1955-56. Union leader. Philip Randolph pressured President Franklin Roosevelt into issuing Executive Order 8802 in 1941. It bars discrimination in defense industries and created the Fair Employment Practices Committee. Later, Randolph was involved in planning the 1963 Civil Rights march on Washington. Spencer, suburb of Salisbury, owes its existence to the Southern Railway. The town began in 1897, springing up around 141 acres of land Southern bought to build a railroad repair-shop complex. Although the Railway does not directly develop the town, more than 2 500 machinists, foundry workers, boilermakers, carpenters, and other shop workers and their families live in Spencer. They and merchants who supply their needs make Spencer a thriving Industrial community.


The Beginnings of American Railroads and Mapping

Railways were introduced in England in the seventeenth century as a way to reduce friction in moving heavily loaded wheeled vehicles. The first North American gravity Road, as it was call, was erect in 1764 for military purposes at Niagara portage in Lewiston, New York. The builder was Capt. John Montressor, British engineer known to students of historical cartography as a mapmaker. Surveying and mapping activities flourish in the United States as people begin moving inland over inadequately mapped continent. Settlement of the frontier, development of agriculture, and exploitation of natural resources generate demand for new ways to move people and goods from one place to another. Privately owned toll or turnpike roads were followed first by steamships on navigable rivers and by construction of Canals and then in the 1830s by the introduction of railroads for steam-powered trains. The earliest Survey map in the United States that shows commercial tramroad was draw in Pennsylvania in October 1809 by John Thomson and was entitled draft Exhibiting. Railroad as contemplated by Thomas Leiper Esq. From His Stone Saw-Mill and Quarries on Crum Creek to His Landing on Ridley Creek. Thomas Leiper was a wealthy Philadelphia tobacconist and friend of Thomas Jefferson, who owned Stone Quarries near Chester. Using His Survey map, Thomson helped Reading Howell, project engineer and well-know mapmaker, construct the first practical wooden tracks for tramroad. Thomson was a notable Land surveyor who earlier had worked with Holland Land Company. He was the father of the famous civil engineer and longtime president of Pennsylvania Railroad, John Edgar Thomson, who was himself a mapmaker. In 1873, the younger Thomson donated his father's 1809 map to the Delaware County Institute of Science to substantiate the claim that the map and Leiper's Railroad were the first such work in North America. In 1826, a commercial tramroad was created and constructed at Quincy, Massachusetts, by Gridley Bryant, with machinery for it developed by Solomon Willard. It uses horsepower to haul granite needed for building Bunker Hill Monument from Quarries at Quincy, four miles to the wharf on the Neponset River. These early uses of railways give little hint that a revolution in methods of transportation was underway. James Watt's improvements in steam engine were adapted by John Fitch in 1787 to propel ship on the Delaware River, and by James Rumsey in the same year on the Potomac River. Fitch, American inventor and surveyor, had published his map of Northwest two years earlier to finance building of commercial steamboat. With Robert Fulton's Clermont and the boat built by John Stevens, use of steam power for vessels become firmly establish. Railroads and steam propulsion developed separately, and it was not until one system adopted technology of the other that railroad began to flourish. John Stevens is considered to be the father of American railroads.

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Births

Transportation has long been a flash point in the struggle for racial equality in America. In 1896, Supreme Courts Plessy v. Ferguson decision declared racial segregation legal. For the next half century, until 1954s Brown v. Board of Education reversed Plessy, doctrine of separate but equal was the law of the Land. After 1954, segregation remained common practice. Mass protests against segregated transportation helped create the Modern civil rights movement. The Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott of 1955-56 showed the power of nonviolent direct action and encouraged other forms of protest against institutionalized racism. Transportation issues remain at the forefront of movement when it enters the next stage: making sure that new laws are being apply. In 1961, integrated groups of activists calling themselves Freedom Riders board buses and travel into South to see if bus stations were desegregate as ordered. Freedom Riders were attacked as they travel, and one of their buses was burnt in Alabama. But their efforts pressure the federal government to make States comply with desegregation laws. Because of these kinds of protests over transportation, laws and social customs have begun to change throughout the segregated South.

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Deaths

In earliest days of passenger railways in Britain, poor were encouraged to travel to find employment in growing industrial centers, but trains were generally unaffordable to them except in the most basic of open wagons, in many cases attached to goods trains. The Railway Regulation Act, which took effect in 1844, compelled the provision of at least one train day each way at a speed of not less than 12 miles an hour including stops, which were to be made at all stations, and of carriages protected from weather and provided with seats; for all which luxuries not more than penny mile might be charge.

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Railways: The Revolution of Transportation

Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester, was not the first railway, but it was the first one to rely exclusively on steam power, with no horse-drawn traffic permit at any time; first to be entirely double track throughout its length; first to have signaling System; first to be fully timetabled; first to be power entirely by its own motive power; and first to carry mail. As such, it revolutionized transportation and paved way for the phenomenal development of railways that would soon take over the world. As Manchester had grown on cotton spinning, Leeds had growing trade in weaving. Pennines restrict Canal development, so the Railway provides a realistic alternative, especially with growth in coal usage from mines in the North East and Yorkshire. A number of Lines were approved in the area, such as the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1830, which linked the former to port of Hull via the River Ouse. While L & MR had not oust Lancashire Canal System from transport of goods, there was unexpected enthusiasm for passenger travel. The financial success of Railway was beyond all expectations. Soon companies in London and Birmingham plan to build Lines linking these cities together and with Liverpool and Manchester via L & MR. These two Lines were London and Birmingham, designed by Robert Stephenson, and Grand Junction, engineered by Joseph Locke. The Grand Junction was designed to link the existing L & MR and the new L & BR. It opened in July 1837, with L & BR following a few months later. Although Acts of Parliament allow railway companies compulsory Purchase of wayleave, some powerful landowners object to railways being built across their land and raise objections in Parliament to prevent bills from being pass. Some land owners charge excessive amounts, so early Lines do not always follow optimal routes. In addition, steep gradients were avoided as they would require more powerful locomotives.

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Railway Mania

Seeds of boom were sown more than a decade earlier, with the opening in 1830 of the world's first commercial passenger Railway line between Liverpool and Manchester, two burgeoning cities of the new industrial age. The UK was at the time fast becoming the world's preeminent manufacturing powerhouse, and railways promised to catalyze revolution underway, making IT possible to move vast quantities of raw materials and finish goods more cheaply and quickly than ever before. Until then, few people had considered the possibility of using trains to transport passengers. Many investors were actively oppose, arguing IT would be all but impossible to encourage people to swap horse-drawn coaches for such noisy and potentially dangerous newfangled contraptions. However, against expectations, Liverpool-Manchester line was a roaring success. Rail passengers far outnumber coach travelers who had formerly used the same route; at the same time, railway became wildly profitable, and investors were showered with dividend payments. Investors now have hard proof that passenger railways could be money-making machines. However, although there was a spike in interest in rail shares in the mid-1830s, IT was only several years later that Railway Mania truly took hold. This was partly because the Bank of England cut rates in early 1840s, lowering financing costs and creating fertile ground for a bubble to come. But IT was also because stocks could be purchased with just a 10 % deposit, massively expanding the investor base. In this regard, there are glaring similarities with the 1920s US stock market boom, which saw the emergence of millions of middle-class shareholders who bought stocks on margin. Parallels can also be drawn with the early 2000s subprime mortgage crisis in the US; combination of Federal Reserves ' loose monetary stance and low down payments saw scores of Americans with dubious credit records get a tenuous toehold on the housing ladder.

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Government Involvement

British Railways, byname British Rail, former National Railway System of Great Britain, created by the Transport Act of 1947, which inaugurated public ownership of railroads. The first Railroad built in Great Britain to use steam locomotives was Stockton and Darlington, opened in 1825. It used steam locomotive built by George Stephenson and was practical only for hauling minerals. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830, was the first modern railroad. It was a public carrier for both passengers and freight. By 1870, Britain had about 13 500 miles of railroad. At systems greatest extent, in 1914, there were about 20 000 miles of track, run by 120 competing companies. The British Government combined all these companies into four main groups in 1923 as an Economy measure. When World War II began in 1939, British railroads were under Government control. The Transport Act of 1947 nationalized Railways, which were taken over by the British Transport Commission in 1948 and given the name British Railways. BTC divides Britain's Rail Network into six regions on a geographic basis. A 1962 law replaced BTC with the British Railways Board in 1963. Boards management emphasize mass movement over major trunk lines and closing of money-losing branch lines and depots. Between 1963 and 1975, the Board shortened its routes from 17 500 miles to 11 000 miles and cut personnel from about 475 000 to about 250 000. As part of the modernization program, steam locomotives began to be replaced by diesel in the 1950s, and this was followed in the 60s by electrification. The Board undertake track reconstruction, instal long, continuously weld rails, and introduced new signaling systems. A computerized freight service introduced in 1975 could monitor the movements of more than 200 000 freight cars. In 1966-67, the West-Coast line from London to Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool was electrify, and in the early 1970s, electrification was extended to Glasgow. Track improvements and High Speed Train, Diesel Train operating at speeds up to 125 miles per hour, cut travel times between Britains major cities. The British Government restructured British Rail in 1993 prior to privatizing the company. Passenger traffic and freight traffic were divided into 25 train-operating units and six freight-operating companies, respectively, that were franchised to private-sector operators. A new state-own company, Railtrack, was created in 1994 to own and manage systems track, signals, land, and stations. The railtrack was privatized in 1996. Crack Rail Lead to Train derailment at Hatfield in 2000 that killed four people; trains were slowed down throughout the country as rails were checked for cracks. As a result, Railtrack announced losses of 534 million pounds in 2001. The British Government formed a new not-for-profit company, Network Rail, Ltd., That assumed the railtracks business in 2002.

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Railroads In The 19th Century

Earliest railroads reinforced transportation patterns that had developed centuries before. During the Middle age, most heavy or bulky items were carried by water wherever possible. Where natural interconnection among navigable rivers was lacking, gaps in trade were likely to develop, most notably at watersheds. By 16 century, Canal building was being widely used in Europe to integrate waterway systems based on natural streams. During the Industrial Revolution, Canal networks became urgent necessities in western Europe and the western Mediterranean. In Britain and France, increased use of coal for raising steam and for iron smelting greatly increase need for Canal Transportation. In 50 years after 1775, England and Wales were web with canals to provide reasonably inexpensive transport Of Coal. But in areas of concentrated industry in hilly country, such as around Birmingham and in the Black Country Of England, or areas of heavy coal production in droughty uplands, as in western County Durham, transporting coal by water seems impracticable. Development of the late Middle Ages, plateway, suggests means to make steam-power land transport practicable. In Central Europe, most common metals were being mined by 16 and 17 centuries, but, because they occur in low concentrations, great tonnages of ore had to be mined to produce small yields of usable material. In that situation, it was helpful to provide supporting pavement on which wheels might run with somewhat reduced friction. Recourse was had to minimum pavement possible, that provided by two parallel rails or plates supporting the wheels of the wagon. Wheels were guided by flange either on rail or on wheel. The latter was ultimately prefer, because with flange on the wheel, debris was less likely to lodge on the rail. In the Harz Mountains, Black Forest, Ore Mountains, Vosges, Steiermark, and other mining areas such railroads or plateways were widespread before the 18 century. The bulk and weight of the steam engine suggest it is being mounted on the railway. This occurred in Britain where, in the 17 century, coal mining had become common in the northeast in Tyneside and in South Wales. By 1800, each of these areas also had extensive plateway systems depending on gravity-induced movement or animal traction. The Substitution of steam-engine traction was logical. The timing of this shift during the first decade of the 19th century was dictated by improvements in steam engine. Weight-To-power ratio was unfavourable until 1804, when Cornish engineer, Richard Trevithick, constructed a steam engine of his own design. In 1802, at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire, he built a steam-pumping engine that operated at 145 pounds per square inch pressure. He mounts a high-pressure engine on car with wheels set to operate on the rails of cast-iron tramroad located at Pen-yDarren, Wales. In the United States, Oliver Evans, Delaware wheelwright, in 1805 built an engine with steam pressure well above single atmosphere that Watt used in his early engines.

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Sources

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