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18th-century Bc Disestablishments

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Last Updated: 19 November 2020

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The 19th century was a period in history marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, German Empire, United States and the Empire of Japan, spurring military conflicts but also advances in science and exploration. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one fifth of the total land area. It enforces Pax Britannica, encourages trade, and battles rampant piracy. The 19th century was an era of invention and discovery, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that lay the groundwork for technological advances of the 20th century. The Industrial Revolution began in Europe. The Victorian era was notorious for employment of young children in factories and mines. In Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization. Then Japan went to War against Qing, and won the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from roughly 200 million to more than 400 million. The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people live and obtain goods, and fueling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of million or more during this century. London was transformed into the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population expanded from 1 million in 1800 to 6. 7 million century later. Last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were discovered during this century, and with the exception of extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by 1890s. Liberalism has become the preeminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following the successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, ban slavery throughout its domain, and charge its navy with ending the global slave trade. The first Empire to abolish slavery was the Portuguese Empire, followed by Britain, who did so in 1834. America's 13 Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia. The 19th century was remarkable in widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australasia, with a significant proportion of two continents' largest cities being found at some point in the century. In the 19th century, approximately 70 million people left Europe.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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