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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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It was sweltering, 117-degree July day in Hinkley, California. Surface Of 13-mile Highway East To Barstow Had Become Asphalt Skillet, And Towns Lone Recreational Feature, Childrens Playscape, Stands Shining And Unused Like Monument To Lofty Melting Point Of Low-density Polyethylene. Residents here appreciate dry, desert landscape, that why many move to Hinkley in first place, but on days like this everyone takes refuge indoors, curtains drawn against view of empty lots where neighbors ' houses once stand. Along empty roads, thousands of pipe stubs groundwater monitoring wells instal Pacific Gas and Electric begin to look like air vents to some underground bunker where most everyone in town had retreat. Despite oppressive weather, small group of residents had gathered at community center for workshop on bioremediation, basically how to remove chemical contamination from their land and water. These workshops are regular occurrence here and broach topics like isotope analysis, well testing techniques, and best ways to navigate political machinations between oversight organizations. Hinkley-dwellers interest in these is more based on survival than scientific curiosity; they want to make sure no one can pull wool over their eyes again. Hinkley is still best known Erin Brockovich town. In 1996, group of residents famously won massive direct-action arbitration against Pacific Gas and Electric with help of Brockovich, savvy single mom and Los Angeles legal clerk. Utility Company Was Found Liable For Dumping Hexavalent Chromium, Carcinogen Used To Suppress Rust Formation At Hinkley Gas Compressor Station, Into Unlined Pond In 50s And 60s. Chemical seep into ' groundwater. PG & E hid crisis and misled community on effects of that specific type of chromium and its possible connection to health problems in town. At time it was settle, Hinkley case was largest payout ever awarded for direct action lawsuit. Environmental advocates laud decision. And of course, story became Oscar-winning movie starring Julia Roberts. For many people, that is where story ends. They probably imagine that Hinkley is pepper with big houses paid for by plaintiffs ' hefty award. In reality, all that remain in town today is few clusters of homes, scrapyard, community center, dairy, and infamous PG & E station that connects to vast natural Gas pipeline system. Erin Brockovichs new book looks at upstream causes of America water crisis. To call Hinkley ghost town would be misleading; ghost towns have abandoned buildings. But PG & E buys most of homes in Hinkley on contaminated land and bulldozes them to avoid squatters. Successive rounds of real estate buyouts have reduced population to less than half of what it was in 2012. Even with ongoing cleanup efforts, hexavalent chromium haunts town's potential. New residents know Hinkley's history, and those still there fear ever-present threat of further deception or mismanagement in remediation process.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Bad blood and good water

MoviePass may fail, but it changes moviegoings for better. Major theater chains like AMC Theatres and boutique cinemas like Alamo Drafthouse experimenting with subscription platforms that make it more affordable to go to movies more regularly. Others, like Regal Cinemas, have talked testing demand-base pricing that would make it cheaper to go to movies during off-peak periods. That kind of innovation wouldve been hard to imagine decade ago. Little has changed about way movies are priced in US since 1970s. Theaters still charge same price to see blockbusters like Star Wars as they do for arthouse films such as Call Me by Your Name. Even price hasn't very much. In 1971, when Fiddler on Roof top Box Office, it was less than 2 to get into movie on average, data from National Association of Theatre Owners show. Last year, was around 9. But, when adjust for inflation, actually dip slightly. Subscription services like MoviePass now give moviegoers access to host of films each month for low, flat monthly rate. MoviePass charges 10 per month to watch movie per day at most theaters in US. AMC Stubs-List charges 20 months three movies per week at its locations. It is by order of magnitude most significant change in history of ticket pricing, Barak Orbach, law professor at University of Arizona who has done extensive research on Motion-Picture Industry, told Quartz. Shift To Subscription Services Is Part Of Revolution That Began More Than Decade Ago, As DVDs, On-demand Video, And Nascent Streaming Services Like Netflix Make It More Convenient To Watch Movies At Home Than In Theaters. Cinemas begin searching for ways to make moviegoing better than viewing at home. IMAX presented opportunity in early 2000s, when it brought its system of high-definition cameras and digital projectors from museums to multiplexes, Daniel Loria, editorial director at Box Office Media, told Quartz. Studio Warner Bros. Score first hit IMAX movie in with Polar Express. Five years later, 20 Century Fox showed what 3D, another burgeoning movie format, could look like when do right with with Avatar, which remains highest-grossing movie of all time. Other digital-movie formats and projection systems, like Dolby Cinema and 4DX, also developed over time to replace projection systems that had worked perfectly well in Cinemas for last Century, and offer moviegoers new experiences. Movie theaters could charge more for these higher-end formats, marking pseudo-return to early days of Hollywood when ticket prices varied by film. That practice was killed by famous 1950s anti-trust case against Paramount that broke up monopolies between movie producers and distributors to prevent them from setting price of admission. Other factors, like rise of TV, also help kill habit, as Orbach outlined in his 2004 paper, Antitrust and Pricing in Motion Picture Industry.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Putting things right

One of quintessential titles from 1950s sci-fi, 1956 version of Invasion of Body Snatchers see population of small American town replaced overnight by automatons, replicas devoid of human feelings known as pod people. Of course, no-one believes suspicious few led by Kevin McCarthy, local doctor, and apathy and obliviousness allow extraterrestrial takeover to spread quickly and quietly. It wasnt first film to allegorise anxieties of enslavement by superior power-or to attack rotten core beneath surface of-OK, 50s values-But it certainly most effective, having lost none of its power of suggestion that world might not end with bang but with creeping loss of identity and selfhood as result of blind pack mentality. With Hollywood Ten in jail after recent Army-McCarthy hearings, pod-like pressure to conform gives very substantiation of films invisibly embed fears. Of course, many Another 50s sci-fi films choose to exteriorise and inflate their Nuclear Age concerns to colossal proportions, It being easier to deal with or defeat unimaginable when manifest-However monstrously-In of, say, Giant tarantula or gelatinous Space-blob. Beyond Invasion of Body Snatchers, here are 10 of very finest examples.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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