Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 7.4 mil and more summaries

1 7 Mass Media And Popular Culture

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 December 2020

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

In 1850, epidemic swept Americans instead of leaving victims sick with fever or flu, This was rabid craze for music by Swedish soprano Jenny Lind. American showman P. T. Barnum, shrewd marketer and self-make millionaire, is credited with spreading Lindomania through a series of astute Show-business moves. Barnum promised Lind an unprecedented thousand-dollar-anight fee for her entire 93-performance tour of the United States. Ever savvy self-promoter, Barnum turned this huge investment to his advantage, using it to drum up publicityand it paid off. When Swedish soprano ship docked on US shores, she was greeted by 40 000 ardent fans; another 20 000 swarmed her hotel. Congress was adjourned during Linds visit to Washington, DC, where the National Theater had to be enlarged in order to accommodate her audiences. A town in California and an island in Canada were named in her honor. Enthusiasts could purchase Jenny Lind hats, chairs, boots, opera glasses, and even pianos. A little more than a century later, new craze transformed American teenagers into screaming, fainting Beatle-maniacs. When British foursome touched down AT Kennedy Airport in 1964, they were met by more than 3 000 frenzied fans. Their performance on Ed Sullivan Show was seen by 73 million people, or 40 percent of the US population. The crime rate that night dropped to its lowest level in 50 years. Beatlemania was AT such a fever pitch that Life magazine cautioned that a Beatle who ventures out unguarded into the streets runs the very real peril of being dismembered or crushed to Death by his fans. Barbara Ehrenreich, Elizabeth Hess, and Gloria Jacobs, Beatlemania: Girls Just Want to Have Fun, in Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, Ed. Lisa. Lewis. The BBC helpfully pointed out that there was plenty of paraphrenalia for true fans to spend their money on: T-shirts, sweat shirts, turtle-neck sweaters, tight-legged trousers, night shirts, scarves, and jewellery inspired by the Beatles were all available, as were Beatles-style moptop wigs. In the 21st century, rabid fans could actually help decide the next pop stars through the reality television program American Idol. Derive from British show, American Idol hit the airwaves in 2002 and became the only television program ever to earn the top spot in Neilsen ratings for six seasons in row, often averaging more than 30 million nightly viewers. Rival television networks quake in fear, deeming pop behemoth ultimate Schoolyard Bully, Death Star, or even the most impactful Show in the history of television. Bill Carter, For Foxs Rivals, American Idol remain Schoolyard Bully, New York Times, February 20 2007, Arts Section. Newspapers put developments on show on their front pages. New cell phone technologies allow viewers to have a direct role in programs Star-making enterprise through casting votes. Fans also could sign up for text alerts or play trivia games on their phones. In 2009, AT & T estimated that Idol-related text traffic amounts to 178 million messages.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tastemakers

Historically, Popular Culture has been closely associated with Mass Media that introduces and encourages adoption of certain trends. We can see these media as tastemakerspeople or institutions that shape the way others think, eat, listen, drink, dress and more. Similar in some ways to what Media Gatekeepers discuss above, tastemakers can have huge influence. For example, New York Times restaurant and theater reviews used to be able to make or break restaurant or show with their opinions. Another example is the Ed Sullivans variety Show, which ran from 1948 to 1971, and is most famous for hosting the first US appearance of the Beatlesa, television event that was AT time the most-watched television program ever. Sullivan hosted musical acts, comedians, actors, and dancers, and had a reputation for being able to turn unknown performers into full-fledge star. Comedian Jackie Mason compares being on the Ed Sullivan Show to an opera singer being AT meat or if guy is architect that made the Empire State building. This was the biggest. John Leonard, Ed Sullivan Age, American Heritage, May / June, 1997. Sullivan was a classic example of an influential tastemaker of his time. American Idol S Simon Cowell had a similar influence as his show helped turn unknown local performers into international stars. Television hosts and comics, Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert, can be understood as tastemakers of progressive National politics. Along with encouraging mass audiences to keep an eye out for certain movies, television shows, video games, books, or fashion trends, tastemaking is also used to create demand for new products. Companies often turn to advertising firms to help create public hunger for objects that may have not even exist six months previously. In the 1880s, when George Eastman developed the Kodak camera for personal use, photography was the realm of professionals. Ordinary people simply do not think about taking photographs. Though the Kodak was relatively cheap and easy to use, most Americans didnt see the need for a camera; they had no sense that there was any value in visually documenting their lives, notes New Yorker writer James Surowiecki. James Surowiecki, Tastemakers, New Yorker, January 13 2003. George Eastmans advertising introduced the idea of photography to everyday Americans. Kodak became a wildly successful company not because Eastman was good AT selling cameras, but because he understood that what he really had to sell was photography. Tastemakers can help keep culture vital by introducing the public to new ideas, music, programs, or products. But the ability to sway or influence the tastes of consumers can be worth millions of dollars. In the traditional media model, media companies set aside large advertising budgets to promote their most promising projects. Tastemakers are encouraged to buzz about the next big Thing. In untraditional models, bribery and backroom deals also help promote performers or projects. For example, Payola Scandal of 1950s involved record companies paying disc jockeys of radio stations to play certain records so those records would become hits.


3.3 Advertising, Government Regulations, and Cultural Values

George Babbitt, protagonist of Sinclair Lewiss 1922 novel Babbitt, was a true believer in growing American consumer culture: just as priests of the Presbyterian Church determine his every religious belief, so do National advertisers fix the surface of his life, fix what he believed to be his individuality. These standard advertising warestoothpastes, socks, tires, cameras, instantaneous hot-water heaterswere his symbols and proofs of excellence; at first signs, and then substitutes, for joy and passion and wisdom. Although Lewiss fictional representation of 1920s-era consumer may not be an actual person, it indicates National consumer culture that was taking shape at the time. As it has always done, advertising seeks to attach products to larger ideas and symbols of worth and cultural values. However, rise of mass media and of advertising models that these media embrace made advertising take on an increasingly influential cultural role. Automobile ads of the 1920s portrayed cars as a new, free way of life rather than simply means of transportation. Advertisers use new ideas about personal hygiene to sell products and end up breaking taboos about public discussion of health. Newly acknowledged epidemics of halitosis and body odor bring about products such as mouthwash and deodorant. The Listerine campaign of era transformed bad breath from nuisance into the Mark of sociopath. Women's underwear and menstruation go from being topics unsuitable for most family conversations to being fodder for pages of National magazines.


Convergence

But convergence isnt just limited to technology. Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isnt end result, but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produce. Jenkins breaks convergence down into five categories: economic Convergence occurs when company control several products or services within the same industry. For example, in the entertainment industry, a single company may have interest in many kinds of media. For example, Rupert Murdochs News Corporation is involved in book publishing, newspapers, sports, broadcast television, cable television, film, Internet, and many other media. Organic Convergence Is What happens when someone is watching a television show online while exchanging text messages with friends and also listening to music in the backgroundthe, natural outcome of a diverse media world. Cultural Convergence has several aspects. Stories flowing across several kinds of media platforms is one componentfor. Example, novels that become television series; radio dramas that become comic strips; even amusement park rides that become film franchises. The character Harry Potter exists in books, films, toys, and amusement park rides. Another aspect of Cultural Convergence is participatory culture, that is, way media consumers are able to annotate, comment on, remix, and otherwise influence culture in unprecedented ways. The Video-sharing website YouTube is a prime example of participatory culture. YouTube gives anyone with a video camera and Internet connection the opportunity to communicate with people around the world and create and shape cultural trends. Global Convergence Is process of geographically distant cultures influencing one another despite the distance that physically separates them. The Nigeria cinema industry, nicknamed Nollywood, takes its cues from Indian Bollywood, which is in turn inspired by Hollywood in the United States. Tom and Jerry cartoons are popular on Arab satellite television channels. Successful American horror movies Ring and Grudge are remakes of Japanese hits. The advantage of global convergence is access to the wealth of cultural influence; its downside, some critics posit, is the threat of Cultural Imperialism, defined by Herbert Schiller as the way developing countries are attract, pressure, force, and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond with with or even promote, values and structures of dominating centre of system. Livingston. White, Reconsidering Cultural Imperialism Theory, TBS Journal 6. Cultural Imperialism can be formal policy or can happen more subtly, as with the spread of outside influence through television, movies, and other cultural projects. Technological Convergence Is merging of technologies such as the ability to watch TV shows online on sites like Hulu or to play video games on mobile Phones like the Apple iPhone. When more and more different kinds of media are transformed into digital content, as Jenkins notes, we expand potential relationships between them and enable them to flow across platforms. Henry Jenkins, Convergence? I Diverge, Technology Review, June 2001 93. Figure 1. 7: Nigeria Nollywood produces more films annually than any other country besides India.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Democratizing Tastemaking

In 1993, New York Times restaurant critic Ruth Reichl wrote a review about her experiences AT upscale Manhattan restaurant Le Cirque. She details poor service she received when restaurant staff did not know her and the excellent service she received when they realized she was a professional food critic. Her article illustrates how the power to publish reviews could affect people's experience at a restaurant. The Internet, which turns everyone with time and interest into a potential reviewer, allows those ordinary people to have their voices hear. In the mid-2000s, websites such as Yelp and TripAdvisor boasted hundreds of reviews of restaurants, hotels, and salons provided by users. Amazon allows users to review any product it sell, from textbooks to bathing suits. The era of democratized review had come, and tastemaking was now everyonesjob. By crowdsourcing review process, idea was, these sites would arrive AT more accurate description of the service in choice. One powerful reviewer would no longer be able to wield disproportionate power; instead, wisdom of the crowd would make or break restaurants, movies, and everything else. Anyone who felt treated badly or scammed now has recourse to tell the world about it. In 2008, Yelp had 4 million reviews. However, Mass tastemaking isnt as perfect as some people had promise. Certain reviewers can overly influence products ' overall rating by contributing multiple votes. One study found that a handful of Amazon users were casting hundreds of votes, while most rarely write reviews AT all. Online reviews also tend to skew to extremesmore. Reviews are written by ecstatic and furious, while moderately pleased arent rile up enough to post online about their experiences. And while traditional critics are supposed to adhere to ethical standards, theres no such standard for online reviews. Savvy authors or restaurant owners have been known to slyly insert positive reviews or attempt to skew ratings systems. To get an accurate picture, potential buyers may find themselves wading through 20 or 30 online reviews, most of them from nonprofessionals. And sometimes those people are professionals for a reason. Consider these user reviews on Amazon of William Shakespeares Hamlet: There is really no point and it is really long, I really didnt enjoy reading this book and I wish that our English teacher wouldnt force my class to read this play, and dont know what Willy Shakespeare was thinking when he write this one play tragedy, but I think this sure was boring! Hamlet does too much talking and not enough stuff. While some may argue that these are valid criticisms of the play, these comments are certainly a far cry from thoughtful critique of professional literary critic. These and other issues underscore the point of having reviews in the first place its advantage to have certain places, products, or ideas examined and critique by a trusted and knowledgeable source.


Convergence

Jenkinss concept of organic convergence is perhaps the most telling. To many people, especially those who grow up in a world dominated by the so-call old media, there is nothing organic about today's media-dominate world. As a New York Times editorial recently opine, few objects on the planet are further removed from natureless, say, like rocks or insectthan glass and stainless steel smartphone. Editorial, Half-Life of Phones, New York Times, June 18 2010. But modern American culture is plug in as never before, and today high school students have never known a world where the Internet didnt exist. Such cultural sea changes cause a significant generation gap between those who grew up with new media and those who do A 2010 study by Kaiser Family Foundation found that Americans aged 8 to 18 spend more than 7. 5 hours with electronic devices each dayand, thanks to multitasking, theyre able to pack an average of 11 hours of media content into that 7. 5 hours. Tamar Lewin, If Your Kids Are Awake, Theyre Probably Online, New York Times, January 20 2010. These statistics highlight some of aspects of the new digital model of media consumption: participation and multitasking. Today, teenagers are passively sitting in front of screens, quietly absorbing information. Instead, they are sending text messages to friends, linking news articles on Facebook, commenting on YouTube videos, writing reviews of television episodes to post online, and generally engaging with the culture they consume. Convergence has also made multitasking much easier, as many devices allow users to surf the Internet, listen to music, watch videos, play games, and reply to e-mails on the same machine. However, it is still difficult to predict how media convergence and immersion are affecting culture, society, and individual brains. In his 2005 book Everything Bad Is Good for You, Steven Johnson argues that today's television and video games are mentally stimulating, in that they pose cognitive challenges and invite active engagement and problem solving. Poking fun at alarmists who see every new technology as making children stupider, Johnson jokingly cautions readers against the dangers of book reading: It chronically understimulates senses and is tragically isolating. Even worse, books follow fix linear path. You ca control their narratives in any fashionyou simply sit back and have the story dictated to you. This risks instilling general passivity in our children, making them feel as though theyre powerless to change their circumstances. Reading is not an active, participatory process; it a submissive one. Steven Johnson, Everything Bad Is Good for You. The 2010 book by Nicholas Carr, Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, is more pessimistic. Carr worries that the vast array of interlinked information available through the Internet is eroding attention spans and making contemporary minds distracted and less capable of deep, thoughtful engagement with complex ideas and arguments. Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words, Carr reflects ruefully. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Big Picture

At first, Hollywood encountered difficulties in adjusting to the post-World War II environment. Although domestic audiences reached record highs in 1946 and waras end meant expanding international markets too, groundwork for the eventual dismantling of the traditional studio system was laid in 1948, with a landmark decision by the US Supreme Court. Previously, film studios had owned their own movie theater chains in which they exhibit films they produce; however, in the United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., This vertical integration of industryathe complete control by one firm of production, distribution, and exhibition of motion picturesawas deem violation of antitrust laws. HUAC hearings also target Hollywood. When eleven aunfriendly witnessesa were called to testify before Congress about Communism in the film industry in October 1947, only playwright Bertolt Brecht answered questions. Another ten, who refused to testify, were cited for contempt of Congress on November 24. The next day, film executives declared that so-call Tena would no longer be employed in industry until they had sworn they were not Communists. Eventually, more than three hundred actors, screenwriters, directors, musicians, and other entertainment professionals were placed on an industry blacklist. Some never work in Hollywood again; others direct films or write screenplays under assumed names. Hollywood reacted aggressively to these various challenges. Filmmakers try new techniques, like CinemaScope and Cinerama, which allow movies to be shown on large screens and in 3-D. Audiences are drawn to movies not because of gimmicks, however, but because of the stories they tell. Dramas and romantic comedies continue to be popular fare for adults, and, to appeal to teens, studios produce large numbers of horror films and movies starring music idols such as Elvis. Many films take espionage, timely topic, as their subject matter, and science fiction hits such as Invasion of Body Snatchers, about a small town whose inhabitants fall prey to space aliens, play on audience fears of both the Communist Invasion and nuclear technology.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summarized are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo
jooble logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.