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2020s-single-stub

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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The new W-4 Form is coming. What you need to know. W-4 was designed to allow employers to correctly compute how much in federal income taxes to withhold from your paycheck. Youd indicate how many personal and dependent exemptions, as well as deductions you intend to claim on your taxes that year. Youd also choose between marriage or Single Filing status. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act significantly changed federal taxes. Specifically, it eliminates many long-time deductions, including personal and dependent exemptions, and renders old withholding tables and worksheets obsolete. So, employers need a more up-to-date way to calculate the amount of federal tax to withhold. Since most Americans pre-pay federal income taxes through paycheck withholding, getting that amount right was a big deal. Withhold too much and employees take home less in their paycheck, even if they get a larger refund when they file. Withhold too little, and they take home more money, but get hit with a surprise tax bill when they file. So, new and easier to understand W-4 was born. Because the old W-4 Form didnt work with the new tax laws. For starters, there is no longer place to indicate how many personal and dependent exemptions employees intend to claim since personal exemptions were eliminated from the tax code. Instead, new W-4 is divided into five steps to help employees figure out what their tax withholding should be. Step 1. Provide personal information like name, address, and Filing status such as Single, Head of Household, or marriage Filing Jointly. Step 2. If an employee has a second job, or if both spouses work, they can use worksheets or IRS calculator to determine the appropriate amount to enter here. Online calculator can be found at www. IRS. Gov / W4app step 3. This is biggie. Heres where you enter amount of child tax credit or credit for other dependents. In previous years, you just enter number of dependents and child tax credits werent considered in withholding calculation. Step 4. This is another big change. Here, youd enter income not subject to withholding, such as interest and dividend income. It can also be used to request additional withholdings to help cover taxes from other types of income, such as self-employment. Step 5. This is simply where Form is sign. According to the IRS, new Form W-4 is designed to make withholding more accurate and transparent. And since taxes increase as income rises, reporting additional income from second jobs or dividends should help many people avoid getting an unwelcome tax bill in April. But there is a twist. While new employees have to submit new Form W-4 starting on January 1 2020, existing employees already have W-4 on file. So, employers can continue to calculate withholding based on that information. However, because of changes in taxes and in actual calculations employers use, that withholding may not be correct.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Discussion

22, we consider impedance matching schemes consisting of transmission line combined with reactance which is place either in series or in parallel with the transmission line. In many problems, requiring discrete reactance is not practical because it is not standard value, or because of non-ideal behavior at desired frequency, or because one might simply wish to avoid cost and logistical issues associated with additional component. Whatever the reason, possible solution is to replace discrete reactance with transmission line stub-that is, transmission line which has been open-or short-circuit. Section 3. 16 explain how stub can replace discrete reactance. Figure: shows practical implementation of this idea implemented in microstrip. This section explains the theory, and well return to this implementation at the end of the section. Figure: show scheme. This scheme is usually implemented using a parallel reactance approach, as depicted in Figure. Although series reactance scheme is also possible in principle, it is usually not as convenient. This is because most transmission lines use one of their two conductors as local datum; eg, ground plane of printed circuit board for microstrip line is tied to the ground, and the outer conductor of the coaxial cable is usually tied to the ground. This is in contrast to discrete reactance, which does not require that either of its terminals be tied to the ground. This issue is avoided in parallel-attach stub because the parallel-attach stub and the transmission line to which it is attached both have one terminal at ground. The Single-stub matching procedure is essentially the same as the single parallel reactance method, except parallel reactance is implemented using short-or open-circuited stub as opposed to discrete inductor or capacitor. Since parallel reactance matching is most easily done using admittances, [Admittance] It is useful to express {matheq}Z_{i n}(l)=+j Z_{0} \tan \beta l{endmatheq} and {matheq}Z_{i n}(l)=-j Z_{0} \cot \beta l{endmatheq} in terms of susceptance: {matheq}B_p = -Y_{02} \cot\left(\beta_2 l_2\right) ~~\mbox{short-circuited stub}{endmatheq} {matheq}B_p = +Y_{02} \tan\left(\beta_2 l_2\right) ~~\mbox{open-circuited stub}{endmatheq} as in main line, characteristic impedance {matheq}Z_{02}=1/Y_{02}{endmatheq} is independent variable and is chosen for convenience. The final question is when should you use short-circuited stub, and when should you use open-circuit stub? Give no other basis for selection, termination that yields the shortest stub is choose. An example of another basis for selection that frequently comes up is whether DC might be present on line. If DC is presented with a signal of interest, then short circuit termination without some kind of remediation to prevent short circuit for DC would certainly be a bad idea. In the following example, we address the same problem raised in Section 3. 22, now using single-stub approach: single-stub matching is a very common method for impedance matching using microstrip lines at frequences in UHF band and above. In Figure: top traces comprise one conductor, whereas ground plane comprise other conductor. The end of stub is not connected to the ground plane, so termination is open circuit.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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