Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Alzheimer Genetic

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 17 October 2020

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Alzheimer's Disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes Dementia, which is gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of disease appear earlier in adulthood. Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's Disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, person with Alzheimer's Disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care. As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's Disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during advanced stages of disease. Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after appearance of symptoms, but the course of disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting. Alzheimer's Disease can be classified as early - onset or late - onset. Signs and symptoms of early - onset form appear between person's thirties and mid - sixties, while late - onset form appears during or after person's mid - sixties. The early - onset form is much less common than the late - onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's Disease. Some cases of Early - Onset Alzheimer's Disease are caused by gene mutations that can be passed from parent to child. This results in what is known as Early - Onset familial Alzheimer's Disease. Researchers have found that this form of disorder can result from mutations in APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2 genes. When any of these genes is alter, large amounts of toxic protein fragment called amyloid beta peptide are produced in the brain. This peptide can build up in the brain to form clumps called amyloid plaques, which are characteristic of Alzheimer's Disease. Buildup of toxic amyloid beta peptide and amyloid plaques may lead to death of nerve cells and progressive signs and symptoms of this disorder. Other cases of Early - Onset Alzheimer's Disease may be associated with changes in different genes, some of which have not been identify. Some evidence indicates that people with Down syndrome have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease. Down syndrome, condition characterized by intellectual disability and other health problems, occurs when a person is born with extra copy of chromosome 21 in each cell. As a result, people with Down syndrome have three copies of many genes in each cell, including the APP gene, instead of the usual two copies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Do Genes Cause Diseases?

Genetic mutations can cause diseases. If a person inherits a genetic mutation that causes a certain disease, then he or she will usually get the disease. Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and some cases of early - onset Alzheimer's disease are examples of inherited genetic disorders. Other changes or differences in genes, called genetic variants, may increase or decrease a person's risk of developing a particular disease. When a genetic variant increases disease risk but does not directly cause disease, it is called genetic risk factor. Identifying genetic variants may help researchers find the most effective ways to treat or prevent diseases such as Alzheimer's in individual. This approach, called precision medicine, takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Expression of geneswhen they are switched on or offcan be affect, positively and negatively, by environmental and lifestyle factors, such as exercise, diet, chemicals, or smoking. The field of epigenetics is studying how such factors can alter cell's DNA in ways that affect gene activity.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Genes and Alzheimer's Disease

The vast majority of people with Alzheimer's Disease do not inherit it from parents as single - gene mutation with simple inheritance pattern. Instead, inheritance follows a more complex pattern. Disease might skip generation,sss affect people on both sides of the family, appear seemingly from nowhere or not be passed on at all. More than 20 gene variants have now been identified which affect - to different degrees - the chances of person developing Alzheimer's Disease. The effects of these genes are subtle. Different variants act to slightly increase or decrease the risk of person developing Alzheimer's Disease, but do not directly cause it. These risk genes interact with each other and with other factors, such as age and lifestyle, to influence someone's overall risk of getting disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Genetic Testing for Alzheimer's Disease

Blood tests can identify which APOE alleles a person has, but results cannot predict who will or will not develop Alzheimer's disease. Currently, APOE testing is used primarily in research settings to identify study participants who may have increased risk of developing Alzheimer's. This knowledge helps scientists look for early brain changes in participants and compare the effectiveness of possible treatments for people with different APOE profiles. Genetic testing is also used by physicians to help diagnose early - onset Alzheimers disease and to test people with strong family history of Alzheimers or related brain disease. Genetic testing for APOE or other genetic variants cannot determine individuals ' likelihood of developing Alzheimer's diseasejust, which risk factor genes a person has. It is unlikely that genetic testing will ever be able to predict disease with 100 percent accuracy, researchers believe, because too many other factors may influence its development and progression. Some people learn their APOE status through consumer genetic testing or think about getting this kind of test. They may wish to consult a doctor or genetic counselor to better understand this type of test and their test results. General information about genetic testing can be found at:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Alzheimer's Genetics Research

PHILADELPHIA - International Genomic Alzheimers Project analyzes information from more than 94 000 individuals and finds new information on underlying causes of Alzheimer's Disease, including five new genes that increase risk for disease. Their findings were published this week in Nature Genetics. The study, which was Fund in part by the National Institute on Aging and other components of National Institutes of Health, follows results from the 2013 study, and uses more genetic data than any other study of AD to date. In addition to confirming the known association of 20 genes with risk of Alzheimers and identifying new risk genes, team identified which cellular pathways might be implicated in the disease process. The IGAP team is lead by Gerard Schellenberg, PhD, professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine from Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, with lead authors, Brian Kunkle and Margaret Pericak - Vance from the University of Miami, and Benjamin Grenier - Boley and Jean - Charles Lambert from INSERM in Lille, France. The Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium at Penn, one of the key components of IGAP, has helped organize a significant portion of data used in this work, Schellenberg say. Only by pooling our data and working with international collaborators can we make these significant discoveries that we hope will pave the way for Alzheimer's Disease prevention and treatment. Researchers ' analysis implicates immune system, lipid metabolism, and amyloid precursor protein metabolism. Mutations in APP gene have been shown to be directly related to early - onset Alzheimers. The present study, using data from late - onset Alzheimers patients, suggests that gene variants affecting APP and amyloid beta protein processing are associated with both types of AD. In addition, for the first time, study implicate genetic link of AD to tau - binding proteins. Take together, findings suggest that therapies developed by studying subjects with early - onset disease could also be applied to late - onset form of Alzheimers. Penn investigators Adam Naj and Li - San Wang also lead the Penn IGAP and ADGC teams. Research was Fund by NIH. For more information about this study and research collaboration, visit: University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and NIA News. Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic Medical centers, dedicated to related missions of Medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form $8. 6 billion enterprise. Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top Medical schools in the United States for more than 20 years, according to US News & World Report's survey of Research - orient Medical schools. School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with a $494 million award in the 2019 fiscal year.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Early-onset Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It affects your memory, thinking, and behavior. It often progresses to a point where it affects daily activities and functions. Alzheimer's disease most commonly affects older adults, but it can also affect people in their 30s or 40s. When Alzheimer's disease occurs in someone under age 65, it is known as early - onset Alzheimer's disease. A very small number of people with Alzheimer's disease have early - onset form. Many of them are in their 40s and 50s when disease takes hold. Most types of early - onset Alzheimer's disease are the same, but there are a few small distinctions: common Alzheimer's disease. Most people with early - onset Alzheimer's disease have a common form of disease. Disease progresses in roughly the same way as it does in older people. Genetic Alzheimer's disease. This form is very rare. A few hundred people have genes that directly contribute to Alzheimer's disease. These people start showing symptoms of disease in their 30s, 40s, or 50s.


Causes of early onset Alzheimers

When younger people reach stage that requires extra care, this may create the impression that disease has moved faster. But people with early onset Alzheimers do not progress faster through phases. It progresses over the course of several years in younger people, as it does in adults older than 65. But it is important to plan ahead after receiving diagnosis. Early onset Alzheimers can impact your financial and legal plans. Seeking out support group for those with Alzheimers leaning on friends and family for support, discussing your role, and disability insurance coverage, with your employer going over health insurance to ensure certain medications and treatments are cover having disability insurance papers in order before symptoms appear, engaging in financial planning for future if persons health changes suddenly dont be afraid to seek help from others during these steps. Getting personal affairs in order can provide peace of mind as you navigate your next steps.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Researchers and genes

In the first study published about Alzheimer's Disease among identical triplets, researchers found that despite sharing the same DNA, two of triplets develop Alzheimer's while one does NOT, according to recently published results in the journal Brain. Two triplets that developed Alzheimer's were diagnosed in their mid - 70s. These findings show that your genetic code doesn't dictate whether you are guaranteed to develop Alzheimer's, says Dr. Morris Freedman, senior author on the paper, head of Neurology at Baycrest and scientist at Baycrest's Rotman Research Institute. There is hope for people who have strong family history of dementia since there are other factors, whether it's environment or lifestyle, we don't know what they are, which could either protect against or accelerate dementia. All three, 85 - year - old siblings had hypertension, but two with Alzheimer's had long - standing, obsessive - compulsive behaviour. The research team analyzed gene sequence and biological age of body's cells from blood that was taken from each of the triplets, as well as children of one of the triplet's with Alzheimer's. Among children, one develops early onset Alzheimer's Disease at age 50 and others do not report signs of dementia. Base on the team's analysis, late onset of Alzheimer's among triplets is likely connected to a specific gene linked to higher risk of Alzheimer's Disease, apolipoprotein E4, that triplets were carrying. But researchers couldn't explain the early onset of Alzheimer's in children. The research team also discovered that although triplets were octogenarians at time of study, biological age of their cells was six to ten years younger than their chronological age. In contrast, one of the triplet's children, who developed early onset Alzheimer's, had biological age that was nine years older than chronological age. Other children who do not have dementia, of same triplet show biological age that was close to their actual age. Latest Genetics Research is finding that DNA we die with isn't necessarily what we receive as baby, which could relate to why two of the triplets developed Alzheimer's and one didn n't, say Dr. Ekaterina Rogaeva, another senior author on the paper and researcher at University of Toronto's Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases. As we age, our DNA ages with the US and, as a result, some cells can mutate and change over time. In addition, there are other chemical factors or environmental factors that don't necessarily change the gene itself, but affect how these genes are express, add Dr. Freedman, who is also professor in the Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, at University of Toronto. As next steps, researchers are interested in looking at special brain imaging of each family member to determine if there is an abundance of amyloid plaques, protein fragments that are typical signs of Alzheimer's.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Familial Alzheimer's disease

In just over 600 families worldwide, studies reveal many close family members who are affected by Alzheimer's disease across successive generations. This pattern of familial clustering of Alzheimer's disease suggests there is mutation within a single gene that causes disease. In these cases, mutation is being passed down in DNA from parent to child, across several generations. People with one of these extremely rare mutations tend to develop Alzheimer's disease early, in their 30s, 40s or 50s. This is much young than the majority of people who develop disease. Studies of affected families show that their Alzheimer's disease is usually caused by mutation in one of just three genes:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Continued

Proper and timely genetic counselling for all individuals who choose to consider predictive genetic tests. There are no approved predictive genetic tests for the most common form of Alzheimer's Disease. However, regional genetics clinics offer testing for people whose family history of dementia suggests they might carry one of the causative mutations for inherited Alzheimers or frontotemporal dementia. It is important to note that testing can be difficult emotionally, not provide conclusive results and cause practical difficulties. Before this test, it is vital that proper genetic counselling is provided to ensure it is correct decision for the individual. For more information, please see our page: Genetics of dementia. Continued prevention of insurers using genetic information to discriminate against people at risk of dementia in future. People receiving positive results in genetic test can face discrimination that affects their ability to buy property, get insurance or plan financially for old age. There is, however, moratorium on use of genetic information by UK insurance companies until November 2019. The Alzheimers Society campaigns for continued prevention of insurers and employers using genetic information to discriminate against people at risk of dementia. Research into genetic risk factors for dementia. Progress in Genetics has meant that more than 20 Susceptibility genes have been Identify that affect persons risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease. The genetic basis of frontotemporal dementia is also a very active research field. These conditions are now the subject of intense scientific investigation. Ultimately, this research may identify causes of disease. The Alzheimers Society supports, and funds, genetic research. This information was last updated in April 2015 by Laurence Thraves

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.