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Alzheimer Hereditary

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Last Updated: 05 October 2020

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General | Latest Info

Alzheimer's Disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of disease appear earlier in adulthood. Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's Disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, person with Alzheimer's Disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care. As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's Disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during advanced stages of disease. Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after appearance of symptoms, but the course of disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting. Alzheimer's Disease can be classified as early - onset or late - onset. Signs and symptoms of early - onset form appear between person's thirties and mid - sixties, while late - onset form appear during or after person's mid - sixties. The early - onset form is much less common than the late - onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's Disease. Some cases of early - onset Alzheimer's Disease are caused by gene mutations that can be passed from parent to child. This results in what is known as early - onset familial Alzheimer's Disease. Researchers have found that this form of disorder can result from mutations in APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2 genes. When any of these genes is alter, large amounts of toxic protein fragment called amyloid beta peptide are produced in the brain. This peptide can build up in the brain to form clumps called amyloid plaques, which are characteristic of Alzheimer's Disease. Buildup of toxic amyloid beta peptide and amyloid plaques may lead to death of nerve cells and progressive signs and symptoms of this disorder. Other cases of early - onset Alzheimer's Disease may be associated with changes in different genes, some of which have not been identify. Some evidence indicates that people with Down syndrome have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease. Down syndrome, condition characterized by intellectual disability and other health problems, occurs when a person is born with extra copy of chromosome 21 in each cell. As a result, people with Down syndrome have three copies of many genes in each cell, including the APP gene, instead of the usual two copies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Genetics and Alzheimers

According to Helena Chang Chui, MD, internationally recognized Alzheimers disease expert with USC Memory and Aging Center at Keck Medicine of USC, 50% of Alzheimer's patients have relatives with the disease. You can be diagnosed with Alzheimers if you do have a family history, but half of our patients have one family member who had it. There is an increased risk if you have a sibling, parent or grandparent with a disease. Some ethnic groups can carry rare forms of Alzheimers. These rare forms of condition, explains Chui, are called autosomal dominant. This means that disease is caused by genetic mutation on one of 23 chromosomes, say Chui. Only 1% of Alzheimer's patients are autosomal dominant, but 100% of them develop disease. Researchers are still investigating why and when genetic mutations cause Alzheimers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Do Genes Cause Diseases?

In just over 600 families worldwide, studies reveal many close family members who are affected by Alzheimer's disease across successive generations. This pattern of familial clustering of Alzheimer's disease suggests there is mutation within a single gene that causes disease. In these cases, mutation is being passed down in DNA from parent to child, across several generations. People with one of these extremely rare mutations tend to develop Alzheimer's disease early, in their 30s, 40s or 50s. This is much young than the majority of people who develop disease. Studies of affected families show that their Alzheimer's disease is usually caused by mutation in one of just three genes: more than 450 known families worldwide carry mutation in the PSEN - 1 gene on chromosome 14. This causes up to 80 per cent of all familial Alzheimer's disease, with symptoms appearing as early as 30 years of age. More than 100 known families worldwide have mutation in the APP gene on chromosome 21, which affects production of protein beta - amyloid. The build - up of beta - amyloid in the brain is thought to be a major factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. More than 30 known families have mutation in the PSEN - 2 gene on chromosome 1, causing familial Alzheimer's disease that can start later than for PSEN - 1.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Genetic Testing for Alzheimer's Disease

Blood tests can identify which APOE alleles a person has, but results cannot predict who will or will not develop Alzheimer's disease. Currently, APOE testing is used primarily in research settings to identify study participants who may have increased risk of developing Alzheimer's. This knowledge helps scientists look for early brain changes in participants and compare the effectiveness of possible treatments for people with different APOE profiles. Genetic testing is also used by physicians to help diagnose early - onset Alzheimers disease and to test people with strong family history of Alzheimers or related brain disease. Genetic testing for APOE or other genetic variants cannot determine individuals ' likelihood of developing Alzheimer's diseasejust, which risk factor genes a person has. It is unlikely that genetic testing will ever be able to predict disease with 100 percent accuracy, researchers believe, because too many other factors may influence its development and progression. Some people learn their APOE status through consumer genetic testing or think about getting this kind of test. They may wish to consult a doctor or genetic counselor to better understand this type of test and their test results. General information about genetic testing can be found at:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Alzheimer's Genetics Research

Discovering all that we can about the role of Alzheimer's Disease genetic risk and protective factors is an important area of research. Nia supports several major genetics research programs. Understanding more about the genetic basis of disease will help researchers to: answer a number of basic questionsWhat: makes the disease process begin? Why do some people with memory and other thinking problems develop Alzheimer's while others do not? Determine how genetic risk and protective factors may interact with other genes and lifestyle or environmental factors to affect Alzheimer's risk in any one person. Identify people who are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's so they can benefit from new interventions and treatments as soon as possible. Explain differences in Alzheimer's Disease risk and protection among racial groups and sexes. Focus on new prevention and treatment approaches

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Early-onset Alzheimer's

A very small percentage of people who develop Alzheimer's Disease have Early - Onset type. Signs and symptoms of this type usually appear between the ages of 30 and 60 years. This type of Alzheimer's Disease is very strongly linked to your genes. Scientists have identified three genes in which mutations cause Early - Onset Alzheimer's Disease. If you inherit one of these mutated genes from either parent, you will probably have Alzheimer's symptoms before age 65. Genes involved are: Amyloid precursor protein Presenilin 1 Presenilin 2 mutations of these genes cause production of excessive amounts of toxic protein fragment called Amyloid - beta peptide. This peptide can build up in the brain to form clumps called Amyloid plaques, which are characteristic of Alzheimer's Disease. Buildup of toxic Amyloid - beta peptide and Amyloid plaques may lead to death of nerve cells and progressive signs and symptoms of this disorder. As Amyloid plaques collect in the brain, tau proteins malfunction and stick together to form neurofibrillary tangles. These tangles are associated with abnormal brain functions seen in Alzheimer's Disease. However, some people who have Early - Onset Alzheimer's don't have mutations in these three genes. That suggests that some Early - Onset forms of Alzheimer's Disease are linked to other genetic mutations or other factors that haven't been identified yet.


Causes of early onset Alzheimers

When younger people reach stage that requires extra care, this may create the impression that disease has moved faster. But people with early onset Alzheimers do not progress faster through phases. It progresses over the course of several years in younger people, as it does in adults older than 65. But it is important to plan ahead after receiving diagnosis. Early onset Alzheimers can impact your financial and legal plans. Seeking out support group for those with Alzheimers leaning on friends and family for support, discussing your role, and disability insurance coverage, with your employer going over health insurance to ensure certain medications and treatments are cover having disability insurance papers in order before symptoms appear, engaging in financial planning for future if persons health changes suddenly dont be afraid to seek help from others during these steps. Getting personal affairs in order can provide peace of mind as you navigate your next steps.


Familial Alzheimer's disease

In just over 600 families worldwide, studies reveal many close family members who are affected by Alzheimer's disease across successive generations. This pattern of familial clustering of Alzheimer's disease suggests there is mutation within a single gene that causes disease. In these cases, mutation is being passed down in DNA from parent to child, across several generations. People with one of these extremely rare mutations tend to develop Alzheimer's disease early, in their 30s, 40s or 50s. This is much young than the majority of people who develop disease. Studies of affected families show that their Alzheimer's disease is usually caused by mutation in one of just three genes:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Researchers and genes

Researchers suspect that many more genes that haven't been identified yet affect the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. Such information may prove vital in the development of new ways to treat, or even prevent, Alzheimer's Disease in the future. The Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Study, sponsored by the National Institute on Aging, is examining genetic information from families that have at least two family members who have developed Alzheimer's after age 65. If your family is interested in participating in this study, visit the website for National Cell Repository for Alzheimer's Disease. A number of other studies are evaluating the genetics of people with Alzheimer's Disease and their family members. To learn more about these studies, and whether or not they are re recruiting volunteers, visit the National Institute on Aging's Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center website, or ask your doctor what trials might be available.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's dementia

Alzheimer's disease is not usually hereditary. It is therefore not generally caused by genes received from a person's parents. Even if several members of the family have in the past been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, this does not mean that another member of the family will necessarily develop it, as the majority of cases of Alzheimer's disease are not genetic. However, as the disease is so common amongst older people, it is not unusual for two or more family members over the age of 65 to have it. Whether or not there are other members of the family with Alzheimer's disease, everyone risks developing the disease at some time. However, it is now known that there is a gene, which can affect this risk. This gene is found on chromosome 19 and it is responsible for production of a protein called apolipoprotein E. There are three main types of this protein, one of which, although uncommon, makes it more likely that Alzheimer's dementia will occur. However, it does not cause condition but merely increases the likelihood of developing it. For example, person of 50, would have a 2 in 1 000 chance of developing Alzheimer's dementia instead of the usual 1 in 1 000, but might never actually develop it. Only half of people with Alzheimer's dementia have ApoE4 and not everyone with ApoE4 has it.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Early-Onset Alzheimers Disease

Familial Alzheimer Disease is a rare form of Alzheimers that is entirely passed down through genetics, being inherited from parents. This rare form of disease has recently been put into the spotlight, as the type of Alzheimer that Alice Howland, played by Julianne Moore, battles in the Oscar nominated movie, Still Alice. Researchers believe that people with FAD have mutation in one of three genes known to aid in the development of Alzheimers: PS1, PS2 and AAP. All of these genes influence production of beta - Amyloid proteins that can clump together and become hallmark characteristic of Alzheimers. People diagnosed with Familial Alzheimers have generally had one parent diagnosed with the disease and siblings and children each have a 50% chance of inheriting it. It would be extremely rare for FAD to make a first - time appearance in family. Similar to more common late - onset Alzheimers, FAD has no cure and causes person diagnosed to eventually become completely dependent on others. The disease differs from more common late - Onset Alzheimers by its early onset and its rarity.


Determining Your Risk

Many people who have seen loved ones fight Alzheimers want to know if they are at risk for disease. Genetic testing may be useful in helping to determine the risk of any given person with few caveats. While testing is available for FAD, it is important to consider that it is extremely rare with roughly 200 family lines in the world carrying genetic mutation. Also, there is no cure for disease, so knowing that there is a chance person is at high risk before symptoms occur can be stress - inducing and have negative impact on well - being as well as personal relationships. At the same time, earlier diagnosis can lead to better and more treatment options. Because early - onset FAD is so rare, it is not included in most clinical and drug trials. It is often called the ultimate orphan disease, lacking advocacy, funding and visibility. While the search for a cure rages on, researchers urge people to prevent disease with positive lifestyle choices including regular exercise, healthy diet and a low - stress lifestyle. Do you or someone that you love have FAD? Would you want to know if you were at risk? Wed would like to hear your experiences and stories in the comments below.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Late-Onset Alzheimers

The vast majority of people with Alzheimer's disease do not inherit it from parents as single - gene mutation with simple inheritance pattern. Instead, inheritance follows a more complex pattern. Disease might skip generation,sss affect people on both sides of the family, appear seemingly from nowhere or not be passed on at all. More than 20 gene variants have now been identified which affect - to different degrees - the chances of person developing Alzheimer's disease. The effects of these genes are subtle. Different variants act to slightly increase or decrease the risk of person developing Alzheimer's disease, but do not directly cause it. These risk genes interact with each other and with other factors, such as age and lifestyle, to influence someone's overall risk of getting disease. Unlike familial Alzheimer's disease, this multi - gene form generally affects older people, with symptoms starting after the age of 65. The gene with the greatest known effect on risk of developing late - onset Alzheimer's disease is called apolipoprotein E. It is found on chromosome 19 and APOE protein plays a role in handling fats in the body, including cholesterol. Apoe gene comes in three variants, which are named with the Greek letter epsilon: APOE E2, APOE e3 and APOE E4. We each have two copies of the APOE gene, and these may be the same as each other or different. Therefore, everyone is born with one of six possible combinations: E2 / E2, E2 / e3, e3 / e3, E2 / E4, e3 / E4 or E4 / E4. The combination we have affects our risk of Alzheimer's disease, as follow: APOE E4 is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. About 25 per cent of the general population inherit one copy of APOE E4. This increases their lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by little more than two times, on average. People with APOE E4 also tend to develop Alzheimer's at a younger age. About 2 per cent of the population get double dose of APOE E4 gene - one from each parent. This increases their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by about three to five times, on average. However, they are still not certain to develop Alzheimer's disease. About 60 per cent of the population has double dose of APOE e3 gene and is at average risk. Up to a quarter of this group developed Alzheimer's disease by their late 80s. The APOE E2 variant of gene is associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's - people with it are slightly less likely to develop the disease. In general population, 11 per cent have one copy of APOE E2 and one copy of APOE e3, while 0. 5 per cent have two copies of APOE E2. For a long time, APOE was the only gene to be consistently linked to risk of late - onset Alzheimer's disease. However, recent scientific advances have allowed researchers to test many more genes to see whether there are other gene variants linked to Alzheimer's disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Summary

Alzheimer's Disease has been linked to a number of genes. Some, such as the APOE - e4 gene, increase the risk of developing disease but do not always lead to Alzheimer's diagnosis. Others, such as the APP gene, directly cause disease to develop. However, this is a rare type known as familial Alzheimers that occurs in less than 5 percent of people with the disease. Researchers are currently undertaking some large - scale studies on Alzheimer's Disease and its links to heredity. People who would like to contribute to body of knowledge could contact researchers from the National Institute on Aging, who sponsor the Alzheimers Disease Genetics study. The study, which will run until year 2021, tracks information on people with more than two relatives who received Alzheimer's diagnosis after the age of 65 years old.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Is Alzheimers Disease Hereditary?

Alzheimers can be genetic, but it isnt always. While disease may be hereditary, it can also be triggered by lifestyle - related issues. We know that Alzheimers is characterized by two types of proteins in the brain: tangles and plaques. As these proteins accumulate, they kill brain cells and block neural pathways. These beta - amyloid protein deposits are believed to be one of the main causes of Alzheimers. Scientists are also learning what seems to trigger these toxic proteins. Triggers may occur because of genetic proclivity, but often it is lifestyle - relate. There is also a difference between the early and late - onset of Alzheimers. Early - onset Alzheimers usually occur in younger people between the ages of 30 and 60. It is often the result of genetic mutation. Late - onset Alzheimers may be genetic and have been clinically linked to a gene called APOE. It is more likely, however, result of brain changes caused by lifestyle and environmental impacts. In other words, inherited genes are the only cause of Alzheimers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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