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American Memories

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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American Memories

Single by Shamus M'Cool
B-side"American Humor"
Recorded1981
GenreCountry rock
Length3 : 33
LabelPerspective
Songwriter(s)Shamus M'Cool

It was a moment that may come back to haunt Joe Bidenperhaps as soon as tonight's Democratic debate: in earlier round this summer, Senator Cory Booker of New Jersey wheeled on the former vice President, attacking his sponsorship of the 1994 federal Crime Bill with a roundhouse punch. There are people right now in prison for life for drug offenses, Booker say, because you stand up and use that tough-on-Crime phony rhetoric that gets a lot of people elected but destroys communities like mine. It is true that billwhich extended the death penalty to 60 new crimes, stiffened sentences, offer States strong financial incentives for building new prisons, and ban range of assault weaponshelped lead to a wave of mass incarceration. That resulted in the United States accounting for 25 percent of the world prison population. But Bookers ' implication that the law was simply a cynical sop to fearful White voters is at odds with political realities of time, when the Bill passed with bipartisan support, including votes of more than two-thirds of the Congressional Black Caucus, and with the backing of other Black leaders beyond Capitol Hill. This is the second straight presidential election in which Crime Bill has loomed as loaded issueHillary. Clinton was excoriate from leave in 2016 because of her past supportand it will doubtless continue to surface as long as Biden is in the race. The current furor over Law is object lesson in just how short American political memory has become, and in how, in hindsight, complicated policy debates get flattened into stark shades of right and wrong. I tell people today that the Crime Bill wasnt that controversial back then, say Michael Waldman, who in 1994 was domestic-policy aide in Bill Clinton's White House, and who now heads the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, leading advocacy group and think tank on criminal-Justice issues. Waldman personally deplore bills ' effect on incarceration rates, even as he admires what he sees as its more salutary results, such as its emphasis on community policing. It was welfare reform that was controversial at the time, he explained to me, referring to the Clinton campaign promise to fundamentally restructure the Social safety net. But for Biden, Waldman say, it is really hard to spend your time as a candidate explaining the past to the present. View of that Crime Bill has hardened into caricature. It is a question of how much energy is worth trying to fight it. Indeed, from a distance of 25 years, it is difficult to fathom the effect that three decades of rising crime, and the explosion of the crack-cocaine epidemic in the mid-1980s, had on public sentimentor political pressure it generate. Consider this as context: Today is precisely as distant in time from 1994 as 1994 was from the Charles Manson murders, moon landing, and Woodstock. In other words, world away. Public opinion around Bill has shifted rapidly in recent years.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

History

Seed that grow into American Memory historical collections was planted in a pilot Program that ran from 1990 through 1994. Pilot experiment with digitizing some of the Library of Congressas unparalleled collections of historical documents, moving images, sound recordings, and print and photographic media-the nationas Memory. It identifies audiences for Digital collections, establishes technical procedures, wrestles with intellectual-property issues, explores options for distribution such as CD-ROM, and begins institutionalizing Digital effort at the Library. Forty-four schools and libraries across the country receive CD-ROMs with these materials as part of the pilot. As the American Memory pilot draws to close, Library surveyed 44 select schools and libraries that had participate. The response was enthusiastic, especially from teachers and students in middle and high schools who want more digitized resources. But distributing these materials in CD-ROM format was both inefficient and prohibitively expensive. Fortunately, by 1994, Internet and its World Wide Web were beginning to transform presentation and communication of human knowledge. The Library took advantage of the opportunity and, on Oct. 13 1994, announced that it had received 13 million in private sector donations to establish the National Digital Library Program. That day, building on concepts the pilot had demonstrate, Library of Congress launched American Memory historical collections as flagship of the National Digital Library Program-pioneering systematic effort to digitize some of the foremost historical treasures in the Library and other major research archives and make them readily available on the Web to Congress, scholars, educators, students, general public, and global Internet community. From the outset, National Digital Library was truly a collaborative National endeavor. Bipartisan support from Congress for 15 million over five years and unique public-private partnership involving entrepreneurial and philanthropic leadership led to more than 45 million in private sponsorship from 1994 through 2000. Beginning in 1996, Library of Congress sponsored a three-year competition with 2 million gift from Ameritech Corporation to enable public, research, and academic libraries, museums, historical societies, and archival institutions to digitize American history collections and make them available on the Libraryas American Memory site. The Competition produced 23 Digital collections that complement American Memory, which now feature more than 100 thematic collections. The National Digital Library exceeded its goal of making 5 million items available online by 2000. American Memory will continue to expand online historical content as an integral component of the Library of Congressas commitment to harnessing new technology as it fulfils its mission to sustain and preserve universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Events Define Generations

The transition from Barack Obama to Donald Trump certainly feels like a historic moment, historically awful for some and positive for others. If it is any comfort, interesting new study suggests that Americans have more in common in how they view the past than the present. Pew Research Center and + E Networks HISTORY teamed up to ask over 2 000 Americans this question: Please name 10 historic events that have occurred in YOUR lifetime that have had the greatest impact on the country. They sort results by generation because, obviously, different generations live through different events. The big headline was that Americans of all generations name attacks of September 11 2001, as the most important event of their lifetime by far. This was true even of older people who lived through World War II and the Vietnam War. There wasnt much variation by age, gender, region or political leanings. African-Americans do put Obamas election at top. Historians certainly could marshal many arguments that 9 / 11 was not, in fact, most consequential episode in HISTORY for Silent Generation and Baby Boomers. But something about 9 / 11 put it at the top of historical memories for all generations. Nothing else come close. The only other events listed by all generations were the election of Obama and the tech revolution. This is the top 10 List for Millennials: 9 / 11 Obama election Iraq / Afghanistan Wars Gay marriage tech revolution Orlando shooting Hurricane Katrina Columbine shooting Death of Bin Laden Sandy Hook its sad List for most part. Millennials tend to see the Obama election and Gay marriage as positive historic moments; tech revolution, for sure. It is especially disturbing, though not at all surprising, to see three mass shootings so prominent in the historical memory of young people. Generation X produced a similar list but they remember the Fall of the Berlin Wall / end of the Cold War and rank it third, according to the poll. Heres Gen X top 10: 9 / 11 Obama election Fall of Berlin Wall / end of Cold War tech revolution Iraq / Afghanistan Wars Gulf War Challenger disaster Gay marriage Hurricane Katrina Columbine shooting theres big jump, obviously, to Baby Boomer List: 9 / 11 JFK assassination Vietnam War Obama election Moon landing tech revolution Civil Rights movement Fall of Berlin Wall / end of Cold War MLK assassination Iraq / Afghanistan Wars Im Boomer whether I like it or not, and I would put Vietnam on top of my List, no doubt. And I would rank the Civil Rights movement second as both triumph and tragedy. I would have put Watergate on my list and perhaps the Arab-Israeli Wars of 1967 and 1973. I hope I wo have to add Donald Trumps election to my list in 10 years.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Culture Sets the Tone

Recent evidence reveals dramatic differences in ways that people from different cultures perceive the world around them. In particular, preference for analytical or holistic processing has been demonstrated to differ across cultures. One of most consistent findings illustrating such a pattern is that Westerners focus on salient objects in contrast to Easterners focus on context when viewing and remembering complex scenes. These information processing biases emerge in perceptual tasks. Ji and colleagues adopt classic test of field-dependence to assess cultural differences in ability to separate object from its field. They discover that when judging orientation of frame rod, Americans find it easier to ignore frame and judge verticality of rod alone; East Asians were more affected by position of frame, which could interfere with judgment of absolute verticality of rod. In modified version of the frame-line test, Americans were more accurate at reproducing line independent of its frame whereas Japanese were more accurate when reproducing line in proportion to frame. Cultural differences in estimation extend to when contextual information is stored in memory, and in perception of emotion. Attentional differences may contribute to cultural differences report for analytical versus holistic processing. East Asians allocate their attention more broadly than Americans, which in turn increases their chances of detecting changes in visual arrays when change occur at the periphery rather than at the center. Furthermore, detection of focal target is slower in East Asians than in Americans, which may reflect allocation of attention to larger field. Part-cues are more effective in helping Americans to identify previously presented pictures, whereas holistic cues support picture identification equally for Easterners and Westerners. Neuroimaging studies corroborate the contribution of attentional networks to cultural differences, with greater engagement of frontal-parietal attentional system when individuals complete tasks with their non-preferred strategy. Japanese detect changes in context faster than Americans, whereas both groups similarly detect changes in focal object. These biases may reflect physical environments present in different cultures. Background changes were easier to detect in Japanese than in American scenes, consistent with the idea that Japanese environments afford more processing of context. Culture also shapes what information is Remember. When asked to describe animated vignettes of underwater scenes from Memory, Americans focus on prominent fish in the scene, whereas Japanese incorporate more contextual details. Changing context impairs memory for objects for Japanese participants more than for Americans. Eye-tracking and fMRI measures are consistent with these findings, with Americans spending more time viewing objects and fixating on them sooner than East Asians and Americans modulating object processing regions more than East Asians.


Experiment 1

In Experiment 1, American participants exhibit greater specific recognition of objects than East Asians do, consistent with the pattern of object-orient feature analysis favor by Western cultures. However, this finding was only tested for objects without background or contextual information. Because Eastern cultures tend to holistically process images, focusing on context and background, presence of background may mitigate cultural differences in memory specificity. However, if American participants are able to treat backgrounds with the same type of feature analysis as they do objects, they could outperform East Asians in specific memory for both objects and backgrounds. To explore the contribution of background context to memory specificity, we designed a follow-up Experiment in which specific and general memory scores were measured for both focal objects and background images presented as composite scenes. Since Experiment 1 does not reveal any differences in self-versus other-referencing across cultures, we remove manipulation of referencing to simplify paradigm. Instead, new incidental encoding procedure was selected to actively engage participants with stimuli without leading them to expect upcoming memory test.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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