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Anemia And Heart Rate

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Anemia is a blood condition in which levels of hemoglobin are lower than normal. Anemia usually occurs when you don't have enough red blood cells cells that transport hemoglobin throughout your body. In other instances, red blood themselves may simply contain too little hemoglobin. When someone is anemic, body doesn't get oxygen that it need.Sss If anemia is unrecognized and untreated, serious damage can occur in organs. Generalize weakness Fatigue Difficulty catching your breath Chest pain or discomfort Fast or abnormal heartbeat Feeling cold all the time, especially in hands and feet Numbness in hands and feet Pale appearance Irritable mood Problems concentrating or performing at your job or in class Frequent headaches or dizziness when anemia becomes severe, Heart has to pump harder and faster to compensate for decreased oxygen levels in body. While there are different types of anemia, they are all due to the same underlying problems: insufficient red blood cells or lack of hemoglobin. Insufficient iron in blood inherits blood conditions lack of vitamins like B - 12 and folate. Another illness is rapid blood loss iron - deficiency anemia. The most frequently diagnosed form of anemia, iron deficiency anemia, is due to lack of iron, which is critical for the body's production of hemoglobin. Sickle cell anemia. This is an inherited condition in which red blood cells are misshapen, or sickle shape. The abnormal shape of red blood cells causes them to be more fragile and less effective at delivering oxygen to tissues. Thalassemia. Genetic disorders that run in families. In thalassemia, body doesn't make enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic red blood cells are produced when the body doesn't get enough Vitamin B12 or folate. These red blood cells are bigger than normal cells, but do not transport hemoglobin as efficiently. Hemolytic anemia. In this condition, red blood cells are rapidly removed from the bloodstream. Infections, medications, and diseases of the immune system can all lead to this type of anemia. Hemolytic anemia can also occur after blood transfusions. A number of risk factors increase the likelihood of developing anemia, including: family history of anemia or other blood disorders, poor diet, loss of blood following surgery or injury, or blood loss from heavy menstruation. Chronic illnesses including diabetes, cancer, HIV / AIDS, inflammatory bowel disease, thyroid problems, and kidney disease linked between anemia and heart disease is clear: Up to 48 percent of people who have had heart failure are anemic. And of people hospitalized for heart attack, 43 percent were found to have anemia. People who are anemic are at a 41 - percent greater risk of having a heart attack or needing procedures to treat heart disease as compared to those without anemia. When left untreated, anemia takes a toll on the body, particularly the heart, because oxygen levels are chronically diminish. People who already have heart disease may actually worsen their condition if they also develop anemia because decreased oxygen places add strain on the heart.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr Hector Mesa for critical review of the article and James Hungaski for creating original illustrations. Authors apologize to many investigators whose work could not be discussed or cited because of space considerations. There are several potential advantages of Intravenous vs oral Iron: It can be administered in few doses; It rapidly restores Iron stores even in the presence of inflammatory conditions; it causes fewer gastrointestinal side effects; and it does not depend on patient adherence / compliance. However, Intravenous Iron preparations are considerably more expensive, require facilities equipped for cardiopulmonary resuscitation because they can cause potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions, and can cause Iron overload if not appropriately monitor. In Patients with Heart Failure, highest level of evidence is available for use of FERRIC Carboxymaltose. 87 92 93 Furthermore, FERRIC Carboxymaltose can be administered at relatively large dose over short periods because it is a stable, high - molecular - weight polynuclear Iron hydroxide carbohydrate complex that makes Iron available in a controlled manner after uptake and regulates export by reticuloendothelial cells and releases less labile Iron that could cause Iron toxicity.

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Discussion

The deleterious effects of ANEMIA on the heart have long been recognize. In 1830, as therapeutic bloodletting was falling out of favor, Marshall Hall commented that if, instead of one full bleeding, person be subject to repeat blood - lettings, action of the heart and arteries is morbidly increase, and there are great palpitation, pulse varies from 100 to 120 or 130. Respiration is apt to be frequent and hurry, and attend with alternate panting and sighing. 1 contemporary of Hall's, George Gregory, warns that ANEMIA that results from chronic blood loss can cause even more serious cardiac consequences: All haemorrhagies when long continue are apt to induce a very alarming state of constitutional weakness. This condition of fluids is generally known by the name of ANEMIA. Its symptoms are pale and bloodless countenance, great weakness, disposition to syncope, loss of appetite, indigestion, swollen legs, and pulse, weak, tremulous, and intermitting. 2 These descriptions appear to represent high - output state and then eventual transition into heart failure due to ongoing ANEMIA. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in developed and developing regions of the world. Approximately 2% of adult men and 9% of adult women in the United States have iron deficiency, and it is the most common cause of ANEMIA in this country. The prevalence of iron deficiency is greater among infants, pregnant women, and the poor. Much larger proportions of the population are affected in developing countries. 3 roughly one fourth of iron - deficient individuals have consequent ANEMIA. Iron deficiency also impairs intellectual and motor development in children, reduces functional capacity in adults, and may contribute to low birth - weight and preterm delivery. 3 4 more extreme result of iron deficiency is cardiomyopathy. In addition, high - output heart failure has been attributed to a variety of diseases including ANEMIA, arteriovenous fistulae, hyperthyroidism, Paget's disease, liver disease, and obesity. The Pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy associated with ANEMIA has not been ascertain. It is, for example, unclear whether ANEMIA itself contributed to the development of heart failure. Theoretically, severe ANEMIA leads to inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues, which in the heart could cause myocyte dysfunction. Additional disease - specific factors may also contribute, including microinfarctions due to in situ sickling of red blood cells in sickle - cell disease, coronary vascular occlusion by parasites in malaria, iron overload caused by abundant blood transfusions in thalassemia, and reduced myocyte iron stores in iron - deficiency ANEMIA. 5 - 7 physiologic response to ANEMIA is a compensatory increase in cardiac output in order to maintain adequate oxygen delivery. Exercise capacity falls in correlation to the degree of ANEMIA. This increase in cardiac output is made possible by increases in blood volume, preload, heart rate, and stroke volume, along with a decrease in afterload. 8 in more severe cases of ANEMIA, increased blood volume contributes to signs of congestion with peripheral and pulmonary edema. 9 It has been shown that resting human heart can withstand acute severe isovolemic ANEMIA with Hemoglobin levels as low as 5 g / dL, without evidence of inadequate tissue oxygenation.

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Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Bleeding, either from losing large amounts of blood quickly or losing small amounts of blood over long periods of time. The body loses more iron with blood loss than it is able to replace with food. This can happen to women having heavy menstrual periods or in people who have inflammatory bowel disease. Not getting enough iron in diet. Needing more iron than you do previously. Some types of Iron - Deficiency Anemia are called by other names relating to cause, such as Anemia of Chronic Disease or acute blood loss Anemia. In a strict sense, pernicious anemia happens when people lack something called intrinsic factor, which lets them absorb Vitamin B12. Without Vitamin B12, body cannot develop healthy RED blood cells. Other types of Anemia that involve lack of B vitamins, such as B9, are also often lumped in as pernicious Anemia. This name may refer to other conditions, including folic acid Deficiency Anemia and Addisons Anemia, even though there is no intrinsic factor deficiency. This type of Anemia can be caused by inherited or acquired diseases that cause the body to make deformed RED blood cells that die off too quickly. If it is not genetic, hemolytic Anemia can be caused by harmful substances or reactions to certain drugs. This genetic form of Anemia happens because the shape of RED blood cells is faulty. They are sickle shaped, which means that they can clog blood vessels and cause damage. Hemoglobin does not work correctly. This type of anemia is most often, but not always, found in African Americans. This is a rare blood disorder that may be inherited or acquire. In this type of anemia, bone marrow does not make enough RED blood cells. Diamond - Blackfan Anemia is diagnosed within the first year of life in nearly 90% of people who have it. This is a type of Anemia that is caused by damaged bone marrow which is unable to make enough RED blood cells. It also may be congenital or acquire. Another name for anemia is Bone marrow aplasia. Some people might think of this condition as cancer, but it is not. There is something referred to by some people as myelodysplastic Anemia. However, myelodyplastic syndromes refer to actual cancer and are the result of abnormal cells in bone marrow. This type of Anemia is also rare and it is genetic. It happens because bone marrow does not make enough RED blood cells. There are physical signs of this condition, such as abnormal bone structure and abnormal skin color. About 50% of people with this condition are diagnosed by the time that they turn 10 years old. This condition is also know as Cooleys Anemia and actually refers to beta thalassemia major. Thalassemias are inherited conditions in which your body does not make the right amount of hemoglobin. In addition to not making enough of these cells, RED Blood cells do not live as long as they would in someone without condition.


Causes

This most common type of anemia is caused by a shortage of iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without adequate iron, your body can't produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells. Without iron supplementation, this type of anemia occurs in many pregnant women. It is also caused by blood loss, such as from heavy menstrual bleeding, ulcer,ss cancer and regular use of some over - counter pain relievers, especially aspirin, which can cause inflammation of stomach lining resulting in blood loss. Vitamin deficiency anemia. Besides iron, your body needs folate and vitamin B - 12 to produce enough healthy red blood cells. A diet lacking in these and other key nutrients can cause decreased red blood cell production. Also, some people who consume enough B - 12 aren't able to absorb vitamin. This can lead to vitamin deficiency anemia, also know as pernicious anemia. Anemia of inflammation. Certain diseases such as cancer, HIV / AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn's disease and other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases can interfere with production of red blood cells. Aplastic anemia. This rare, life - threatening anemia occurs when your body doesn't produce enough red blood cells. Causes of anemia include infections, certain medicines, autoimmune diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals. Anemia is associated with bone marrow disease. A variety of diseases, such as leukemia and myelofibrosis, can cause anemia by affecting blood production in your bone marrow. The effects of these types of cancer and cancer - like disorders vary from mild to life - threatening. Hemolytic anemias. This group of anemias develops when red blood cells are destroyed faster than bone marrow can replace them. Certain blood diseases increase red blood cell destruction. You can inherit hemolytic anemia, or you can develop it later in life. Sickle cell anemia. This inherited and sometimes serious condition is hemolytic anemia. It's caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent shape. These irregular blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells.


Prevention

Many types of anemia can't be prevent. But you can avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemia by eating a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and minerals, including: iron. Iron - rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron - fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables, and dry fruit. Folate. This nutrient, and its synthetic form folic acid, can be found in fruits and fruit juices, dark green leafy vegetables, green peas, kidney beans, peanuts, and enriched grain products, such as bread, cereal, pasta and rice. Vitamin B - 12. Foods rich in vitamin B - 12 include meat, dairy products, and fortified cereal and soy products. Vitamin C. Foods rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits and juices, peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, melons and strawberries. These also help increase iron absorption. If you are concerned about getting enough vitamins and minerals from food, ask your doctor whether multivitamins might help.

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A Range of Symptoms

Anemia often starts slowly, so you may not notice symptoms at first. As your hemoglobin level gets lower, you may have one or more of these symptoms: fast heartbeat, fast breathing rate, shortness of breath, trouble breathing when doing things like walking, climbing stairs, or even talking, dizziness or lightheadedness, chest pain, swelling in hands and / or feet, color of skin, nail beds, mouth, and gums looking more pale than usual Extreme tiredness anemia can range from mild to life - threatening, depending on your hemoglobin level and symptoms you are experiencing. Some of these symptoms are more serious than others. Your doctor will explain your hemoglobin level and severity of your anemia. If you have any of these symptoms, tell your doctor or nurse right away. If you ca reach your cancer care team right away, you may need to get immediate care in the emergency room. Let your cancer care team know if you have any other medical problems such as heart or lung disease, as this may make your symptoms of anemia worse. It is important to watch for anemia and its symptoms throughout your treatment. Tell your cancer care team if you have any of the symptoms described here. Be sure to mention how symptoms affect your day - to - day life. Doing so will help you get treatment you need when you need it.

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The Link to Heart Health

The following brief summary seems to justify the large volume of accumulated data dealing with reaction of the cardiovascular system in anemic patient.S There are four mechanisms operating in anemic patients which may increase the supply of Oxygen to tissues when Oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduce. Under conditions of rest, rapid velocity flow and tachycardia With increase in minute volume of cardiac output is the first response to anemia. As compensation develop, tachycardia and increased velocity flow are largely replaced by selective shunting of blood and removal of an increasing percentage of Oxygen in tissue capillaries from each gram of circulating hemoglobin. These later physiologic mechanisms are best illustrated by patients with Chronic parasitic anemia. Under conditions of physical stress, each of four physiologic mechanisms contribute to meeting demands for increased Oxygen requirements. Compensation is, however, never perfect; status of patient is determined by reduction in hemoglobin, tissue Oxygen requirements, presence of physical changes in cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, degree of Oxygen abstraction from blood, and selective shunting of blood. In relatively acute anemia, dyspnea readily occurs on physical exercise. Reduction in in ventilatory capacity of lungs occurring in some anemic patients results from over - all reduction in physical fitness due to anemic state rather than to physical changes in lung.S in well compensate, chronic anemia, vital capacity of lungs is frequently above normal and similar to that observed in athletes and completely acclimatize, high altitude inhabitants. In the absence of Cardiovascular Disease or physical or metabolic factors requiring increased Cardiac output, true congestive Heart Failure rarely results from anemic state. Effort angina is uncommon in anemic patients and when present is usually related to underlying coronary artery disease. Cardiac hypertrophy under certain conditions results from prolonged anemia. Since Cardiac hypertrophy is rightly placed in the category of organic Heart Disease, it is justified in classifying Chronic Anemia as one of the etiologic factors in production of Heart Disease.

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Screening and Treatment

Treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and changing your diet. If the cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood other than from menstruation, source of bleeding must be located and bleeding stop. This might involve surgery. Vitamin deficiency anemia Treatment for folic acid and vitamin C deficiency involves dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet. If your digestive system has trouble absorbing vitamin B - 12 from food you eat, you might need vitamin B - 12 shots. At first, you might have shots every other day. Eventually, you 'll need shots just once a month, possibly for life, depending on your situation. Anemia of chronic disease. There's no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, blood transfusion or injections of synthetic hormone normally produced by your kidneys might help stimulate red blood cell production and ease fatigue. Aplastic anemia. Treatment for this anemia can include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells. You might need a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow can't make healthy blood cells. Anemia is associated with bone marrow disease. Treatment of these various diseases can include medication, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. Hemolytic anemias. Managing hemolytic anemia includes avoiding suspect medications, treating infections and taking drugs that suppress your immune system, which could be attacking your Red Blood cells. Depending on the cause or your hemolytic anemia, you might be referred to a heart or vascular specialist. Sickle cell anemia. Treatment might include oxygen, pain relievers, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Doctors might also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics. A cancer drug called hydroxyurea is also used to treat sickle cell anemia. Thalassemia. Most forms of thalassemia are mild and require no treatment. More severe forms of thalassemia generally require blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, medication, removal of spleen, or blood and bone marrow stem cell transplant.


Anemia

Anemia is a condition where you have low levels of red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin carries oxygen inside red blood cells, which distribute oxygen throughout the body. Because it is rich in iron, hemoglobin also gives blood its red color. Many different things can cause anemia. Because the underlying condition is frequently cause, it's important to get prompt diagnosis and treatment. Your doctor will use blood tests to diagnose your anemia and to identify its cause. Occasionally, your doctor may also use imaging tests. There are many different causes of anemia, and treatments vary widely. These treatments may include observation, iron supplementation, medications, surgery, or even cancer treatment.

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Topic Overview

Causes of high-output heart failure

CauseWhat is it?How does it cause high-output heart failure?
Severe anemiaBlood contains too few oxygen-carrying red blood cells.Requires the heart to pump more blood each minute to deliver enough oxygen to the tissues of the body
HyperthyroidismThyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.Increases the body's overall metabolism, thus increasing the demand for blood flow
Arteriovenous fistulaAn abnormal connection between an artery and a veinShort-circuits the circulation and forces the heart to pump more blood overall to deliver the usual amount of blood to the vital organs
BeriberiDeficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1)Leads to increased metabolic demand and increased need for blood flow
Paget's diseaseAbnormal breakdown and regrowth of bones, which develop an excessive amount of blood vesselsIncreased number of blood vessels requires increased cardiac output.

Anemia is a condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues. Having anemia can make you feel tired and weak. There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long term, and it can range from mild to severe. See your doctor if you suspect that you have anemia. It can be a warning sign of serious illness. Treatments for anemia range from taking supplements to undergoing medical procedures. You might be able to prevent some types of anemia by eating a healthy, varied diet.


Causes of Anemia

The pathophysiology of anemia is multifactorial and the contribution of their causes varies by regions. The most common cause of anemia is micronutrient deficiency being iron deficiency most frequent of all. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin,ss alone or in combination had small contribution as cause of anemia. Deficiencies of other vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin B6, vitamin C, riboflavin, and copper, have been implicated as secondary causes of anemia, although there is little evidence that those deficiencies contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of anemia. Hemoglobinopathies are the third cause of anemia, been most present in high income regions. Other causes of anemia, like anemia of chronic inflammation, are less frequent and have been associated with chronic diseases, consequence of long term inflammation, causing raise in hepcidin, that blocks proteins involved in cellular iron exportation to circulation, causing refractory iron deficiency anemia. Besides participation of iron in synthesis of hemoglobin, it is involved in a large number of functions within the body, including respiratory chain, phagocytosis, prostaglandin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 system, among others.

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Doctor's Notes on Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues. As the name implies, Iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron. Without enough iron, your body can't produce enough substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen. As a result, Iron deficiency anemia may leave you tired and short of breath. You can usually correct Iron deficiency anemia with Iron supplementation. Sometimes additional tests or treatments for Iron deficiency anemia are necessary, especially if your doctor suspects that you re bleeding internally.

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1. Youre always tired

Iron deficiency occurs when the body does not have enough mineral iron. This leads to abnormally low levels of red blood cells. That is because iron is needed to make hemoglobin, protein in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen around the body. If your body doesnt have enough hemoglobin, your tissues and muscles wo get enough oxygen and be able to work effectively. This leads to a condition called anemia. Although there are different types of anemia, Iron - deficiency anemia is the most common worldwide. Common causes of Iron deficiency include inadequate iron intake due to poor diet or restrictive diets, inflammatory bowel disease, increased requirements during pregnancy and blood loss through heavy periods or internal bleeding. Whatever the cause, iron deficiency can result in unpleasant symptoms that can affect your quality of life. These include poor health, concentration and work productivity. Signs and symptoms of Iron deficiency vary depending on the severity of anemia, how quickly it develop, your age and current state of health. Here are 10 signs and symptoms of Iron deficiency, starting with the most common.


What Is Fatigue?

Fibromyalgia is one of the more common causes of chronic fatigue and musculoskeletal pain, especially in women. Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome are considered separate but related disorders. They share common symptom - severe fatigue that greatly interferes with people's lives. With fibromyalgia, you may feel that no matter how long you sleep, it's never restful. And you may feel as if you are always fatigued during daytime hours. Your sleep may be interrupted by frequent waking. Yet, you may not remember any sleep disruptions the next day. Some people with fibromyalgia live in constant fibro fog - hazy, mental feeling that makes it difficult to concentrate. Constant daytime fatigue with fibromyalgia often results in diminished exercise. That causes a decline in physical fitness. It can also cause mood - relate problems. The best way to offset these effects is to try to exercise more. Exercise has tremendous beneficial effect on sleep, mood, and fatigue. If you do try swimming to ease fatigue, start slowly. As you become accustomed to added physical activity, you can increase your time in the pool or gym. Set up regular time for exercise, but watch overdoing it to avoid added fatigue.

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Anemia in Children

Anemia is a common problem in children. About 20% of children in the US will be diagnosed with Anemia at some point. Childs who have Anemia do not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a type of protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to other cells in the body. There are many types of Anemia. Your child may have 1 of these: Iron deficiency Anemia. This is not enough Iron in Blood. Iron is needed to form hemoglobin. This is the most common cause of anemia. Megaloblastic Anemia. This is when red blood cells are too large because of lack of folic acid or vitamin B - 12. One type of Megaloblastic Anemia is pernicious Anemia. In this type, there is a problem absorbing vitamin B - 12, important for making red blood cells. Hemolytic Anemia. This is when red blood cells are destroy. There are many different causes, such as serious infections or certain medicines. Sickle cell Anemia. This is a type of hemoglobinopathy, inherited type of Anemia with abnormally - shaped red blood cells. Cooley's Anemia. This is another inherited type of Anemia with abnormal red blood cells. Aplastic Anemia. This is failure of bone marrow to make blood cells.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Sources

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