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Anemia Kill

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Anemia is a condition that develops when your red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal. Conditions are often associated with being tired and weak. The reason for this is that anemia occurs when your body doesn't have adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues. There are different types of Anemia, including, but not limited to: iron - deficiency Anemia, which is the most common type of Anemia and occurs when your blood doesn't have enough iron to produce healthy red blood cells and hemoglobin. The World Health Organization states that this type of anemia, which is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, largely contributes to the fact that more than 30 percent of the world's population is anemic. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Not having enough working red blood cells may lead to tiredness and shortness of breath. Aplastic anemia is a blood disorder in which the body's bone marrow soft tissue in the center of bones doesn't make enough healthy blood cells. Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as bone marrow failure. While the condition is rare, each year between 600 and 900 people in the United States are diagnosed with Aplastic Anemia, according to Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation, although the accuracy of epidemiological data for the United States is still being determine. In Western countries, incidence is approximately two per million people per year, and is estimated to be two - to threefold higher than in Asia. Disorders affect men and women equally, and most commonly develop in adults between the ages of 20 and 25, as well as those over 60, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Sickle Cell Anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by both deficiency of healthy red blood cells and painful episodes called Sickle Cell crises. The disorder is caused by a mutation in a gene that tells the body to make hemoglobin, protein found in red blood cells that bind to oxygen in lungs and carries it to tissues throughout the body. As a result of mutation, body produces a defective form of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S, which causes red blood cells to sickle, or develop a crescent shape. Sickle cells are stiff and sticky and tend to block blood flow in vessels of limbs and organs, causing pain and raising the risk for infection. Sickle cells also have a shorter life span than normal red blood cells, leading to an overall shortage of red blood cells and, consequently, anemia. Pernicious Anemia refers to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by autoantibodies that interfere with vitamin B12 absorption by targeting intrinsic factor, gastric parietal cells, or both. This type of Anemia occurs when your body cannot absorb vitamin B12, which is needed to make healthy red blood cells and to keep the nervous system working properly. The condition can run in families and is an autoimmune condition.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How is anemia diagnosed?

First, your doctor will take your family and medical history. Then they will do physical exam to look for symptoms of anemia. After that, your doctor will draw blood for several tests. The most common are: complete blood count to count the number of red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin in your blood. Tests to look at the size and shape of your red blood cells once youre diagnosed with anemia, Your doctor may do more testing to see if they can find underlying cause of anemia. For example, they might do a bone marrow test to see how well your body makes Red blood cells, look for internal bleeding, or scan for tumors.


Why you can die from anemia

Treating severe anemia takes more than just diet and lifestyle changes, although eating a healthy diet with lots of iron can help keep you healthy. Sometimes, treating anemia requires treating the underlying cause. Examples include: chemotherapy for myelodysplastic syndrome, eculizumab for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, which keeps your body from destroying red blood cells, immunosuppressants for some types of anemia and hemolytic anemias in all types of anemia, Blood transfusions can help replace your lost or defective red blood cells and reduce symptoms. However, it usually does not address the underlying cause. A Bone marrow transplant, also know as stem cell transplant, is an option if you ca make healthy red blood cells. In this procedure, your bone marrow is replaced with donor marrow that can make healthy cells. This is the only cure for some types of anemia, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Facts

Anemia is a condition where the number of healthy red blood cells in the blood is lower than normal. Rbcs transport oxygen throughout the body, so shortage of these cells can be serious. Iron - deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia. It commonly affects children and women of all ages - especially women who are menstruating. It's estimated that at least 2 out of every 10 women in North America do not have enough iron in their blood. It can also seriously affect men when it is caused by colon polyps, colon cancer, or other gastrointestinal malignancies. Iron - deficiency anemia is often one of the first warning signals that a person may have GI malignancy. Sickle cell anemia is another known type of anemia. This condition affects millions of people worldwide. It is a hereditary disease, passed on to children by parents with altered genetic material. People most commonly affected include those of African, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, or Indian descent. Every year, 1 in 12 babies of African descent are born with genetic potential to pass sickle cell anemia on to their children. It's estimated that 1 out of 400 babies of African descent will have the disease. Aplastic anemia is a form of anemia where bone marrow stops producing all types of blood cells. This type of anemia is very serious, but fortunately rare. It affects 2 to 12 out of every 1 million people each year. Anemia occurs in both adults and children. Anemia of chronic disease is the second most common form of anemia worldwide. It is a mild form of anemia that occurs in people who have diseases that last more than 1 to 2 months. Such diseases include tuberculosis, HIV, cancer, kidney disease, rheumatologic disorders, and liver disease. Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia more common in seniors and is caused by either lack of dietary intake or poor absorption of vitamin B12 from their diet. It is also a common condition seen in alcoholics.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

The body needs iron to make hemoglobin, protein on RBCs that carry oxygen from lungs to the rest of the body. Hemoglobin is what gives blood its red colour. In addition to lack of iron, there tends to be a lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid in the diet as well. These deficiencies are less common in North America, but they still occur. People with increased iron requirements include infants, pregnant women, and teenagers going through growth spurt. Slow bleeding can also cause iron - deficiency anemia. Even healthy people lose a small amount of blood day in their stool. Slightly larger amounts can easily go unnoticed and yet be enough to cause anemia. The cause of anemia of chronic disease is not completely understood. It is related to decreased production of RBCs. Individual RBCs only last about 4 months and must be replaced by new ones, which are made in bone marrow. Anemia is caused when marrow is destroyed or so badly damaged that it can't produce enough RBCs. Some medications and radiation therapy can kill bone marrow, but the most common cause is autoimmune reaction. This occurs when cells that normally protect you against disease attack your own tissue instead. In 50% of cases, cause of autoimmune reaction is unknown. Other conditions that can destroy bone marrow and cause anemia include viral hepatitis and severe rheumatoid arthritis. Fanconi anemia is rare inherited aplastic condition in which bone marrow is deficient. Anemia is common for people who have severe kidney disease. This is because healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin, natural hormone that causes bone marrow to produce more RBCs as they are needed by the body. Diseased kidneys cannot produce enough of this hormone to keep the body supplied with RBCs, leading to anemia.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms and Complications

You can lose Red blood cells through bleeding. This can happen slowly over long periods of time, and you might not notice. Causes can include: Gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis, and cancer. Non - steroidal anti - inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen, which can cause ulcers and gastritis womanas period, especially if you have heavy menstruation. This can be associated with fibroids. Post - trauma or post - surgery as well. Anemia is caused by decreased or faulty Red Blood Cell Production with this type of anemia, Your body may not create enough blood cells, or they may not work the way they should. This can happen because thereas something wrong with your red blood cells or because you do have enough minerals and vitamins for your red blood cells to form normally. Conditions associated with these causes of anemia include: bone marrow and stem cell problems, Iron - deficiency anemia, Sickle Cell anemia, Vitamin - deficiency anemia, specifically B12 or folate bone marrow and stem cell problems may keep your body from producing enough red blood cells. Some of the stem cells in marrow thatas in the center of your bones will develop into Red Blood cells. If there are enough stem cells, if they do work right, or if they are replaced by other cells such as cancer cells, you might get anemia. Anemia caused by bone marrow or stem cell problems include: anemia happens when you do not have enough stem cells or have none at all. You might get anemia because of your genes or because your bone marrow was injured by medications, radiation, chemotherapy, or infection. Other malignancies that commonly effect bone marrow includeA multiple myeloma or leukemia. Sometimes, thereas no clear cause of anemia. Lead poisoning. Lead is toxic to your bone marrow, causing you to have fewer Red blood cells. Lead poisoning can happen when adults come into contact with lead at work, for example, or if children eat chips of lead paint. You can also get it if your food comes into contact with some types of pottery that arenat glaze right. Thalassemia happens with problem with hemoglobin formation. You make really small Red Blood cells - though you can make enough of them to be asymptomatic, or it can be severe. Itas passes down in your genes and usually affects people of Mediterranean, African, Middle Eastern, and Southeast Asian descent. This condition can range from mild to life - threatening; most severe form is called Cooley's anemia. Iron - deficiency anemia happens because you do have enough mineral iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin, part of the Red Blood Cells that take oxygen to your organs.


Why you can die from anemia

Anemia is defined as low number of red blood cells. In routine blood test, anemia is reported as low hemoglobin or hematocrit. Hemoglobin is the main protein in your red blood cells. It carries oxygen, and delivers it throughout your body. If you have anemia, your hemoglobin level will be low too. If it is low enough, your tissues or organs may not get enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia - like fatigue or shortness of breathA - happen because your organs aren't getting what they need to work the way they should. Anemia is the most common blood condition in the US. It affects almost 6% of the population. Women, young children, and people with long - term diseases are more likely to have anemia. Important things to remember are: certain forms of anemia are passed down through your genes, and infants may have it from birth. Women are at risk of iron - deficiency anemia because of blood loss from their periods and higher blood supply demands during pregnancy. Older adults have a greater risk of anemia because they are more likely to have kidney disease or other chronic medical conditions. There are many types of anemia. All have different causes and treatments. Some forms - like mild anemia that happens during pregnant major concern. But some types of anemia maymay reflect serious underlying medical condition

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Making the Diagnosis

The doctor will start by asking about persons symptoms and their medical history. They will usually use blood test know as complete blood count to evaluate people's red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. If all three of these components are low, person has pancytopenia. A doctor may also recommend taking a sample of bone marrow, which comes from person's pelvis or hip. Laboratory technicians will examine bone marrow. If a person has anemia, bone marrow will not have typical stem cells. Aplastic anemia can also have similar symptoms as other medical conditions, such as myelodysplastic syndrome and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The doctor will want to rule out these conditions. Sometimes, people with other medical conditions can develop anemia. These conditions include: ataxia - pancytopenia syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Schwachman - Diamond syndrome telomere diseases. If a person has these conditions, doctor will recognize that they are more likely to get anemia.


Why you can die from anemia

Treatment for anemia may include blood transfusions, medicines that inhibit the immune system and stem cell / bone marrow transplants. Blood transfusion Healthy red blood cells or platelets from one person are given to another person. Transfusions are given when hemoglobin or platelets fall below critical number. Transfusions can relieve symptoms but do not treat causes of disease. Supportive medication Patients with anemia have very low white blood cells and are at very high risk for life - threatening infections. To treat or reduce infection risk, drugs are given to kill bacteria, viruses and fungi. Immunosuppressive therapy Two drugs are often given to suppress the malfunctioning immune system. These drugs are anthithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine. Some centers also give eltrombopag to boost stem cell production. This kind of therapy can last for up to two years. Bone marrow transplant Patients with unhealthy or missing bone marrow are replaced with healthy cells from donor,ss such as family members or match unrelated donor. This is called allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow transplant can cure anemia for life. Some patients may get side effects such as immune system reaction against the body, severe infections during transplant or rejection of donor cells. Long - term overall survival after transplant in children with anemia is over 90%. If the patient has match sibling donor, bone marrow transplant is used as first - line therapy. If patient does not have a sibling donor, immunosuppressive therapy is used. But, recent studies show that transplants from match unrelated donor,s or mismatched family donors show excellent success rates. Long - term outcomes are at least as good as immunosuppressive therapy. Jude is conducting clinical trial to find out which therapy is better for patients. Learn more about what to expect during a bone marrow transplant

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying illness causing it. Severe bleeding is usually treated with blood transfusions. You may also need regular transfusions of blood if you have serious chronic type of anemia. There has been great improvement in lifespan for people with sickle cell anemia. In the past, those with the disease often did not make it to adulthood. Expect life span has now surpassed 50 years of age. Disease is managed by general health maintenance, vaccinations, folate supplementation, and medication hydroxyurea. Currently, only cure is hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This procedure has many risks, and is generally used only by those with advanced complications of disease. Iron supplements are used to treat iron - deficiency anemia. Infants who have this problem tend to be bottle - fed. A baby is able to absorb more iron from breast milk than from cow's milk. You may want to take iron supplements for yourself when breast - feeding your child. Iron supplements will also help in cases of mild anemia that's due to GI or menstrual bleeding. It may take 3 to 6 weeks of taking iron supplements to replenish iron your body needs. Vitamin B12, vitamin C, and folic acid are all crucial to RBC production, and deficiency in any one of these vitamins puts you at risk for anemia. Good sources of vitamin B12 include beef and fish. Vegetables don't contain this vitamin, so if you don't eat meat, fish, or dairy products, you 'll need to take vitamin B12 supplements. Sources of folic acid include spinach, green peas, oranges, and cantaloupe. When anemia is caused by decreased production of RBCs, such as in cancer or severe kidney disease, medications such as epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa can be used. These medications mimic the action of erythropoietin, natural hormone that causes bone marrow to produce more RBCs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Rh sensitization can occur during pregnancy if you are Rh - negative and pregnant with developing baby who has Rh - positive blood. In most cases, your blood will not mix with your baby's blood until delivery. It takes a while to make antibodies that can affect the baby, so during your first pregnancy, baby probably will not be affect. But if you get pregnant again with a Rh - positive baby, antibodies already in your blood could attack the baby's red blood cells. This can cause baby to have anemia, jaundice, or more serious problems. This is called Rh disease. Problems will tend to get worse with each Rh - positive pregnancy you have. Rh sensitization is one reason it's important to see your doctor in the first trimester of pregnancy. It doesn't cause any warning symptoms, and a blood test is the only way to know if you have it or are at risk for it. If you are at risk, Rh sensitization can almost always be prevent. If you are already sensitize, treatment can help protect your baby.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Role of Blood Cells

Table

TestResultFlagUnitsReference Interval
White Blood Count7.2x 10-3/mL4.0-10.5
Red Blood Count3.40 Lx 10-6/mL4.70-6.10
Hemoglobin10.6 Lg/dL14.0-18.0
Hematocrit31.1 L%42.0-52.0
Platelets297x 10-3/mL140-415
Polys43 L%45-76
Lymphs48 H%17-44
monocytes7%3-10
Eos2%0-4
Basos>%0.2
Polys (absolute)3.1x 10-3/mL1.8-7.8
Lymphs (absolute)3.5x 10-3/mL0.7-4.5
Monocytes (absolute)0.5x 10-3/mL0.1-1.0
Eos (absolute)0.1x 10-3/mL0.0-0.4
Basos (absolute)0.0x 10-3/mL0.0-0.2

There are many types of blood cells, and each has a job to do. White blood cells, for instance, fight infection. Platelets allow blood to clot, and red blood cells carry hemoglobina protein that is rich in iron. It is what gives cells their color. Hemoglobin importantly allows blood to carry oxygen molecules to cells. Specifically, when a person inhales, lungs collect oxygen molecules from the air. Red blood cells pick up oxygen molecules from the lungs, then travel to cells to deliver them. After dropping off oxygen, they pick up carbon dioxide on the way back to the lungs, and it is exhale. When there are not enough red blood cells, cells do not get oxygen, and they retain carbon dioxide. This condition is known as anemia.


Why you can die from anemia

Anemia can be treated by increasing hemoglobin level with blood transfusions or with erythropoietin, blood cell growth factor that increases Red Blood cell production. Two objectives for treating anemia are to first correct the underlying cause of anemia and second to treat symptoms of anemia. Successful management of anemia may require erythropoietin, transfusions or both. Erythropoietin is FDA - approved for the treatment of anemia in patients with nonmyeloid cancers whose anemia is result of chemotherapy. Treatment with erythropoietin causes a gradual increase in Red Blood cell production. The body uses iron in red blood cell production. Thus, supplemental iron may be required to adequately support erythropoietin - stimulate erythropoiesis. Virtually all patients receiving erythropoietin therapy will eventually require supplemental iron therapy. Two commercially available forms of erythropoietin are darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa. Aranesp is a longer - acting form of erythropoietin that allows patients to receive fewer injections. Although erythropoietin has been shown to reduce the need for blood transfusions in patients with chemotherapy - induced Anemia, some studies have reported serious adverse effects of erythropoietin in certain groups of patients. In response to these reports, and based on advice of two Advisory committees, FDA released an updated Advisory on use of erythropoietin in November 2007. Patients should discuss risks and benefits of anemia treatment with their doctor. More information about FDA Advisory can be found at https: / www. Fda. Gov / cder / drug / infopage / RHE / default. Htm. Blood Transfusion: Blood transfusions rapidly replace the oxygen - carrying capacity of blood. The goal of Blood Transfusion is to increase oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between tissues and reduce symptoms of Anemia. However, transfusions are associated with complications. Patients should carefully consider whether to undergo transfusion and benefits should outweigh risk or complications of procedure. Although improvements have lower risk of Transfusion - transmitted complications, only way to effectively eliminate risk is to avoid exposure to allogeneic or bank blood. Despite the risks, red blood cell transfusions are common treatments for severe Anemia associated with cancer and chemotherapy. Patients receiving Red Blood cell transfusions are at risk for several noninfectious reactions that range from mild allergic reactions to life - threatening anaphylaxis. Clinically, most significant complications involve impact on the immune system. However, these conditions are rare. Infectious Complications: Patients receiving allogeneic blood are at risk for bacterial, parasitic and viral infections. Bacterial infections are estimated to occur in 1 of every 2500. Blood transfusions and viral infections occur in approximately 1 in every 3000. Fear of infection with human immunodeficiency virus has caused most concern, although the risk per unit of blood transfuse is relatively low. All blood components are tested for HIV antibodies; however, there is a period of time after HIV exposure before antibodies can be detected in blood. To address this issue, intense donor screening is being used and more sensitive tests are being develop. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion are at greater risk for lethal infection with hepatitis viruses than from HIV.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Anaemia

The aim of lymphoma treatment is to kill lymphoma cells, but side effect of many types of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is that some healthy cells are also destroy. This can include blood cells that are developing in bone marrow. Chemotherapy does cause anaemia straightaway. Red blood cells live for 3 months, so there are still many cells in your blood when treatment start. As treatment goes on, existing cells start to wear out but there are not enough new cells being made to replace them. This means there is less haemoglobin in the blood and anaemia can develop. This might become a problem depending on: how strong your chemotherapy is, whether you had lymphoma in bone marrow before you started treatment, whether you have additional problems. Radiotherapy can also cause anaemia, especially radiotherapy to the chest, abdomen, pelvis or legs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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