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Anemia Panel

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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When blood lacks enough healthy Red blood cells or Hemoglobin, condition called Anemia develops. Hemoglobin is a component of blood that bind to oxygen. With too low Red Blood cells and / or hemoglobin, your body's cells do not get enough oxygen. There are more than 400 types of Anemia, all of which are classified into the following three categories: Anemia caused by Blood Loss, Anemia caused by decreased or faulty Red Blood cell production, Anemia caused by destruction of Red Blood cells. This Blood test Panel is used to detect and identify a wide range of hematologic disorders. Hematocrit - amount of Red Blood cells in blood. Hemoglobin - protein that transports oxygen or carbon dioxide in the blood. Mean corpuscular volume - Measures average volume of Red Blood cells in blood. Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin - amount of Hemoglobin per Red Blood cell. Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin concentration - the amount of Hemoglobin concentrated in the volume of Red Blood cells. Red cell distribution width - Measures difference of Red blood cell size or volume in blood sample. Percentage and absolute differential Count - Measures amounts of different White Blood cell types within blood. Platelet Count - Measures the amount of platelets in the blood that are crucial for blood clotting. White Blood cell Count - measures amounts of different white blood cell types within blood. The Iron - Iron Blood test measures the amount of iron in blood. Iron is a mineral that is needed by your body for production of hemoglobin, energy, and maintaining proper muscle and organ function. Total Iron - Binding Capacity - is used to differentiate between Anemia types and gives more iron statistics than the Iron test alone.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Complete Blood Count

Table

TESTReference Range 2Examples of causes of low resultExamples of causes of high result
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)Conventional Units Men: 4.5-5.9 x 10 6 /microliter Women: 4.1-5.1 x 10 6 microliter SI Units Men: 4.5-5.9 x 10 12 /L Women: 4.1-5.1 x 10 12 /LKnown as anemia Acute or chronic bleeding RBC destruction (e.g., hemolytic anemia, etc.) Nutritional deficiency (e.g., iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency ) Bone marrow disorders or damage Chronic inflammatory disease Chronic kidney diseaseKnown as polycythemia Dehydration Lung (pulmonary) disease Kidney or other tumor that produces excess erythropoietin Smoking Living at high altitude Genetic causes (altered oxygen sensing, abnormality in hemoglobin oxygen release) Polycythemia veraa rare disease
Hemoglobin (Hb)Conventional Units Men: 14-17.5 g/dL Women: 12.3-15.3 g/dL SI Units Men: 140-175 g/L Women: 123-153 g/LUsually mirrors RBC results, provides added informationUsually mirrors RBC results
Hematocrit (Hct)Conventional Units Men: 41.5-50.4% Women: 35.9-44.6% SI Units Men: 0.415-0.504 volume fraction Women: 0.359-0.446 volume fractionUsually mirrors RBC resultsUsually mirrors RBC results; most common cause is dehydration
RBC indices
MCVConventional Units 80-96 micrometer 3 SI Units 80-96 fLIndicates RBCs are smaller than normal (microcytic); caused by iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias , for example.Indicates RBCs are larger than normal (macrocytic), for example in anemia caused by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, myelodysplasia , liver disease , hypothyroidism , etc.
MCHConventional Units 27.5-33.2 pg SI Units 27.5-33.2 pgMirrors MCV results; small red cells would have a lower value.Mirrors MCV results; macrocytic RBCs are large so tend to have a higher MCH.
MCHCConventional Units 33.4-35.5 g/dL SI Units 334-355 g/LMay be low when MCV is low; decreased MCHC values (hypochromia) are seen in conditions such as iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia.Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is more concentrated inside the red cells, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in burn patients, and hereditary spherocytosis, a rare congenital disorder.
RBC Distribution Width (RDW, RDW-SD, RDW-CV) Not always reportedIndicates that RBC are uniform in size.Indicates mixed population of small and large RBCs; young RBCs tend to be larger. For example, in iron deficiency anemia or pernicious anemia, there is high variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size (along with variation in shape - poikilocytosis), causing an increase in the RDW.
Reticulocyte Count Not always doneConventional Units 0.5-1.5% or 25-125 x 10 3 /microliter SI Units 0.005-0.015 number fraction or 25-125 x 10 9 /LIn the setting of anemia, a low reticulocyte count indicates a condition is affecting the production of red blood cells, such as bone marrow disorder or damage, or a nutritional deficiency (iron, B12 or folate).In the setting of anemia, a high reticulocyte count generally indicates peripheral cause, such as bleeding or hemolysis , or response to treatment (e.g., iron supplementation for iron deficiency anemia).

Cbc documents the severity of anemia. In chronic iron deficiency anemia, cellular indices show microcytic and hypochromic erythropoiesisthat is, both mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular Hemoglobin concentration have values below the normal range for laboratory performing test. Reference range values for MCV and MCHC are 83 - 97 fL and 32 - 36 g / dL, respectively. Often, platelet count is elevate; this elevation normalizes after iron therapy. The White Blood Cell Count is usually within Reference Ranges, but it may be elevate. If CBC is obtained after blood loss, cellular indices do not enter abnormal range until most of the erythrocytes produced before bleeding are destroyed at the end of their normal lifespan.


Results

Cbc counts cells and measures levels of different substances in your blood. There are many reasons your levels may fall outside the normal range. For instance: abnormal red blood cell, hemoglobin, or hematocrit levels may indicate anemia, iron deficiency, or heart disease. Low white cell count may indicate autoimmune disorder, bone marrow disorder, or cancer. A high white cell count may indicate infection or reaction to medication if any of your levels are abnormal, it does not necessarily indicate a medical problem needing treatment. Diet, activity level, medications, women's menstrual cycle, and other considerations can affect results. Talk to your health care provider to learn what your results mean. Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.


What is this test?

This panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is. Test get a lot of information from your blood sample: number and types of white blood cells. Your body has five types of white blood cells. All play a role in fighting infections. High numbers of WBCs, or of specific type of WBC, may mean you have infection or inflammation somewhere in your body. Low numbers of WBCs may mean you are at risk for infections. Number of red blood cells. Rbcs carry oxygen throughout the body and remove excess carbon dioxide. Too few RBCs may be a sign of anemia or other diseases. In rare cases, too many may cause problems with blood flow. The size of your red blood cells varies. This test is known as red cell distribution width. For instance, you may have greater differences in red blood cell size if you have anemia. Hematocrit. This means portion of red blood cells in a certain amounts of whole blood. Low hematocrit may be a sign of too much bleeding. Or it might mean that you have iron deficiency or other disorders. Higher than normal hematocrit can be caused by dehydration or other disorders. Hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Abnormalities can be a sign of problems ranging from anemia to lung disease. Average size of your red blood cells. This test is known as meaning corpuscular volume. Mcv goes up when your red blood cells are bigger than normal. This happens if you have anemia caused by low vitamin B12 or folate levels. If your red blood cells are smaller, this can mean other types of anemia, such as iron deficiency anemia. Platelet count. Platelets are cell fragments that play a role in blood clotting. Too few platelets may mean you have a higher risk of bleeding. Too many may mean a number of possible conditions. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin. This test measures how much hemoglobin your red blood cells have.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Table2

TestReference Range 2Examples of causes of a low countExamples of causes of a high count
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)Conventional Units 1 4,500-11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) SI Units 1 4.5-11.0 x 10 9 per liter (L)Known as leukopenia Bone marrow disorders or damage Autoimmune conditions Severe infections ( sepsis ) Lymphoma or other cancer that spread to the bone marrow Dietary deficiencies Diseases of immune system (e.g., HIV/AIDS )Known as leukocytosis Infection , most commonly bacterial or viral Inflammation Leukemia , myeloproliferative neoplasms Allergies , asthma Tissue death (trauma, burns, heart attack ) Intense exercise or severe stress
White Blood Cell Differential (Diff)(Not always performed; may be done as part of or in follow up to CBC)
Absolute neutrophil count, % neutrophils (Neu, PMN, polys)Conventional Units Percent (mean): 56% Absolute count (per microliter): 1800-7800 SI Units Mean number fraction: 0.56 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter: 1.8-7.8Known as neutropenia Severe, overwhelming infection (sepsis) Autoimmune disorders Dietary deficiencies Reaction to drugs Immunodeficiency Myelodysplasia Bone marrow damage (e.g., chemotherapy , radiation therapy) Cancer that spreads to the bone marrow Congenital neutropeniaKnown as neutrophilia Acute bacterial infections Inflammation Trauma, heart attack, or burns Stress, rigorous exercise Certain leukemias (e.g., chronic myeloid leukemia) Cushing syndrome
Absolute lymphocyte count, % lymphocytes (Lymph)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 34% Absolute count (per microliter): 1000-4800 SI Units Mean number fraction: 0.34 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter: 1.0-4.8Known as lymphocytopenia Autoimmune disorders (e.g., lupus , rheumatoid arthritis ) Infections (e.g., HIV, viral hepatitis , typhoid fever, influenza , Covid-19) Bone marrow damage (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy) CorticosteroidsKnown as lymphocytosis Acute viral infections (e.g., chicken pox , cytomegalovirus (CMV) , Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) , herpes , rubella ) Certain bacterial infections (e.g., pertussis (whooping cough) , tuberculosis (TB) ) Toxoplasmosis Chronic inflammatory disorder (e.g., ulcerative colitis) Lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma Stress (acute)
Absolute monocyte count, % monocytes (Mono)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 4% Absolute count (per microliter) 0-800 SI Units Mean number fraction 0.04 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter 0-0.80Usually, one low count is not medically significant. Repeated low counts can indicate: Bone marrow damage or failure Hairy cell leukemia Aplastic anemiaChronic infections (e.g., tuberculosis, fungal infection ) Infection within the heart (bacterial endocarditis) Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., lupus, scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis ) Monocytic or myelomonocytic leukemia (acute or chronic)
Absolute eosinophil count, % eosinophils (Eos)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 2.7% Absolute count (per microliter) 0-450 SI Units Mean number fraction 0.027 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter 0-0.45Numbers are normally low in the blood. One or an occasional low number is usually not medically significant.Asthma, allergies such as hay fever Drug reactions Parasitic infections Inflammatory disorders ( celiac disease , inflammatory bowel disease ) Some cancers, certain acute or chronic leukemias or lymphomas Addison disease Connective tissue disorders
Absolute basophil count, % basophils (Baso)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 0.3% Absolute count (per microliter) 0-200 SI Units Mean number fraction 0.030 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter 0-0.20As with eosinophils, numbers are normally low in the blood; usually not medically significantRare allergic reactions (hives, food allergy) Inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis) Some leukemias Uremia

Table3

TestReference Range 2Examples of causes of low resultExamples of causes of high result
Platelet Count (Plt)Conventional Units 150-450 x 10 3 /microliter SI Units 150-450 x 10 9 /LKnown as thrombocytopenia: Viral infection ( mononucleosis , measles , hepatitis ) Rocky mountain spotted fever Platelet autoantibody Drugs (acetaminophen, quinidine, sulfa drugs) Cirrhosis Autoimmune disorders (e.g., ITP) Sepsis Leukemia , lymphoma Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapyKnown as thrombocytosis: Cancer ( lung , gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis , inflammatory bowel disease , lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia)
MPV (Not always reported)Mean Platelet VolumeIndicates average size of platelets is small; older platelets are generally smaller than young ones and a low MPV may mean that a condition is affecting the production of platelets by the bone marrow.Indicates a high number of larger, younger platelets in the blood; this may be due to the bone marrow producing and releasing platelets rapidly into circulation.
PDW (Not always reported)Platelet Distribution WidthIndicates uniformity in size of platelets.Indicates increased variation in the size of the platelets, which may mean that a condition is present that is affecting platelets.

Table4

LOINCLOINC Display Name
47288-6CBC WO Differential panel (BldCo)
57021-8CBC W Auto Differential panel (Bld)
57022-6CBC W Reflex Manual Differential panel (Bld)
57782-5CBC W Ordered Manual Differential panel (Bld)
58410-2CBC panel Auto (Bld)
69742-5CBC W Differential panel, method unspecified (Bld)
74412-8CBC W Differential panel (BldCo)
95215-0CBC W Differential panel (Stem cell product)

Table5

Red blood cell countMale: 4.35-5.65 trillion cells/L (4.32-5.72 million cells/mcL) Female: 3.92-5.13 trillion cells/L (3.90-5.03 million cells/mcL)
HemoglobinMale: 13.2-16.6 grams/dL (132-166 grams/L) Female: 11.6-15 grams/dL (116-150 grams/L)
HematocritMale: 38.3-48.6 percent Female: 35.5-44.9 percent
White blood cell count3.4-9.6 billion cells/L (3,400 to 9,600 cells/mcL)
Platelet countMale: 135-317 billion/L (135,000 to 317,000/mcL) Female: 157-371 billion/L (157,000-371,000/mcL)
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Peripheral Smear

Table

LOINCLOINC Display Name
710-4Blood smear finding positive LM Nom (Bld)
5909-7Blood smear finding LM Nom (Bld)
58445-8Manual differential comment Nar (Bld)
50957-0Manual differential performed Ql (Bld)
48705-8WBC+Platelets Nom (Bld)
79427-1Platelets LM.HPF (Bld)
9317-9Platelets LM Ql (Bld)
6742-1RBC morphology finding Nom (Bld)
53974-2Erythrocyte morphology LM Nar (Urine sed)
18225-3RBC shape Nom (Bld)
18226-1RBC size Nom (Bld)

A Reference range for your tests can be found in your laboratory report. They are typically found to be right of your results. If you do not have your Lab report, consult your healthcare provider or laboratory that perform test to obtain Reference range. Laboratory test results are not meaningful by themselves. Their meaning comes from comparison to reference ranges. Reference ranges are values expected for a healthy person. They are sometimes called normal values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if any of your test results fall outside the range of expected values. Values that are outside expected ranges can provide clues to help identify possible conditions or diseases. While the accuracy of laboratory testing has significantly evolved over the past few decades, some Lab - to - Lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, chemical reagents, and techniques. This is the reason why so few Reference Ranges are provided on this site. It is important to know that you must use the range supplied by the laboratory that performs your test to evaluate whether your results are within normal limits. For more information, please read the article Reference range and What They Mean. A blood smear is a drop of blood spread thinly onto a glass slide that is then treated with a special stain and blood cells on the slide are examined and evaluate. Traditionally, train laboratorians have examined blood smears manually using microscope. More recently, automated digital systems have become available to help analyze blood smears more efficiently. A Blood smear is a snapshot of cells that are present in blood at the time the sample is obtain. Blood smears allow for evaluation of these cells: White Blood Cells help fight infections or participate in immune responses. Red Blood Cells carry oxygen to tissues. Platelets are small cell fragments that are vital to proper blood clotting. These cell populations are produced and mainly mature in bone marrow and are eventually released into the bloodstream as needed The number and type of each cell present in blood is dynamic but is generally maintained by the body within specific ranges. Drop of Blood on the slide used for Blood smear contains millions of RBCs, thousands of WBCs, and hundreds of thousands of platelets. Blood smear examination: compare WBCs ' size, shape, and general appearance to establish the appearance of normal cells. It also determines five different types of WBCs and their relative percentages. Evaluates size, shape, and color of RBCs estimates the number of platelets present variety of diseases and conditions can affect the number and appearance of blood cells. Examination of blood smear can be used to support findings from other tests and examinations. For example, RBCs that appear smaller and paler than normal may support other results that indicate type of Anemia.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Hemoglobin Studies

Table

DiseaseIronTIBC/TransferrinUIBC% Transferrin SaturationFerritin
Iron DeficiencyLowHighHighLowLow
Hemochromatosis / HemosiderosisHighLowLowHighHigh
Chronic IllnessLowLow/NormalLow/NormalLow/NormalNormal/High
Hemolytic AnemiaHighNormal/LowLow/NormalHighHigh
Sideroblastic AnemiaNormal/HighNormal/LowLow/NormalHighHigh
Iron PoisoningHighNormalLowHighNormal

Iron is an essential nutrient that, among other functions, is needed in small quantities to help form normal red blood cells. It is a critical part of hemoglobin, protein in RBCs that bind oxygen in lungs and releases it as blood circulates to other parts of the body. The body cannot produce iron and must absorb it from foods we eat or from supplements. Iron Tests evaluate the amount of iron in the body by measuring several substances in the blood. These tests are often ordered at the same time and results are interpreted together to help diagnose and / or monitor Iron Deficiency or Iron overload. The Serum Iron testmeasures level of iron in the liquid portion of blood. The Transferrin testdirectly measures the level of transferrin in the blood. Transferrin is a protein that transports iron around the body. Under normal conditions, transferrin is typically one - third saturated with iron. This means that about two - thirds of its capacity is held in reserve. Tibc measures the total amount of iron that can be bind by proteins in the blood. Since transferrin is the primary Iron - Binding protein, TIBC Test is a good indirect measurement of transferrin availability. The UIBC UIBC Test determines the reserve capacity of transferrin, ie, portion of transferrin that has not yet been saturated with Iron. Uibc also reflects transferrin levels. Transferrin saturationa is a calculation that reflects the percentage of transferrin that is saturated with Iron. Serum ferritin reflects the amount of stored iron in the body. Iron is normally absorbed from food in small intestine and transported throughout the body by binding to transferrin, protein produced by the liver. In healthy people, most iron transport is incorporated into the production of red blood cell hemoglobin. The remainder is stored in tissues as ferritin or hemosiderin, with additional small amounts used to produce other proteins such as myoglobin and some enzymes. When the level of iron is insufficient to meet the body's needs, level of iron in blood drops and iron stores are deplete. This may occur because: there is an increased need for Iron, For example during pregnancy or childhood, or due to conditions that cause chronic blood loss, not enough Iron is consumed body is unable to absorb Iron from foods eat. In conditions such as celiac disease, insufficient levels of circulating and store iron may eventually lead to Iron - Deficiency Anemia. In the early stage of Iron Deficiency, no physical effects are usually seen and the amount of iron stored may be significantly depleted before any signs or symptoms of Iron Deficiency develop. If a person is otherwise healthy and anemia develops over a long period of time, symptoms seldom appear before hemoglobin in blood drops below the lower limit of normal. However, as Iron Deficiency progress, symptoms eventually begin to appear. The most common symptoms of Anemia include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headaches and pale skin. Read article on Anemia to learn more.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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