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Animal Research Pros

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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In the late 1940s, polio crippled and killed thousands of people around the world every year. Polio reached its peak in the United States in 1952, with over 21 000 paralytic cases. After the vaccine was developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, polio was brought under control and practically eliminated as a public health problem in industrialized countries. Today, disease has been eliminated from most of the world; only 16 countries worldwide have cases of polio in limited areas. Today, children routinely receive vaccines that provide a lifetime of protection from disease. Children are also immunized against typhus, diphtheria, whooping cough, smallpox, and tetanus. Untold millions of people around the world are healthy adults because of these vaccines, which were made possible through animal research. Diabetes is another example of the importance of biomedical research. In the United States, 7% of the population has Diabetes. Over 1 million new cases of Diabetes are diagnosed each year, and based on death certificate data, Diabetes contributed to nearly 225 000 deaths in 2002 alone. Without insulin treatments to regulate their blood sugar levels, many more diabetics would die. Dogs were crucial to research that identified the cause of diabetes, which led to the development of insulin. Recently, researchers have developed insulin pumps to replace injections, and current transplant research offers hope that Diabetes can be cure. The importance of animal research to those suffering from heart and circulatory diseases cannot be overlook. According to recent estimates, one in four US adults has high blood pressure, which can cause strokes, heart attacks, and heart disease, and nearly one - third of them do know it. Research involving animals has helped identify causes of high blood pressure and develop more effective drugs to control the problem. Other research has resulted in treatments for strokes and heart attacks that save thousands of lives and reduce recovery time. Dogs have been especially important to researchers who are developing open - heart surgery, pacemakers, and heart transplants. These techniques have revolutionized therapy for people who have severe heart disease. In spite of remarkable medical progress during the last century, there is still work to be done. As average life span increases, more people will develop diseases that primarily affect elderlyAlzheimers, Parkinsons, and certain types of cancers. There is still much to be learnt about diseases such as AIDS. And millions of people around the world suffer from other incurable diseases such as cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and genetic birth defects. Researchers are trying to learn causes of and cures for these diseases. Animals benefit from biomedical research as well. Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus infections are major causes of death in cats. In the US, it is estimated that 2 - 3% of all cats are infected with one or both of these diseases. Vaccines are available to prevent these diseases, but much additional work is necessary to explain these diseases and their treatment. Sometimes research can have unexpected benefits.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The ethics of animal experimentation

Many medical research institutions make use of non - human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about human disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and rats share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be tremendously helpful for furthering Medical Science. However, there is ongoing debate about the ethics of animal experimentation. Some people argue that all animal experimentation should end because it is wrong to treat animals merely as tools for furthering knowledge. According to this point of view, animals should have as much right as human beings to live out full life, free of pain and suffering. Others argue that while it is wrong to unnecessarily abuse animals, animal experimentation must continue because of the enormous scientific resources that animal models provide. Proponents of continued animal experimentation often also point out that progress can still be made to improve conditions of laboratory animals and they fully support efforts to improve living conditions in laboratories, to use anesthesia appropriately, and to require trained personnel to handle animals. On closer scrutiny, there exist a wide range of positions in the debate over the Ethics of Animal testing. The two views mentioned above represent two common positions at opposing ends of the spectrum. Others endorse view closer to the middle of the spectrum. Usually, this middle view accepts experimentation on some, but not all, animals and aims to avoid unnecessary use of animals in scientific research by pursuing alternatives to animal testing. The following sections briefly outline a few of arguments for and against animal experimentation. They do not represent every possible argument, or even necessarily best arguments. They also do not necessarily reflect the views of the HOPES team. They are simply our effort to review and raise awareness of underlying issues. Hopes is a team of faculty and undergraduate students at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington disease more readily accessible to the public. Our goal is to survey rapidly growing scientific literature in HD and to present this information in web source. We emphasize that we are neither medical professionals, nor are we affiliated with researchers and laboratories mentioned on our pages. Information we present is intended for educational purposes only and should not be construed as offering diagnoses or recommendations. We operate as a not - for - profit public service organization, and our funding is entirely from private sources.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Pro: Life-Saving Medications and Vaccines

The landscape of modern medicine would unquestionably be vastly different without animal testing in the mix. For example, research on dogs in which animals ' pancreases were removed led to the discovery of insulin in the early 20th century; this has saved and improved the lives of millions of diabetics worldwide. The Polio vaccine - developed for human use only after it was tested on animals - has helped reduce this dreaded disease to near - irrelevance. Advances in breast cancer, brain trauma, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, malaria, multiple sclerosis and tuberculosis are directly attributable to animal experimentation, and without testing on chimpanzees, there would be no hepatitis B vaccine.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Pro: Similarity to Humans

Scientists use animals to learn more about health problems that affect both humans and animals, and to assure the safety of new medical treatments. Some of these problems involve processes that can only be studied in living organism.S Scientists study animals when there is no alternative and it is impractical or unethical to study humans. Animals are good research subjects for a variety of reasons. They are biologically similar to humans and susceptible to many of the same health problems. Also, they have short life - cycles so they can easily studied throughout their whole life - span or across several generations. In addition, scientists can control the environment around animal,ss which would be difficult to do with people. However, most important reason why animals are used is that it would be wrong to deliberately expose human beings to health risks in order to observe the course of disease. Animals are needed in research to develop drugs and medical procedures to treat diseases. Scientists may discover such drugs and procedures using research methods that do not involve animals. If a new therapy seems promising, it is then tested in animals to see whether it seems to be safe and effective. If results of animal studies are favorable, human volunteers are asked to take part in clinical trial. Animal studies are do first to give medical researchers a better idea of what benefits and complications they are likely to see in humans.


Assessing animal research

Despite the lack of systematic evidence for its effectiveness, basic animal research in the United Kingdom receives much more funding than clinical research. 1 4 5 give this, and because the public accepts animal research only on the assumption that it benefits humans, the clinical relevance of animal experiments needs urgent clarification. Several methods are available to evaluate animal research. These include historical analysis, 7 critiques of animal models, 8 investigations into development of treatments, 5 surveys of clinicians ' views, 9 and citation analyses. 10 However, perhaps the best way of producing evidence about the value of animal research is to conduct systematic reviews of animal studies and, where possible, compare results of these with results of corresponding clinical trials. So what do studies that have do this show?

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cons to Animal Testing

Protocols that are used in animal experiments are usually painful for test subject. These animals are restrained physically for extended periods, forced to feed, deprived of water and food, inflict painful wounds and burns to certain healing process, and even kill through neck - breaking. All these acts have been state by Humane Society International. For instance, when testing so as to find out irritation that is caused by cosmetics, rabbit eyes are kept open using clips to prevent them from blinking away cosmetic being evaluate. These clips usually stay on for days so that the rabbit stays in place, clips are incapacitate. Moreover, there are tests that involve injecting lethal doses of particular chemicals so as to ascertain dosage that can kill animals. Despite what propounders insist, cell structures in vitro testing is not insufficient or rather useless. They can give results that are more accurate and relevant than animal tests. This is also the case when using artificial animal skin instead of animal skin as test subject. Virtual reconstructions of human cells via computer models are capable of predicting toxicity levels of chemicals, thus it is not necessary to inject animals with poisons so as to draw conclusions or fetch data. Small doses can also be administered to humans when testing for adverse reactions, which is also know as micro - dosing. The highlight is that these alternative tests are less expensive compared to animal experiments. For instance, in glass testing, it will only cost an average of $11 000 compared to unscheduled DNA testing which averages $21 000. To elaborate further, phototoxicity tests that do not only include rats, cost around $1 300 compared to the $10 000 animal - base equivalent. Comparing these figures, tests done on animals are consuming plenty of government money that has been set aside for research for same results that are cheaper when other means are apply. 3. Success in animal testing is not proportional to human safety. When thalidomide, sleeping pill, was tested on pregnant cats, guinea pigs, and mice, there were no cases of birth defects report, except when extremely high doses were administer. But, that was not the case when administered to pregnant women. The results were severe deformities that affected about 10 000 babies. - Arthritis Vioxx turns out to be great on animals but, on the other hand, it causes sudden cardiac deaths and heart attacks that exceed 20 000. - More than 85 vaccines for HIV perfectly work in primates but do not do so in humans. - Most drugs that do well in animal experiments fail in human clinical trials. - About 100 drugs that were designed to cure strokes perfectly work on animals but fail miserably in humans. 4. The majority of animals used in research are not protected by the Welfare Act for Animals. As of 2010, more than 1 million animals were protected by the Animal Welfare Act, leaving about 25 million uncovered from abuse and treatment. These include mice, birds, rats, and mice.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Animal Research Saves Animals, Too

This past October, Foundation for Biomedical Research launched its Love Animals? Support Animal Research campaign to educate the public about how animal research has improved the health and welfare of companion animals. The Campaign debuts Oct. 16 at the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science National meeting and is co - sponsored by AALAS, AALAS Foundation, and AVMA. Similar public outreach efforts have focused on benefits to human health derived from animal research, such as development of vaccines for polio and hepatitis and B. Love Animals? Support Animal Research takes a new approach by highlighting lesser - known issue: how Animal Research has led to innovations in veterinary medicine that help sick and injured cats and dogs. Animal Research has improved and saved the lives of countless companion animals, according to the promotional brochure, which cites the following examples: Vaccines to prevent distemper, rabies, infectious hepatitis, tetanus, parvovirus, and feline leukemia; technologies such as CT, MRI, and ultrasonography to help diagnose potentially deadly diseases; lifesaving emergency care for dogs and cats injure by cars; advanced surgical procedures to treat joint and ligament problems in dogs and cats, to transplant organs, and to implant pacemakers; and nutritional products to help puppies and kittens grow into healthy adult Animals. In Dec. 2 editorial on foxnews. Com title Animal lovers should support Animal Research, not condemn it. Here's why, FBR President Matthew R. Bailey calls out contradiction inherent in lobbying to restrict or end medical research involving animals. That's counterproductive, because animals are among the primary beneficiaries of such research. Consequently, animal lovers should be among the biggest supporters of animal medical research, Bailey write. He noted research at the University of Minnesota to develop new treatment for hemangiosarcoma. With current treatments, fewer than half of dogs that develop hemangiosarcoma live more than six months, but clinical trials of new treatment have seen six - month survival rates of 70 percent. Bailey also highlighted Colorado State University's Flint Animal Cancer Center, where veterinarians are conducting long - term outpatient studies for a variety of new treatments. In 2016, Food and Drug Administration approved drug test at the Center that helped 80 percent of dogs with lymphoma. In addition, researchers at University of Wisconsin - Madison have identified protein, present at high levels in cells from dogs with osteosarcoma, that forms tumors when injected into mice. Osteosarcoma affects more than 10 000 dogs a year, according to Bailey, with eight in 10 dogs surviving less than a year after diagnosis. Although what role, if any, this protein plays in tumor development is not yet know, future research could determine whether protein is a marker of more aggressive disease or whether targeting protein would improve outcome for dogs with osteosarcoma. Despite all this scientific progress - and many animals that have benefited from it - nearly half of all Americans oppose research in animals, according to a recent Gallup survey, Bailey write. Almost six in 10 voters want to cut Federal funding for testing on dogs and cats.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Disadvantages of Animal Experimentation

Nonhuman animal experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. Resulting evidence suggests that collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human - base testing methods.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Polio

A hundred years ago, good health was much rarer than it is today. In 1870, leading cause of death in the United States was tuberculosis. 12 Of all people born in developed countries like the United States, quarter died by the age of 25, and about half had died by the age of 50. Those fortunate enough to have survived to old age have probably experienced several bouts with diseases like typhoid fever, dysentery, or scarlet fever. 13 today, leading causes of death in the United States are heart disease and cancerdiseases of old age rather than infancy and childhood. Fully 97 percent of Americans live past their 25 birthday, and over 90 percent live to be more than 50. Better nutrition and sanitation do much to reduce the toll from infectious diseases. But these diseases could not have been eliminated as significant causes of death and illness without animal research. Animal research has also made people healthier, since it has contributed to virtually eliminating many infectious diseases like Polio or rheumatic fever that can be debilitating without causing death. Animal research has even contributed to better nutrition and sanitation, since it has helped to identify agents that contribute to good or bad health. Methods to combat infectious diseases have not been only dividends of animal research. Surgical procedures, pain relievers, psychoactive drugs, medications for blood pressure, insulin, pacemakers, nutrition supplements, organ transplants, treatments for shock trauma and blood diseasesall been developed and tested in animals before being used in humans. 14 In fact, according to the American Medical Association, virtually every advance in medical science in the 20th century, from antibiotics and vaccines to antidepressant drugs and organ transplants, has been achieved either directly or indirectly through use of animals in laboratory experiments. 15 animals will continue to be essential in combatting human illnesses Though human health has improved greatly over the last 100 years, much remains to be done. Many of today's leading killers, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and AIDS, remain inadequately understood. Furthermore, debilitating conditions such as traumatic injury, strokes, arthritis, and a variety of mental disorders continue to exact a severe toll on human well - being. Animal research will be no less important in the future than it has been in the past. Indeed, it may be even more important, because questions remaining to be answered generally involve complex diseases and injuries that require whole organisms to be study. The necessity of animal use in biomedical research is a hotly debated topic in classrooms throughout the country. Frequently, teachers and students do not have access to balanced, factual material to foster informed discussion on topic. This colorful, 50 - page booklet is designed to educate teenagers about the role of animal research in combating disease, past and present; perspective of animal use within the whole spectrum of biomedical research; regulations and oversight that govern animal research; and continuing efforts to use animals more efficiently and humanely.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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