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Articles About Mental Health

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Mental health can affect daily living, relationships, and physical health. However, this link also works in other direction.Sss Factors in peoples lives, interpersonal connections, and physical factors can all contribute to mental health disruptions. Looking after mental health can preserve person's ability to enjoy life. Doing this involves reaching a balance between life activities, responsibilities, and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Conditions such as stress, depression, and anxiety can all affect mental health and disrupt persons routine. Although the term Mental Health is commonly used, many conditions that doctors recognize as psychological disorders have physical roots. In this article, we explain what people mean by Mental Health and Mental illness. We also describe the most common types of mental disorders, including their early signs and how to treat them.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Navigating the Education System

Children with mental health, emotional, or behavioral disorders are just like all children in their need to be understood and appreciated for their strengths and talents. They are also just like other children in their need to belong to their families, school staff, friends, and their communities. Special services and support may be needed in order for children with mental health, emotional or behavioral disorders to succeed in school environments, including general Education classroom. They may need help of guidance counselor, teacher, special Education teacher, or psychologist to help them adapt to school expectations. They may need changes in school curriculum so that they can experience success with school work. They may need employment training to prepare them for the world of work. They may need friendship or social skills group to help them find friend. These kinds of services may be provided for any child experiencing problem.Ssss

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Key Findings

Oneil and F. N. Jacka conceptualized article. Oneil and S. Housden developed a search strategy and conducted a review. S. E. Quirk and S. Housden performed quality assessment and assist. Oneil in development of 1 draft of the article and subsequent revisions. S. L. Brennan oversees methodology. F. N. Jacka overseen writing of the article. L. J. Williams, J. Pasco, and M. Berk contributed to drafts of article. The role of habitual diet in development of depressive disorders and symptoms has become recent research focus over the past decade. Data from adult populations have indicated that a better - quality diet is associated with better mental health outcomes. 15 in fact, new meta - analyses have confirmed an inverse association between healthy diets and Depression. 4 5 habitually poor diet is also independently associated with greater likelihood of or risk of Depression 1 67 and anxiety. 1 Although stress and depression can promote unhealthy eating, recent longitudinal studies have suggested that reverse causality is a less likely explanation for long - term associations. 8 However, our understanding of these associations earlier in life span remains unclear. To date, much of research around this relationship has focused on dietary intake and externalizing behaviors. For example, poor nutritional quality is independently associated with symptoms of attention - deficit hyperactivity disorder. 9 However, relationship between dietary intake in childhood and adolescence and internalizing behaviors, which represent depressive symptoms, low mood, or anxiety, has received comparably less attention. Give that previous literature in adults regarding diet and Mental Health has focused on common Mental Disorders, Depression and anxiety, examination of these same Mental Health parameters in children and adolescents is needed in terms of what evidence is available to date, findings remain inconsistent. For example, although some studies have observed doseresponse relationship between diet quality and mental health in young adolescents, 10 others have shown no significant association. 11 evidence is even less comprehensive For relationship between dietary intake and anxiety symptoms. 12 to our knowledge, no systematic reviews to date have specifically investigated an association between diet, measure using diet quality scores, dietary pattern analysis, or both and internalizing behaviors that characterize low or depressive mood and anxiety symptoms in child and adolescent populations.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Recent Scientific Articles

Existing models of care and available treatment approaches fail to adequately address the global crisis of mental health care. Mental illness accounts for about one - third of world disability caused by all adult health problems, resulting in enormous personal suffering and socioeconomic costs. 1 Severe Mental Health problems including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders affect all age groups and occur in all countries, including the US, Canada, European Union countries, and other developed and developing countries. Mental illness is closely associated with poverty, wars, and other humanitarian disasters, and in some cases, leads to suicide, one of the most common causes of preventable death among adolescents and young adults. Mental illness is a pandemic of the 21st century and will be the next major global health challenge. Despite the increased availability of antidepressants during the past few decades, limited efficacy, safety issues, and high treatment costs have resulted in an enormous unmet need for treatment of depressed mood. It is estimated that 350 million individuals experience depression annually. 2 on average, it takes almost 10 years to obtain treatment after symptoms of depressed mood begin, and more than two - thirds of depressed individuals never receive adequate care. 3 Enormous psychological, social, and occupational costs are associated with depressed mood, which is the leading cause of disability in the US for individuals aged 15 to 44 years with annual losses in productivity in excess of 31 billion. 4 suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in 15 to 29 year olds, resulting in enormous social disruption and losses in productivity. Between 10 and 20 million depressed individuals attempt suicide every year and approximately 1 million complete suicide. In response to these alarming circumstances, in 2016 the World Health Organization declared depression to be the leading cause of disability worldwide. 5 more than 85% of the world population lives in 153 low - and middle - income countries. 2 Poverty is linked to higher burden of mental illness, with variables such as education, food insecurity, housing, social class, socioeconomic status, and financial stress exhibiting strong association. 6 Most of these countries allocate scarce financial resources to mental health care needs and have grossly inadequate professional Mental Health services. A recent comprehensive survey of European Union member countries found that 38. 2% meet criteria for psychiatric disorder, with fewer than one - third receiving any treatment at all. 7 Disorders of the brain, including psychiatric disorders, were found to be the largest contributor to all - cause morbidity burden as measured by disability - adjusted life years. In response to shared global concerns over the crisis in Mental Health care, in 2012 the World Health Organization published the Mental Health Action Plan 20132020 8 and set forth 4 major objectives: more effective leadership and governance for Mental Health provision of comprehensive, integrated Mental Health and social care services in community - base settings implementation of strategies for promotion and Prevention strengthen information systems, evidence, and Research.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Building Better Mental Health

Emotional health is an important part of overall health. People who are emotionally healthy are in control of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Theyre able to cope with life challenges. They can keep problems in perspective and bounce back from setbacks. They feel good about themselves and have good relationships. Being emotionally healthy doesnt mean youre happy all the time. It means you are aware of your emotions. You can deal with them, whether theyre positive or negative. Emotionally healthy people still feel stress, anger, and sadness. But they know how to manage their negative feelings. They can tell when a problem is more than they can handle on their own. They also know when to seek help from their doctor. Research shows that emotional health is a skill. There are steps you can take to improve your emotional health and be happier.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

A smorgasbord of disorders

According to the World Health Organization's definition, mental health is a state of well - being in which an individual can realize his or her own abilities, interact positively with others, cope with stressors of life and study, work productively and fruitfully, and contribute to his or her family and community. In short, WHO affirms that there is No Health without Mental Health. However, because of familial predisposition, stressful life, substance use and other reasons, Mental Health Disorders are increasing worldwide. Mental Health Disorders have been a significant public health problem in low or middle income countries, including Ethiopia. This being the case, these disorders have received disproportionate attention because of the high burden of communicable diseases and malnutrition. Besides the burden they impose on the health system, Mental Health Disorders contribute to lost worker productivity, poor functioning, personal stigma and familial and social stress. Although there are proven strategies that help reduce morbidity and disability associated with Mental Health Disorders, those WHO receive appropriate treatment remain low in many LMICs where treatment options and access to treatment are suboptimal. The main reason for this is the limited number of mental healthcare professionals and limited access to modern medicines for such diseases. Report show that many countries in Africa and South - East Asia have fewer psychiatrists and psychiatry nurses. Although there are numerous Mental Health Disorders requiring attention, WHO's Mental Health Gap Action Program in 2008 identified eight major problems that contribute to 75% of the global burden of Mental Disorders that LMICs should prioritize. Mental Health Disorders listed above have been common and are major conditions which substantially undermine children's learning skills and adults ' abilities to function within family and society. For several years, Mental Health champions have been advocating that countries increase their Mental Health workforce. Similarly, WHO's call for scale - up of Mental Health work force in mhGAP report. Unfortunately, progress in producing a health workforce for care of mental illnesses and integration of mental health care in existing health facilities has been slow. Still, it is not very late for healthcare planners to improve human resources required to meet the mental healthcare needs of their populations. Lmics may need to device strategy that can heighten the efficiency of the existing workforce like task - sharing, which is found to be effective in other healthcare services. In the last two decades, Ethiopia has made several efforts to increase mental health professionals and to integrate Mental Health services into primary healthcare. Accordingly, five year Mental Health strategy, first of its kind, was developed and implement. Yet, despite those efforts, both primary healthcare professionals WHO are capable of providing basic Mental Health care services and high level Mental Health professionals are very few and unevenly distribute. Modern medicines being used in the developed world in treating such conditions are either totally unavailable or inconsistently available. Because of this, leave alone wider Mental Health Disorders, WHO prioritize Mental Health problems remain unaddressed.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Controversial clusters

Just 40 years ago, many physicians doubted the existence of significant depressive disorders in children, primarily because they believe that children lack the mature psychologic and cognitive structure necessary to experience these problems. However, growing body of evidence has confirmed that children and adolescents not only experience the whole spectrum of Mood Disorders but also suffer from significant morbidity and mortality associated with them. Suicide has become a growing public health concern as successive generations have shown parallel increases in suicide and DEPRESSION in pediatric age group. 1 2 Childhood DEPRESSION, like DEPRESSION of adults, can encompass spectrum of symptoms ranging from normal responses of sadness and disappointment in stressful life events to severe impairment caused by Clinical DEPRESSION that may or may not include evidence of MANIA.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Multiple dimensions

Researchers have developed large number of mental well - being variables. This rich diversity of mental well - being variables is regarded as necessary and useful, reflecting the complex nature of mental well - being itself. However, psychological concepts tend to cluster together under broader or higher - order constructs that should also be investigated for complete understanding of these variables. In other words, observing relationships between these variables, and underlying patterns of relationships, will enable researchers to better understand the nature of mental well - being. Hence, another important step in analyzing the concept of well - being is to examine the underlying structure of mental well - being variables. To understand the underlying structure of mental well - being variables, one strategy could be to inspect their correlation matrixes. However, relatively large number of variables seldom produce patterns of correlations that are clear and easy to discern from correlation matrices. As Fabrigar and Wegener point out, this makes it difficult to gauge whether the observed pattern of correlations is sufficiently close to the hypothesized pattern to support the appropriateness of particular structural representation of data. Consequently, researchers have turned to Factor Analysis to identify unobservable concepts that can account for pattern of correlations among mental well - being variables. Factor Analysis is a powerful data reduction tool that provides useful information about the nature of factors, magnitude and direction of relationships between factors, and magnitude and direction of factors influences on observed variables. Such information offers important contributions to our understanding of the nature of mental well - being. Yet, Factor Analysis suffers from some inherent limitations. For example, in simple - structure Confirmatory Factor Analysis, each mental well - being variable is allowed to load on only a single latent factor, while its loadings on other latent variables are constrain to zero. It is increasingly recognized that with real data, cross - loadings are far from rare. Previous research shows that, particularly in measurement model of mental well - being, zero secondary loadings are rare. Hence, constraining secondary loadings to zero may be unrealistic in many circumstances, resulting in bias estimates. Moreover, in CFA, relationships between indicator and non - target factors, and relationships between all indicators, are usually fixed at zero, which means these relationships may go unnoticed. Many Structural Equation Modelling computer tools output predict correlations between all variables of the model. Yet, with a relatively large number of variables, resulting matrices are not much more useful than bivariate correlation matrices in discerning underlying dimensions. Moreover, in practice, model - imply correlation matrices are rarely independently explored in order to uncover underlying structures in CFA studies. Classic Exploratory Factor Analysis and more recent and powerful related technique called Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling provide additional information on the relationship between indicators and non - target factors by freely estimating all non - target factor loadings. This allows for relationship between each variable and all of factors to be determine, which is a clear advantage over CFA for these exploratory techniques.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

In the genes

One pillar of this future approach is better understanding of genetics of mental illness. In the past decade, studies of psychopathological genetics have become large enough to draw robust conclusions. Studies reveal that no individual gene contributes much to the risk of psychopathology; instead, hundreds of genes each have small effect. 2009 study 7 found that thousands of gene variants were risk factors for schizophrenia. Many were also associated with bipolar disorder, suggesting that some genes contribute to both disorders. This is not to say that the same genes are involved in all brain disorders: far from it. A team lead by geneticist Benjamin Neale at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and psychiatrist Aiden Corvin at Trinity College Dublin found in 2018 that neurological disorders such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis are genetically distinct from psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression 8. These studies all look at common variants, which are easiest to detect. Some recent studies focus instead on extremely rare variants, which do suggest genetic differences between disorders. A study of more than 12 000 people 9 found that individuals with schizophrenia had an unusually high rate of ultra - rare mutations and that these were often unique to one individual. The result is a mess. It is difficult to predict which risk factors cut across conditions. Some of them are quite broadly shared across psychopathology, says Neale, whereas some are bit more specific to one or a handful of forms of psychopathology.


Diagnosing Mental Disorders

Genetic factors contributing to the development of mental disorders include: epigenetic regulation: Epigenetics affects how a person reacts to environmental factors and may affect whether that person develops a mental disorder as a result. Epigenetics is not constant over time. This means the genes are not always on or off. There must be the right combination of environmental factors and epigenetic regulation for mental disorder to develop. Genetic polymorphisms: these changes in our DNA make us unique as individuals. Polymorphism alone will not lead to development of mental disorder. However, combination of one or more specific polymorphisms and certain environmental factors may lead to development of mental disorder. Single gene changes: Rare.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The p factor

Some psychiatrists have put forward radical hypothesis that they hope will allow them to make sense of chaos. If disorders share symptoms, or co - occur, and if many genes are implicated in multiple disorders, then maybe there is a single factor that predisposes people to Psychopathology. The idea was first proposed in 2012 by public - health specialist Benjamin Lahey at the University of Chicago in Illinois 10. Lahey and his colleagues studied symptoms of 11 disorders. They use statistics to examine whether a pattern could best be explained by three distinct dimensions, or by those three together with a general predisposition. Model work better if general factors were include. The following year, hypothesis received more support and catchy name from husband - and - wife psychologists Avshalom Caspi and Terrie Moffitt at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. They used data from a long - term study of 1 037 people and found that most of the variation in symptoms could be explained by single factor 11. Caspi and Moffitt call this p factor. Since 2013, multiple studies have replicated their core finding. Caspi and Moffitt were clear that p factor could not explain everything, and make no guesses about its underlying biology, speculating only that set of genes might mediate it. Others have proposed that p factor is general predisposition to Psychopathology, but that other factors, stressful experiences, or other gene alterations nudge person towards different symptoms 12. But if it is real, it has startling implication: there could be a single therapeutic target for Psychiatric Disorders. There are already hints that generalized treatments could work just as well as target therapies. 2017 Study 13 randomly assigned people with anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or obsessivecompulsive disorder, to receive either therapy for their specific disorder or a generalized approach. Both therapies work equally well. Finding a physiological basis for p factor would be the first step towards therapies based on it, but only in the past few years have researchers found hints of it in genetic and neuroanatomical data. One Study 14 of genetics of Psychopathology in the UK population, for instance, identified a genetic p factor set of genes in which there were variations that contribute to risk of Psychopathology. Meanwhile, other groups have searched for neuroanatomical changes that occur in multiple psychopathologies. The results are intriguing, but contradictory. One Study 15 of six psychopathologies found that brain grey matter shrank in three regions involved in processing emotions: dorsal anterior cingulate, right insula and left insula. But subsequent studies by Adrienne Romer, clinical psychologist now at Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts, identify totally different trio of regions with roles that include managing basic bodily functions and movement 16 pons, cerebellum and part of the cortex. One key to making sense of this might be to focus on brain executive function: ability to regulate behaviour by planning, paying attention and resisting temptation, which relies on many brain regions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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