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Last Updated: 01 May 2022
atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism. "atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism.", by Turner KC, Frost L, Linsenbardt D, McIlroy JR, Müller RA. F1: Functional connectivity MRI effects. Functional connectivity clusters for caudate seed volumes (p < .05, corr.), overlaid onto standard MRI renderings [108] and arranged by known anatomical networks with caudate participation. Associative circuit (A). In...

Autism, also recognized as autism spectrum disorder, is a broad series of conditions that impact communication and actions, usually appearing by age 2. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that autism impacts 1 in 54 children. People with autism might have problem with communication and social interaction; limited rate of interests and repeated actions; and inability to function effectively in school, work, and other areas of life. Although researchers are still trying to comprehend why some people develop autism and others do not, risk variables might include: A brother or sister with autism; Older parents; Certain genetic problems, such as Down, delicate X, and Rett disorders; Very low birth weight. Researchers have found rare gene changes, or mutations, along with small common genetic variations in people with autism, implying a hereditary part. Extensive behavior therapy for kids or preschool children with ASD can boost their cognitive and language skills, research shows. There are medications that aid some people with ASD function better. Melatonin may help with rest problems in people with ASD. Special diet regimens may aid some people with ASD however their nutritional health requires to be very carefully monitored prior to and while on the diet. It's specifically essential to consult your child's health care provider if you're believing about giving a child a nutritional supplement or attempting another corresponding health and wellness method. People with ASD require to be kept track of when they get on a special diet regimen so they prevent any harmful side effects. Autism is one of a group of related developing problems often called the autism spectrum that affect people differently and to differing degrees. There is a saying which goes, if you have met one autistic individual after that you have met one autistic person. Similarly, the course to an autism diagnosis is various for almost everyone. Someone might have one series in their genome that is strongly connected to autism, or a combination of weakly connected hereditary changes, or a combination of genes and environment. Research on autism is a crucial instance of science where those with a condition are valued factors to experimental design and interpretation. Social and Behavioral Research Branch.

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autism prevalence studies

(Table source)
LotterEpidemiology of Autistic Conditions in Young Children1966EnglandCounty of Middlesex8 to 101964survey (mail); health recordsKanner78000350.450.32 - 0.622.68459autistic conditionshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00584048IQ Score <70 (%); CI
TreffertEpidemiology of infantile Autism1970USAWisconsin2 to 121962-1967health recordsKanner899750690.0770.06 - 0.103.1classic infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5436867CI
BraskA Prevalence investigation of Childhood Psychoses1972DenmarkÅarhus County2 to 141962health records; service provider recordsclinical interpretation46500200.430.28 - 0.661.7autistic syndromeCI
Wing, et al.The prevalence of early childhood autism: comparison of administrative and epidemiological studies1976EnglandCamberwall5 to 141974registry; survey (unspecified)clinical interpretation25000124.480.27 - 0.84early childhood autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/935299/CI
Wing, et al.Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification1979EnglandCamberwell0 to 141970registry; service provider recordsKanner; clinical interpretation35000170.490.30 - 0.787059autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/155684IQ Score <70 (%); CI
Hoshino, et al.The epidemiological study of autism in Fukushima-ken1982JapanFukushima-ken0 to 171977-1979survey (mail)Kanner6098483200.5250.47 - 0.599.9early infantile autism, autistic mental retardationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7129258prevalence estimate; CI
Bohman, et al.Childhood psychosis in a northern Swedish county: Some preliminary findings from an epidemiological survey1983SwedenVästerbotten County0 to 201979survey (mail)Rutter; clinical interpretation69000390.560.41 - 0.771.6early infantile autismCI
McCarthy, et al.Prevalence of childhood autism in Ireland.1984IrelandEast8 to 101979survey (mail)Kanner65000280.430.30 - 0.621.354childhood autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6610668CI
GillbergInfantile autism and other child psychoses in a Swedish urban region1984SwedenGothenburg4 to 181980survey (unspecified)clinical interpretation128584260.20.16 - 0.323.377infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6607262CI; IQ Score <70 (%)
Steinhausen, et al.A community survey of infantile autism1986GermanyWest Berlin0 to 141978-1982health recordsRutter279616520.190.14 - 0.242.344infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3486202CI
Steffenberg, et al.Autism and autism-like conditions in Swedish rural and urban areas: a population study1986SwedenGothenburg; Bohuslän0 to 101984health records; registryDSM-III78413350.660.32 - 0.622.988infantile autism, autistic-like conditionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3779317IQ Score <70 (%); CI; percent co-occurring conditions
Matsuishi, et al.High prevalence of infantile autism in Kurume City, Japan1987JapanKurume4 to 121983health records; education recordsDSM-III32834511.551.18 - 2.044.7infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3498744CI
Burd, et al.A Prevalence Study of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in North Dakota1987USANorth Dakota2 to 181985health records; education recordsDSM-III180986590.330.25 - 0.422.7infantile autism, childhood onset PDD, atypial PDD, all PDDhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3499432CI
Bryson, et al.First report of a Canadian epidemiological study of autistic syndromes1988CanadaNova Scotia6 to 141985survey (unspecified)clinical interpretation; autism test (ABC); other (new diagnostic criteria, Denckla 1986); other (psychometric data/Rutter)20800211.010.66 - 1.542.57619autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3265136CI; IQ Score <70 (%); percent non-verbal; White:Black prevalence ratio
Tanoue, et al.Epidemiology of infantile autism in southern Ibaraki, japan: differences in prevalence in birth cohorts1988JapanSouthern Ibaraki71977-1985health records; service provider records; education recordsDSM-III953941321.381.17 - 1.644.1infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3410807CI
Ciadella, et al.An epidemiological study of infantile autism in a French department (Rhône): A research note1989FranceRhône3 to 91986survey (unspecified)other (study specific operational criteria for survey completed by service providers)135180610.450.35 - 0.582.6simple autism, autism with major neurological abnormalitieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2784446CI
Sugiyama, et al.The prevalence of autism in Nagoya, Japan: A total population study1989JapanNagoya1.5 to 5 .51979-1984health recordsDSM-III12263161.30.80 - 2.1238autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2708306CI
Ritvo, et al.The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: prevalence1989USAUtah8 to 121984-1988survey (mail); health records; education records; service provider records; other (media campaign)DSM-III184822660.3570.28 - 0.453.766autism syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2783539IQ Score <70 (%); percent co-occurring conditions; prevalence estimate; CI
Gillberg, et al.Is autism more common now than ten years ago?1991SwedenGöteborg; Bohuslän4 to 131988registry; health recordsDSM-III-R78106740.950.75 - 1.202.882autistic disorder, autistic-like conditionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1828000CI; IQ Score <70 (%); percent co-occuring conditions
Wignyosumarto, et al.Epidemiological and clinical study of autistic children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia1992IndonesiaYogyakart4 to 71991other (reserchers conducted initial screening using Bryson Screening Test)autism test (CARS); clinical interpretation512061.20.54 - 2.55250autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1495268% non-verbal
Fombonne, et al.Prevalence of infantile autism in four French regions1992FranceAquitaine; Ile-de-France; Lorraine; Picardie9 to 131985other (government administrative data)other (French Classification of Infantile autism)2748161540.490.36 - 0.612.187infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1411750IQ Score <70 (%); percent co-occurring conditions (fragile X only)
Honda, et al.Cumulative incidence and prevalence of childhood autism in children in Japan1996JapanYokohama51994health recordsICD-10; clinical interpretation8537182.111.33 - 3.332.650childhood autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8871801IQ Score <70 (%)
Fombonne, et al.Autism and associated medical disorders in a French epidemiological survey1997FranceHaute-Garonne; Isère; Saône-et-Loire6 to 161992-1993service provider recordsICD-103253471740.540.46 - 0.611.888infantile autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9394941IQ Score <70 (%)
Arvidsson, et al.Autism in 3-6 year-old children in a suburb of Goteborg, Sweden1997SwedenMölnlycke3 to 61994health recordsICD-10; autism test (ADI-R); clinician interpretation194194.62.44 - 8.793.578childhood autism, early infantile autism, autism-like conditionshttps://jourls.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1362361397012004IQ Score <70 (%); percent co-occuring conditions
Webb, et al.The changing prevalence of autistic disorder in a Welsh health district1997WalesSouth Glamorgan3 to 151992health records; education records; survey (mail)DSM-III-R73300530.720.54 - 0.956.6autistic disorderhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9112962none
Sponheim, et al.Autism and related disorders: Epidemiological findings in a Norwegian study using ICD-10 diagnostic criteria1998NorwayAkershus County3 to 141992health recordsICD-1065688340.520.32 - 0.64264childhood autism, atypical autism, disintegrative disorder, Asperger syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9656133percent co-occurring conditions
Kadesjö, et al.Brief report: autism and asperger syndrome in seven-year-old children: a total population study1999SwedenKarlstad6.7 to 7.71992survey (mail)DSM-III-R; ICD-10; autism test (ADI-R)8261012.15.8 - 22.5930autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, other autistic-like conditionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10478732IQ Score <70 (%); percent co-occuring conditions
Taylor, et al.Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: No epidemiological evidence for a causal association1999EnglandNorth Thames0 to 151998special needs registry; education recordsICD-10; clinical interpretation4924534981.010.93 - 1.10core autism, atypical autism, Asperger syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10376617sample size; prevalence estimate; CI
Halfon, et al.Prevalence and impact of parent-reported disabling mental health conditions among U.S. children1999USANationwide0 to 171992-1994survey (in-person)parental report; ICD-999513460.38infantile autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10230193/CI
Baird, et al.A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow-up study2000EnglandSouth East Thames1.5 to 81998survey (mail); health records; education recordsICD-1016235945.794.73 - 7.087.540childhood autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD (including atypical autism)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10846303number of cases; prevalence estimate; CI; IQ Score <70 (%)
Hillman, et al.Prevalence of autism in Missouri: changing trends and the effect of a comprehensive state autism project2000USAMissouri0 to 151995registryDSM (not specified)0.143.2autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10832323/none
Powell, et al.Changes in the incidence if childhood autism and other autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children from two areas of the west midlands, UK2000EnglandWest Midlands1 to 41995health recordsDSM-III-R; DSM-IV; ICD-10; autism test (ADI)29200592.021.53 - 2.606autistic disorder, PDD, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism, OMRS, Rett syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11034456none
Kielinen, et al.Autism in Northern Finland2000FinlandNorth (Oulu and Lapland)5 to 181996-1997health recordsDSM-IV; ICD-101527321871.391.2 - 1.5750autism, autistic-like conditionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11095038none
Magnússon, et al.Prevalence of autism in Iceland2001IcelandNationwide5 to 141997service provider recordsICD-9; ICD-10; autism test (ADI-R, CARS)43153571.320.98 - 1.664.28439infantile autism, childhood autism, atypical autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11450814none
Fombonne, et al.Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in the British Nationwide survey of Child mental health2001United KingdomEngland; Wales; Scotland5 to 151999registryDSM-IV; ICD-10; clinical interpretation12529272.611.62 - 3.604.844PDD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11437021percent co-occurring conditions (fragile X only)
Chakrabarti, et al.Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Preschool Children2001EnglandStaffordshire2.5 to 6.51998health records; education recordsautism test (ADI-R); clinical interpretation; DSM-IV15500976.265.08 - 7.632630PDD (AD, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, PDD-NOS, childhood disintegrative disorder)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11427137percent co-occuring conditions
Bertrand, et al.Prevalence of Autism in a United States Population: The Brick Township, New Jersey, Investigation2001USABrick Township, NJ3 to 101998health records; education records; other (parent referral)DSM-IV8996606.75.1 - 8.72.749AD, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694696none
Croen, et al.The changing prevalence of autism in California2002USACalifornia0 to 121987-1999registryDSM-III-R; DSM-IV459033350381.11.07 - 1.134.525full syndrome autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12108622IQ Score <70 (%)
Scott, et al.Brief report: prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in children aged 5-11 years in Cambridgeshire, UK.2002EnglandCambridgeshire5 to 111999education records; health records; service provider recordsDSM-IV; ICD-10342621965.74.96 - 6.584autism spectrum conditionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12212915none
Yeargin-Allsopp, et al.Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area2003USAAtlanta, GA3 to 101996education records; health records; service provider recordsDSM-IV2894569873.43.2 - 3.6468autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12503976none
Gurney, et al.Analysis of prevalence trends of autism spectrum disorder in Minnesota2003USAMinnesota6 to 171981-2002education recordsDMS-IV; clinical interpretation6.6autism, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorderhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12860781none
Lingam, et al.Prevalence of autism and parentally reported triggers in a north east London population2003EnglandNorth East London5 to 142000registry; health records; education recordsICD-101862065673.052.80 - 3.314.8ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12876158prevalence estimate; CI
Webb, et al.Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder in children attending mainstream schools in a Welsh education authority2003WalesCardiff7 to 111998health records; survey (in-person)clinical interpretation; ICD-1011692172.020high functioning autism, asperger syndrome, PDD-NOShttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12785438/none
Geier, et al.A comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and mercury doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the population prevalence of autism2004USANationwideother (government administrative data)other (definition used by U.S. department of education)3891494108132.782.72 - 2.83autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14976450/CI
Iscasiano, et al.Childhood autism spectrum disorder in the Barwon region: A community based study2004AustraliaBarwon2 to 172002health records; education recordsDSM-IV; clinical interpretation451531773.923.38 - 4.548.3477ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15569287CI; diagnosis age range (years to months)
Tebruegge, et al.Does routine health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? - An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.2004EnglandKent8 to 92000education records; health recordsICD-102536218.285.42 - 12.636PDD (childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome, and autistic spectrum disorder)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC375534/pdf/1471-2431-4-4.pdfdiagnosis age range, mean age, median age (years to months)
Lauritsen, et al.The incidence of pervasive developmental disorders: a Danish population-based study2004DenmarkNationwide0 to 92001registryICD-1068239720613.022.89 - 3.15childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOShttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15697060prevalence estimate; CI
Chakrabarti, et al.Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Preschool Children: Confirmation of High Prevalence2005EnglandStafford; Cannock4 to 62002health recordsDSM-IV10903645.874.52 - 7.496.130PDD (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15930062none
Honda, et al.Cumulative incidence of childhood autism: a total population study of better acuracy and precision2005JapanYokohama51994-1997health recordsICD-108250344.122.95 - 5.75childhood autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15686284CI
Newschaffer, et al.National autism prevalence trends from United States special education data2005USANationwide62000other (government administrative data)special education classification2.41autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15741352/none
Jané, et al.Parents and teachers reports of DSM-IV psychopathological symptoms in preschool children: differences between urban-rural Spanish areas2005SpainCatalonia3 to 6survey (in-person)DSM-IV11041917.211.04 - 26.72autistic disorder; Asperger syndromehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16520884/prevalence estimate; CI
Zhang, et al.Autism and mental retardation of young children in Chi2005ChinaTianjin2 to 6health recordsautism test (CARS); DSM-IV; clinical interpretation734581.10.34 - 2.54750autistic disorderhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16370317IQ Score <70 (%)
Fombonne, et al.Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and links with immunizations2006CanadaMontreal; Quebec5 to 211987-1998education recordsDSM-IV277491806.495.58 - 7.504.8PDD (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16818529none
Blanchard, et al.Emotional, developmental, and behavioral health of American children and their families: a report from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health2006USANationwide0 to 172003survey (phone)parental report1023535autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16740820/none
Baird, et al.Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SP)2006EnglandSouth Thames9 to 101990-1991registry; service provider recordsICD-10; clinical interpretation5694615811.619.04 - 14.183.355ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16844490none
Gillberg, et al.Brief Report:" The Autism Epidemic". The registered prevalence of autism in a Swedish urban area2006SwedenGötenburg7 to 242001registry; health recordsDSM-III; DSM-III-R; DSM-IV; other (Gillberg criteria for Asperger's)1024855465.334.88 - 5.783.6ASD (infantile autism, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16568356age range (months to years)
Harrison, et al.Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in Lothian, Scotland: an estimate using the "capture-recapture: technique2006ScotlandLothian0 to 142001health records; service provider records; survey (mail)ICD-10; DSM-IV1346614434.423.95 - 4.897ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2083098/none
Ouellette-Kuntz, et al.Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in two Canadian provinces2006CanadaManitoba; Prince Edward Island1 to 142002service provider records; education recordsICD-9; ICD-10; DSM-III; DSM-III-R; DSM-IV2275266622.912.70 - 3.143.9PDD/ASD (AD, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder)https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2006.00076.xsample size; number of cases; prevalence estimate; CI; sex ratio
Petersen, et al.The population prevalence of child psychiatric disorders in Danish 8- to 9-year-old children2006DenmarkCounty of Funen8 to 92000survey (mail)DSM-IV; clinical interpretation69011112.7PDD (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16477477/sample size; number of cases
Shattuck, et al.The contribution of diagnostic substitution to the growing administrative prevalence of autism in US special education2006USANationwide6 to 112003other (government administrative data)other (definition used by U.S. department of education)3.1autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16585296/none
Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2000 Principal Investigators (CDC ADDM)Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders - Autism and Developmental Disabilites Monitoring Network, six sites, United States, 20002007USAArizona; Georgia; Maryland; New Jersey; South Carolina; West Virginia82000health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinician interpretation18776112526.76.31 - 7.0443ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17287714/prevalence estimate; CI; IQ Score <70 (%)
Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2002 Principal Investigators (CDC ADDM)Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders - Autism and Developmental Disabilites Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 20022007USAAlabama; Arizona; Arkansas; Colorado; Georgia; Maryland; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Pennsylvania; South Carolina; Utah; West Virginia; Wisconsin82002health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation40757826856.66.3 - 6.845ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17287715/none
Ouellette-Kuntz, et al.Trends for special education code assignment for autism: Implication for prevalence estimates2007CanadaBritish Colombia4 to 91996-2004education recordsDSM-IV224053710034.314.05 - 4.585.2autistic disorderhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17216561CI
Ellefsen, et al.Autism in the Faroe Islands. An epidemiological study2007DenmarkFaroe Islands8 to 172002education records; other (referral)ICD-10; other (Gillberg criteria for Asperger's); clinical interpretation7689435.63.8 - 7.3532childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorderhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17029020age range; IQ Score <70 (%)
Croen, et al.Maternal and paternal age an risk of autism spectrum disorders2007USANorthern California5 to 102005health recordsICD-91328445934.54.12 - 4.845.4ASD (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17404129CI
Latif, et al.Diagnostic trends in autistic spectrum disorders in the South Wales valleys2007WalesRhondda; Taff Ely districts0 to 171994-2003registryKanner; other (Gillberg criteria for Asperger's)392202406.125.39 - 6.945.9ASD (Kanner autism, Asperger syndrome, 'other forms' which include atypical autism, mental retardation, fragile x, and other conditions associated with autism)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17947285CI
Oliveira, et al.Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder in Portugal: prevalence, clinical characterization, and medical conditions2007PortugalMainland; Azores6 to 92000survey (mail)DSM-IV; autism test (ADI-R, CARS)0.920.81 - 1.02.983ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17880640number of cases; prevalence estimate; CI
Eapen, et al.Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children in the UAE2007United Arab EmiratesDubai; Al Ain in Abu Dhabi Emirate; Ras Al-Khaimah3survey (unspecified)DSM-IV69422.90.0 - 7.9PDDhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17244665none
Coo, et al.Trends in autism prevalence: diagnostic substitution revisited2008CanadaBritish Colombia4 to 92004other (government administratove data)special education classification23294510034.314.04 - 4.58ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17975721/CI
Parner, et al.Autism prevalence trends over time in Denmark: changes in prevalence and age at diagnosis2008DenmarkNationwide92006registryICD-101326077146.195.71 - 6.70ASD, childhood autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19047542/none
Wong, et al.Epidemiological study of autism spectrum disorder in Chi2008ChinaHong Kong0 to 141986-2005registry; health recordsDSM-III-R; DSM-IV; autism test (CARS, ADI-R)42472066821.61.48 - 1.736.6ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18160559CI
Williams, K. et al.The prevalence of autism in Australia. Can it be established from existing data?2008AustraliaNationwide6 to 122003-2004other (government administrative data)receipt of autism-specific services; special education classification; other (receipt of government services)54596.256.13 - 6.364ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564076none
Montiel, et al.Epidemiological findings of pervasive developmental disorders in a Venezuelan study2008VenezuelaMaracaibo County3 to 92005-2006health records; education records; service provider recordsDSM-IV-TR2549054301.70.1 - 2.03.3ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18308767none
Williams, E. et al.Prevalence and characteristics of autistic spectrum disorders in the ALSPAC cohort2008EnglandAvon area in Southwest England0 to 111991-2003health records; education recordsICD-10; special education classification14026866.194.48 - 7.496.8ASD (childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger syndrome, unspecified ASD)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754916none
Nicholas, et al.Prevalence and Characteristics of Children with Autism-Spectrum Disorders2008USASouth Carolina82000 & 2002education records; health recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation477262956.25.6 - 7.03.160ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279707004632?via%3Dihubnone
Baron-Cohen, et al.Prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study2009EnglandCambridgeshire5 to 92003-2004education records; survey (unspecified)ICD-10; autism test (ADOS, ADI-R) ; clinical interpretation1219711615.79.9 - 24.6ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS, atypical autism)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19478287number of cases
Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2006 Principal Investigators (CDC ADDM)Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 20062009USAAlabama; Florida; Missouri; Pennsylvania; Wisconsin; Arizona; Colorado; Georgia; Maryland; North Carolina; South Carolina82006health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation30803827579.08.6 - 9.34.541autistic disorder, PDD-NOS (including atypical autism), Asperger syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023608/none
Nicholas, et al.Autism spectrum disorders in preschool-aged children: Prevalence and comparison to a school-aged population2009USASouth Carolina42006health records; education records; registry; service provider recordsDSM-IV-TR8156658.06.1 - 9.94.756ASD (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS including atypical autism, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19541501IQ Score <70 (%)
Nassar, et al.Autism spectrum disorders in young children: effect of changes in diagnostic practices2009AustraliaWestern Australia2 to 82004registry; service provider records; other (data from health records collected for a previous study)DSM (not specified); clinical interpretation4199179822.342.19 - 2.4856.2ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166636/none
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Perera, et al,Screening of 18-24-month-old children for autism in a semi-urban community in Sri Lanka2009Sri LankaA semi-urban community1.5 to 22007survey (in-person)DSM-IV; clinical interpretation374410.74.17 - 27.17ASD (unspecified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19401407/CI
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Al-Farsi, et al.Brief report: Prevalence of autistic disorders in the Sultate of Oman2011OmanNationwide0 to 142009health recordsDSM-IV-TR7989131130.140.12 - 0.173ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809376none
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Parner, et al.A comparison of autism trends in Denmark and Western Australia2011AustraliaWestern Australia5 to 102004registryDSM-IV; DSM-IV-TR1520606785.14.70 - 5.534.8autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS (including atypical autism)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=A+comparison+of+autism+prevalence+trends+in+Denmark+and+Western+Australiasex ratio
Chien, et al.Prevalence and incidence of autism spectrum disorders among Prevalence and incidence of autism spectrum disorders among national health insurance enrollees in Taiwan from 1996 to 2005 health insurance enrollees in Taiwan from 1996 to 20052011TaiwanNationwide0 to 172005other (government administrative data)receipt of autism-specific services; ICD-92294546592.92.66 - 3.10ASD (infantile autism, disintegrative psychosis, other specified early childhood psychoses, unspecified psychoses with origin specific to childhood)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21460178sample size; CI
Wingdham, et al.Birth prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in the San Francisco Bay area by demographic and ascertainment source characteristics2011USASan Francisco Bay Area0 to 81994 & 1996health records; service provider recordsDSM-IV802493744.74.2 - 5.26.2ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21264681none
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Paula, et al.Brief report: prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder in Brazil: a pilot study2011BrazilAtibaia7 to 12health records; education recordsautism test (K-SADS, ADI-R); clinical interpretation147042.721.76 - 3.68PDD (autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21337063none
Brugha, et al.Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders in adults in the community in England2011EnglandNationwide≥ 162007survey (in-person)autism test (ADOS-4)7333729.83.0 - 16.5ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21536975none
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Lopez, et al.The Arkansas Autism Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (AR ADDM) project: statewide autism surveillance in a rural state2012USAArkansas82002health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation364722526.96.1 - 7.83.7ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22479981/none
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Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2008 Principal Investigators (CDC ADDM)Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders--Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 20082012USAAlabama; Arizona; Arkansas; Colorado; Florida; Maryland; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Pennsylvania; South Carolina; Utah; West Virginia; Wisconsin82008health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR337093382011.311.0 - 11.738ASD (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS/aytpical autism, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456193none
Surén, et al.Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in Norwegian children2012NorwayNationwide0 to 112010registryICD-1073131823523.223.09 - 3.354.3ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22711729/sex ratio; prevalence estimate; CI
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Surén, et al.Differences across counties in the registered prevalence of autism, ADHD, epilepsy and cerebral palsy in Norway2013NorwayNationwide0 to 122008-2011registryICD-10797356310164.5PDDhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24084968/case number
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Blumberg, et al.Changes in prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder in school-aged U.S. children: 2007 to 2011-20122013USANationwide6 to 172011-2012survey (phone)parental report65556139320ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24988818none
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Huang, et al.Prevalence and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among 18-36 month-old children of Tianjin in China2014ChinaTianjin1.5 to 32009-2011survey (in-person)DSM-IV8000222.751.6 - 3.94.572.7ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24961855/sex ratio; study years
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Kakooza-Mwesige, et al.Adaptation of the "ten questions" to screen for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in Uganda2014UgandaKampala District; Wakiso District2 to 92010-2011survey (in-person)DSM-IV-TR1169812ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536263none
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Zahorodny, et al.Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey2014USANew Jersey82006health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation3057053317.415.9 - 18.95ASD (autism spectrum disorder, autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23203404/none
Sun, et al.Parental concerns, socioeconomic status, and the risk of autism spectrum conditions in a population-based study2014United KindgonCambridgeshire5 to 92003-2004survey (mail); education recordsICD-10; autism test (ADI-R, ADOS); clinical interpretation3404461410.1 - 18.03.2Autistic Spectrum Conditions (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891422214003138CI
Zablotsky, et al.Estimated prevalence of autism and other developmental disabilities following questionnaire changes in the 2014 natiol health interview survey2015USANationwide3 to 172014survey (in-person, phone)parental report1300022.4ASD (autism)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632847none
Atladottir, et al.The increasing prevalence of reported diagnoses of childhood psychiatric disorders: a descriptive multinational comparison2015DenmarkNationwide0 to 212011registryICD-8; ICD-1011910121356711.411.20 - 11.58ASD, childhood autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24796725/prevalence estimate; CI; age range
Atladottir, et al.The increasing prevalence of reported diagnoses of childhood psychiatric disorders: a descriptive multinational comparison2015FinlandNationwide0 to 212011registryICD-9; ICD-10107979680887.57.32 - 7.65ASD, childhood autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24796725/prevalence estimate; CI; age range
Atladottir, et al.The increasing prevalence of reported diagnoses of childhood psychiatric disorders: a descriptive multinational comparison2015SwedenNationwide0 to 192011registryICD-9; ICD-101797704118876.66.49 - 6.73ASD, childhood autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24796725/prevalence estimate; CI; age range
Atladottir, et al.The increasing prevalence of reported diagnoses of childhood psychiatric disorders: a descriptive multinational comparison2015AustraliaWestern Australia0 to 202011medical records; service provider recordsICD-9; ICD-10; DSM-IV465724232154.79 - 5.19ASD, childhood autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24796725/prevalence estimate; CI; age range
Delobel-Ayoub, et al.Socioeconomic Disparities and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability2015FranceHaute-Garonne82003-2012registryICD-105003.63.3 - (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26540408/none
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Lundström, et al.Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples2015SwedenNationwideregistryICD-9; ICD-10107897546204.24.16 - 4.41ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25922345/CI
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Sun, et al.Exploring the Underdiagnosis and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions in Beijing2015ChinaXicheng Districy, Beijing6 to 11survey (mail)autism test (ADOS, ADI-R); clinical interpretation737611.95.3 - 26.5autism spectrum conditions (ASC)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25952676/none
van Bakel, et al.Low but increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a French area from register-based data2015FranceHaute-Garonne; Isere; Savoy; Upper-Savoy counties71997-2003registryclinical interpretation30775111233.653.44 - 3.874.147childhood autism, Asperger syndrome, and other ASDs (excluding Rett syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048041none
Van Naarden Braun, et al.Trends in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision impairment, metropolitan atlanta, 1991-20102015USAAtlanta, GA82010health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation75215.54.635.7ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25923140/none
Dekkers, et al.Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in Ecuador: A pilot study in Quito2015EcuadorQuito5 to 15survey (in-person)DSM-III; DSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation51453571.10.86 - 1.434.7ASD (classical autism, Aperger syndrome, PDD-NOS, childhood disintergrative disorder, Rett syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653240/CI
Quinlan, et al.Parental Age and Autism Spectrum Disorders Among New York City Children 0-36 Months of Age2015USANew York City, NYregistry ;other (government administrative data); education recordsclinical interpretation1133644934.34.0 - 4.8ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25776271/none
Samadi, et al.Screening for Autism in Iranian Preschoolers: Contrasting M-CHAT and a Scale Developed in Iran2015IranMahabad2 to 5survey (in-person; online)autism test (ADI-R, ADOS)2941289.526.6 - 13.7ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25911978/none
Bakare, et al.Neurodevelopmental delay among children under the age of three years at immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria - Preliminary report2016NigeriaLagos State0 to 3survey (in-person)ICD-10301141.330.52 - 3.41autism spectrum disorder traithttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4850395/CI
Boilson, et al.Operationalisation of the European Protocol for Autism Prevalence (EPAP) for Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence Measurement in Ireland2016IrelandGalway City; Waterford City; Cork6 to 11survey (mail)DSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation558963108.8 - 14.4autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrone, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD-NOShttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27364514/CI
Bourke, et al.Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia: A Comparison With Previous Estimates2016AustraliaWestern Australia0 to 272010registry; service provider recordsDSM (not specified)23074.14.170.7ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27227936/age range
Chaaya, et al.Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study2016LebanonBeirut; Mount-Lebanon1.3 to 4survey (in-person)other (child fails 3 or more items in M-CHAT questionnaire)99826315.37.7 - 22.91.2ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26362151/none
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Chiwa, et al.Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in south east Nigeria2016NigeriaEnugu; Ebonyi3 to 182014survey (in-person)DSM-IV-TR721212919.12 - 44.121.1ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398438/CI
Fombonne, et al.Prevalence of autism apectrum aisorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon survey2016MexicoLeon82011-2012education records; health records; service provider records; survey (mail, in-person)DSM-IV-TR12200368.76.2 - 11.04.13136ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797939IQ Score <70 (%)
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Poovathil, et al.Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a semiurban community in South India2016IndiaKerala1 to 302011-2012survey (in-person)DSM-IV-TR18480432.331.73 - 3.132.1ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27497678CI
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Durkin, et al.Autism Spectrum Disorder Among US Children (2002-2010): Socioeconomic, Racial, and Ethnic Disparities2017USAAlabama; Arizona; Arkansas; Colorado; Georgia; Maryland; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Utah; Wisconsin82006-2010health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation9291821105811.911.7 - 12.14.726.43ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28933930/sex ratio; IQ score; non-Hispanic White:Hispanic and White:Black ratio
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Raina, et al.Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder among Rural, Urban, and Tribal Children (1-10 Years of Age)2017IndiaHimachal Pradesh1 to 10survey (in-person)clinical interpretation28070431.51.5 - 2.5ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28694615/none
Rudra, et al.Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and autistic symptoms in a school-based cohort of children in Kolkata, India2017IndiaKolkata3 to 82010-2013survey (phone, in-person)ADOS; clinical interpretation1184962.30.7 - 4.6ASD (autism, broader autism spectrum)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655917/none
Skoniecz-Żydecka, et al.The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in West Pomeranian and Pomeranian Regions of Poland2017PolandWest Pomeranian; Pomeranian regions0 to 162010-2014other (government administrative data)clinical interpretation; autism test (ADOS-2, ADI-R)70797524643.53.35 - 3.624.3ASD (autism, atypical autism, Rett syndrome, children disintegrative disorder, hyperkinetic disorder accompied mental retardation and stereotyped movements, Asperger syndrome, PDD, PDD-NOS)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771078CI
Soke, et al.Brief Report: Estimated Prevalence of a Community Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Age 4 Years in Children from Selected Areas in the United States in 2010: Evaluation of Birth Cohort Effects2017USAArizona; New Jersey; Utah; Missouri; Wisconsin42010health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation5846746587.2 - 8;73.948.7ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5650225/number of cases
Thomas, et al.Brief Report: Prevalence of Co-occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder: The U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-20122017USANationwide2 to 172011-2012survey (phone)parental report8524816041817.93 - 19.754.322.3ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27752862/CI
Xie, et al.Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability by Gestational Age at Birth in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: a Register Linkage Study2017SwedenStockholm0 to 172011service provider recordsICD-9; ICD-10; DSM-IV480728100252120.45 - 21.262.423.6ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827186/CI
Zablotsky, et al.Estimated Prevalence of Children With Diagnosed Developmental Disabilities in the United States, 2014-20162017USANationwide3 to 172014-2016survey (in-person)parental report24.722.3 - 27.2ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29235982/none
Kogan, et al.The prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder among US children.2018USANationwide3 to 172016survey (online, mail)parental report4302111312522.3 - 28.14.2ASD (autism)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30478241White:Hispanic and White:black prevalence ratio
Arora, et al.Prevalence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders across five regions in India2018IndiaKangra; Hyderabad; Dhenkal; North Goa6 to 92011-2012survey (in-person)clinical interpretation396444146.0 - 32.0ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS, childhood disintegrative disorder)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057634/pdf/pmed.1002615.pdfnone
Baio, et al. (CDC ADDM)Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 20142018USAArizona; Arkansas; Colorado; Georgia; Maryland; Minnesota; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Tennessee; Wisconsin82014health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation325483547316.816.4 - 17.3431ASD (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS/atypical autism, Asperger syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29701730none
Xu, et al.Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children and adolescents, 2014-20162018USANationwide3 to 172014-2016survey (in-person, phone)parental report3050271124.722.0 - 27.33.3ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833544/none
Heys, et al.The estimated prevalence of autism in school-aged children living in rural Nepal using a population-based screening tool2018NepalMakwanpur district9 to 132014-2015survey (in-person)other (AQ-10 score ≥ 6)40981432.00 - 5.001.3autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153945/prevalence estimate; CI
Rydzewska, et al.Prevalence of long-term health conditions in adults with autism: Prevalence of long-term health conditions in adults with autism: observational study of a whole country population study of a whole country population2018ScotlandNationwide0 to 252011other (census data)self-report374658466491.771.73 - 1.822.329ASD, Asperger syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120653/prevalence estimate; CI
Bachmann, et al.Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Germany: Time Trends in Administrative Prevalence and Diagnostic Stability2018GermanyNationwide0 to 242012other (health insurance records)ICD-106400000211863.8ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29671642/CI
Diallo, et al.Prevalence and correlates of autism spectrum disorders in Quebec2018CanadaQuebec1 to 172014-2015other (government administrative data)ICD-9; ICD-1014646001694012.2ASD (autistic disorder, childhood disintergrative disorder, PDD, PDD-NOS, Rett syndrome)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894913/none
Nevison, et al.California autism prevalence trends from 1931 to 2014 and comparison to national ASD data from IDEA and ADDM2018USACalifornia52017service provider recordsreceipt of autism specific services11.8autism disorderhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29974300/none
Narzisi, et al.Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a large Italian catchment area: a school-based population study within the ASDEU project2018ItalyPisa7 to 9education records; health records; survey (unspecified)clinical interpretation; autism test (ADI-R, ADOS-2)10138817.96.2 - 9.75.252ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30187843/none
Jin, et al.Prevalence of DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Among School-Based Children Aged 3-12 Years in Shanghai, China2018ChinaShanghi3 to 122014survey (unspecified)DSM-5; clinical interpretation742522030.7580.687 - 0.8293.693ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29453711/none
Akhter, et al.Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among the children aged 18-36 months in a rural community of Bangladesh: A cross sectional study2018BangladeshSirajganj district1.5 to 32016survey (in-person)DSM-IV-TR; autism test (ADOS); clinical interpretation528640.750.29 - 1.943ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30026928/CI
Morales-Hidalgo, et al.Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Spanish School-Age Children2018SpainTarragona3 to 5survey (unspecified)autism test (ADI-R, ADOS-2); clinical interpretation13582115.58.9 - 22.04.3ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29696527/none
Sun, et al.Autism prevalence in Chi is comparable to Western prevalence2019ChinaJilin City; Jiamusi City; Shenzen city6 to 102013survey (mail); other (government administrative data)clinical interpretation; DSM-IV-TR; DSM-5; autism test (ADI-R, ADOS)73497710.88.7 - 13.5autismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394100/sample size; number of cases
Xu, et al.The prevalence and treatment patterns of autism spectrum disorder in the United States, 20162019USANationwide3 to 172016survey (online)parental report43031122927.924.6 - 31.24.3ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30508021/none
Imm, et al.Assessment of racial and ethnic bias in autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates from a US surveillance system2019USAColorado; Wisconsin82012 & 2014health records; education recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation152259191312.612.1 - 13.2autistic disorder, PDD-NOS including atypical autism or Asperger syndromehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30892923/none
Zablotsky, et al.Prevalence and Trends of Developmental Disabilities among Children in the United States: 2009-20172019USANationwide3 to 172009-2017survey (in-person)parental report88530155017.416.67 - 18.392.3ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31558576/#:~:text=Results%3A%20From%202009%20to%202011,%25%2D1.2%25%2C%20P%20%3C%20.sex ratio; White:Hispanic and White:Black prevalence ratio
Christensen, et al. (CDC ADDM)Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children 4 years - Early autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, seven sites, United Stated, 2010, 2012, and 20142019USAArizona; Colorado; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Utah; Wisconsin42014education records; health recordsDSM-IV-TR; clinical interpretation7088712081716.1 - 18.04.146ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/ss/ss6802a1.htm?s_cid=ss6802a1_enone
Al-Mamri, et al.Revisiting the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among Omani children: A multicentre study2019Oman0 to 142011-2015health recordsDSM-5; clinical interpretation83765517052.041.94 - 2.133.6ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31897313/none
Alshaban, et al.Prevalence and correlates of autism spectrum disorder in Qatar: A national study2019QatarNationwide6 to 112015-2018service provider records; education records; survey (mail, phone)autism test (ADOS-2, ADI-R); clinical interpretation; DSM-514285584411.48.9 - 14.64.319ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899566/sample size
Chen, et al.Prevalence of DSM-5 mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of children in Taiwan: Methodology and main findings2019TaiwanNationwide7 to 142015-2017survey (in-person)DSM-5; autism test ( K-SADS-E in Mandarin); clinical interpretation481652106.0 - 15.0ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30696515/none
Hoang, et al.Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and their relation to selected socio-demographic factors among children aged 18-30 months in northern Vietnam, 20172019VietnamHanoi; Thai Binh province; Hoa Binh province1.5 to 2.52017survey (in-person)DSM-IV; clinical interpretation172771307.526.29 - 8.934.7ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487529/age range (months to years)
Mohammadi, et al.Prevalence of autism and its comorbidities and the relationship with maternal psychopathology: A national population-based study2019IranNationwide6 to 18survey (in-person)other (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL-2009) diagnostic tool)29737371.81.20 - 2.40270ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31679355/none
Pérez-Crespo, et al.Temporal and Geographical Variability of Prevalence and Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Children in Catalonia, Spain2019SpainCatalonia2 to 172017registryICD-913266661546612.312.1 - 12.54.5autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, other specified pervasive development disorder, PDD-NOShttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31317678/none
Jariwala-Parikh, et al.Autism Prevalence in the Medicaid Program and Healthcare Utilization and Costs Among Adult Enrollees Diagnosed with Autism2019USAAlabama; Arizona; Arkansas; California; Colorado; Conneticut; Delaware; Florida; Georgia; Idaho; Illinois; India; Iowa; Kansas; Kentucky; Louisia; Maryland; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; Nebraska; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New Mexico; New York; North Carolina; Ohio; Oklahoma; Oregon; Rhode Island; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Vermont; Virginia; Washington; West Virginia18 to 642008other (government administrative data)ICD-9-CM8127049297453.663.62 - 3.702.8autismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31352637/sample size; CI; White:Hispanic and White:Black prevalence ratio
Hamad, et al.Annual trends in prevalence and incidence of autism spectrum disorders in Manitoba preschoolers and toddlers: 2004-20152019CanadaManitoba1 to 52015health recordsICD-9; ICD-10594385789.78.97 - 10.55ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30747348/CI
Maenner, et al. (CDC ADDM)Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 20162020USAArizona; Arkansas; Colorado; Georgia; Maryland; Minnesota; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Tennessee; Wisconsin82016education records; health recordsDSM-IV-TR; DSM-5; clinical interpretation275419510818.518.0 - 19.14.333ASD (not specified)https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/ss/ss6904a1.htm?s_cid=ss6904a1_wnone
Shaw, et al. (CDC ADDM)Early identification of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 4 years - Early autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, six sites, United States, 20162020USAArizona; Colorado; Missouri; New Jersey; North Carolina; Utah; Wisconsin42016education records; health recordsDSM-5; clinical interpretation72277112515.614.7 - 16.53.553ASD (not specified)https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/ss/ss6903a1.htm?s_cid=ss6903a1_e&deliveryme=USCDC_921-DM23839#T2_downnone
Hong, et al.Prevalence and economic burden of autism spectrum disorder in South Korea using national health insurance data from 2008 to 20152020South KoreaNationwide2015other (government administrative data)ICD-105152933856630.110.107 - 0.1125.1ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31630294/CI
Saito, et al.Prevalence and cumulative incidence of autism spectrum disorders and the patterns of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders in a total population sample of 5-year-old children2020JapanHirosaki52013-2016survey (mail)clinical interpretation; DSM-550168732.226.6 - 3.762.237ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227343/none
Zablotsky, et al.Prevalence of Children Aged 3-17 Years With Developmental Disabilities, by Urbanicity: United States, 2015-20182020USANationwide3 to 172015-2018survey (in-person, phone)parental report337758562522.0 - 27.0ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32510313/none
Fuentes, et al.The ASDEU autism prevalence study in northern Spain2020Basque Country, SpainCounty of Gipuzkoa7 to 9survey (unspecified); service provider recordsautism test (ADOS-G, ADOS-2, ADI-R); clinical interpretation14734875.94.8 - 7.36.250ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32388625/none
May, et al.Autism spectrum disorder prevalence in children aged 12-13 years from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children2020AustraliaNationwide12 to 13survey (in-person)parental report330014543.635.6 - 51.9ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, other autism spectrum)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32124539/none
Kita, et al.Prevalence Estimates of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Japan: A community sample questionnaire study2020Japan6 to 92015survey (in-person)parental report2085401913.0 - 25.0ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31657492/number of cases
Thomaidis, et al.Autism Spectrum Disorders in Greece: Nationwide Prevalence in 10-11 Year-Old Children and Regional Disparities2020GreeceNationwide10 to 112019service provider recordsspecial education classification182879210811.511.4 - 11.74.14ASD, autism, PDDhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408756/none
Zhou, et al.Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chi: A Nationwide Multi-center Population-based Study Among Children Aged 6 to 12 Years2020ChinaShanghi; Guangzhou; Changsha; Chengdu; Chongquig; Wenzhou; Beijing; Harbin6 to 122014-2016registryDSM-5; autism test (ADI-R, ADOS)12580636376.4 - 7.44.364ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32607739/none
Nevison, et al.California Autism Prevalence by County and Race/Ethnicity: Declining Trends Among Wealthy Whites2020USACalifornia62019service provider recordsreceipt of autism specific services15ASD (autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32193763/White:Hispanic and White:Black prevalence ratio
Safer-Lichtenstein, et al.School-Based Autism Rates by State: An Analysis of Demographics, Political Leanings, and Differential Identification2020USANationwide6 to 212015, 2016, 2017other (government education data)special education classification5069305362521512.312.30- 12.36ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32926306/CI
Bosch, et al.Neurodevelopmental disorders among Spanish school-age children: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates2020SpainCatalonia5 to 172011-2017survey (in-person)clinical interpretation71804875.05 - 8.857ASD (unspecified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33436129/CI; study years
Brooks, et al.Identifying Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Diorder in Electronic Medical Records: Examining Health System Utilization and Comorbidities2021CanadaOntario1 to 242016health records; other (government administrative data)other (site-specific administrative billing codes)80237106213.212.47 - 14.054ASD (not specified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33098262/CI
Yuan, et al.Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and trends of autism specrum disorder in US children and adolescents2021USANationwide3 to 172014-2019survey (in-person; phone)parental report52550133024.922.9 - 26.83.5ASD (not specified)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936258/none
Morales-HidalgoAutism spectrum disorder prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in the school population: EPINED study2021SpainTarragona4 to 5; 10 to 112014-2019survey (unspecified)autism test (ADI-R, ADOS-2); clinical interpretation37275715.311.4 - 19.24.7ASD (unspecified)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33884927/none
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