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Bariba people

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Last Updated: 17 November 2020

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Bariba people

Regions with significant populations
Benin1,000,000 (2016)
Nigeria400,000 (2016)
Related ethnic groups
Gur: Dagomba Gurma Gurunsi Mossi Somba Bissa Yoruba Nupe Dendi and others
Total population
c. 1.4 million

In the words of Marcus Gravey, people without knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots. Bariba people hold an important place in the history of the Benin Republic. They are principal inhabitants of Borgou and Alibori Departments of Benin Republic. Bariba are also co-founders of Borgu kingdom, which is now northeast of Benin and west-central Nigeria. In Nigeria, they are found spread between western Kwara State and the Borgu section of Niger State. There are perhaps a million Bariba, 70 % of them in Benin, where they are the fourth largest ethnic group and comprise approximately 1 / 11 of the population. Bariba concentrates primarily in the north-east of Benin Republic, especially around the city of Nikki, which is considered the traditional capital of the Bariba people. At the end of the 18 century, they became independent from Yoruba of Oyo and formed several kingdoms in the Borgou region. Colonization of Benin by French at end of 19th century, and imposition of Anglo-French artificial border, ended Bariba trade in the region. During the late 19th century, Bariba was known to constitute independent states and kingdoms in cities like Nikki and Kandi in the northeast of the country. In the town of Pehunko there are approximately 200 000 Bariba people out of 365 000 inhabitants. Agriculture is the dominant occupation for Bariba. They grow corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, cassava, yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts with some poultry and livestock. One of their noted festivals is the annual Gani festival of which horse riding is a prominent element. Bariba society consists of higher-ranking officials as chief of the town and their subordinate chiefs. Social status and titles are inherited by families, but the status of a person may be given by the family's nature of work. Notable subdivisions of Bariba include ruling Wasangari nobles, Baatombu commoners, slaves of varying origin, Dendi merchants, Fulbe herders, and other divisional ethnic groups. As Rita Mare Brown rightly noted, language is a roadmap of culture, It tells you where its people come from and where they are going. Bariba language is spoken mostly in Borgou, Alibori and part of Atacora in northern Benin. The Bariba language was once classified as an outlier of the Gur family, but is now agnostically placed as isolate within Savanna languages. It is tone language with noun classes. It has been written since about 1970. Religion plays an important role in the Bariba tribes and they are primarily Islamic. However, number of Bariba communities have their own indigenous beliefs. In the words of Robert Alan, cultural differences should not separate us from each other, but rather, cultural diversity brings collective strength that can benefit all of humanity. Bariba culture is such a unique one that has in recent years found expression in both Benin Republic and parts of Nigeria.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Culture

Sacred drums and royal trumpets symbolize the power of the Empire and are embodiment of its memory and continuity. The dense, nonchalant sound of drums and suave timbre of trumpets, as well as myths instruments perpetuate, accompany Gaani festivities and resound in the hearts of the faithful throughout the year. To parade before illustrious drums is a privilege granted by the clan. Two noteworthy sacred instruments are imposing male and female sacred drums, Barabakaru and Barapiibu, which are between 125 and 127 centimetres high and made of baobab wood and beef hide. They are played at the Emperor's entrance by initiates and used during Gaani, but also for other events during the year: enthronement, Friday prayers, etc. Another drum, Bara Kaaru, which is still kept in a small temple on Baro Kpira farm in Banikuara region, is played by Bara Yogo, who is a member of an ancient family of girls Like spurs, trumpets were introduced to Baatonu country by Wasangari under the influence of Hausa of Nigeria. The instrument, unknown to Baatonu natives, originates from India and was introduced to Africa by caravan travellers. The sacred trumpet is directly associated with power and is used by the Baatonu People in the royal courts of Atacora, Donga and Borgou. Since all sacred instruments are property of the King, only a few kings and chiefs have the privilege of owning one. Its manufacture and use are exclusive to initiated members of the royal court. Kankangi's ancestor of trumpeters was himself a member of the royal family. The Kankangi trumpet comprises two parts that fit together. Male trumpets are longer than female ones. Trumpets are played to glory of the Emperor or to accompany his travels, but also to announce holiday day Friday and during grand ceremonies. Despite their sacred status, these trumpets are now reproduced in a somewhat anarchic manner.

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Names and naming

The historical relationship between Sabe and Baatonu-and, by implication, between the entire Yoruba group and Baatonu-go beyond names and naming. Consider kinship sociological terms and usage, for example. Term iyako refers to verbal play or joust between a woman married into a family, on one hand, and, on the other, siblings of her husband or children of other wives in the household who precede woman in their residence in household. Parties to this verbal play address light-hearted insults to each other about their relatives while staying within the recognized limit of decorum. Joust reinforces affective relationships among those involved in banter. Those engaged in joust are said to je iyako-literally, to eat iyako, as gloss above. Now, consider what Palau Marti has to say about gonesi in Sabe: strangely enough, term gonesi is Baatonu loanword in Sabe. Its Sabe Cultural content and practice differ significantly from its Reference and importance in Baatonu. According to Palau Marti: this suggests that, while iyako and gonesi refer to homologous sociological phenomena-that is, to banter between cross-cousins or in-laws-that are common to Sabe and other Yoruba subgroups, participants in gonesi may be restricted among Baatonu as defined above. In any event, it is not insignificant that gonesi or iyako, complete with cognate predicates such as je, which, in Yoruba, may invariably be gloss as eat, enjoy or take part in, is a sociological custom that characterizes cultures and traditions across the Sahara-Sahelian sub-region of West Africa, as Table 3 indicates. Footnote 17 indeed, its cross-Cultural features in common and its humanizing function persuade UNESCO to declare this West African institution an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Footnote 19 Our interest here, again, lies in how to account for this relationship between Baatonu and Yoruba peoples. What was the intensity of relationship and contact that result in the kind of transfer of form, meaning and usage that can be observe, when perfectly transparent terminology exists in borrowing language to express what Sabe share with other Yoruba group members rather than with Baatonu, donor language and culture? It is perhaps not farfetched to attribute such a pattern of borrowing to association that cannot be recent. More importantly, neither iyako nor gonesi has know reflection or cognate in any identifiable Middle Eastern tradition.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The story the horse tells

The present tragedy in Mali draws our attention to divisions, tensions and conflicts between West African ethnic groups, religious persuasions, and populations from different regions, in both the present and past. But long-term critical perspective on the past brings to light borrowings between cultures, and shows how the mobility of people across West Africa links regional and ethnic histories. The communication axis running from Adagh to Niger and, along the Niger Valley, from Gao to Busa and beyond, is the strategic locus for investigating this mobility and connectivity. It has linked together Saharan, savannah, and forest zones of West Africa. It was a magnet for diasporas of Soninke praise-singers and Mande warriors and traders. Fishermen and other waterfolk along the river, oral traditionists and other craftspeople, priests and priestesses of African cults, and Islamic clerics, as well as armies, long-distance merchants, and enslave human beings, move along it. Although archeological sites at Bentyia / Kukyia occupy strategic position on this historical axis, they have not been excavate, whence serious gap in our knowledge of the history of eastern Niger Valley and of West Africa as a whole.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The horse in Yoruba art

Itan is term for sum total of all Yoruba myths, songs, histories, and other cultural components. Traditional Yoruba religious beliefs recognize a wide variety of deities, with Olorun or Olodumare venerate as creator and other spirits serving as intermediates to help with concerns of humans. Yoruba deities include oya, Ifa, eleda, ibeji, osanyin and Osun, and Sango. Each human being is also assumed to have his or her individual deity, called and Ori, who is responsible for controlling destiny. In order to placate the Ori into providing a beneficial future, cowrie shells are often used to bedeck sculpture of personal deity. When not seeking guidance from the Ori, Yoruba may also turn to deceased parents and ancestors, who are believed to poss ability to protect their living relatives. In order to receive protection from deceased family members, many Yoruba worship or offer sacrifices such as libations and kola nuts on graves of their relatives, hoping that suitable sacrifice would guarantee protection. Traditional Yoruba polytheism, however, was challenged throughout history, particularly by contact with Islam through trade with the Mali Empire. The Islamic establishment of the Mali Empire often used military to spread religion, movement illustrated through jihads that plague Yorubaland. Most Yoruba who convert to Islam find solace and community in urban centers such as Ibadan, that allow Muslims to connect with one another and form political ties. The second significant challenge to traditional Yoruba religious beliefs was Christianity, which was introduced to Nigeria by colonial powers roughly 400 years after contact with Islam. Conversion to Christianity was often brought about through the use of religious schools, set up by Christian missionaries to draw people away from traditional beliefs. Yoruba religion and mythology is a major influence in West Africa, chiefly in Nigeria, and has given origin to several New World religions, such as Santeria in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Candomble in Brazil. Another permutation of traditional Yoruba religious beliefs, religion popularly known as Vodun in Haiti, combines beliefs of many different African ethnic nationalities take to island with structure and liturgy from Fon-Ewe of present-day Benin and Congo-Angolan culture area, but Yoruba-derive religious ideology and deities also play an important role. The majority of contemporary Yoruba are Christians and Muslims, with indigenous congregations having the largest membership among Christians. Yoruba performance repertoire includes various masquerade plays, folk operas, and vibrant cinematic scene. Perhaps most famous among Yoruba masquerade pieces, Gelede from the Ketu region of modern Republic of Benin, received the honor of being recognized as Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. Other Yoruba cultural productions that have gained international recognition include Ifa corpus, collection of hundreds of poems used in divination ceremonies and Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove, one of few remaining functional sites for traditional religious ceremonies in Nigeria and a magnet for visitors from all over the world.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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