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Benefits Of Animal Testing

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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In the late 1940s, polio crippled and killed thousands of people around the world every year. Polio reached its peak in the United States in 1952, with over 21 000 paralytic cases. After the vaccine was developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, polio was brought under control and practically eliminated as a public health problem in industrialized countries. Today, disease has been eliminated from most of the world; only 16 countries worldwide have cases of polio in limited areas. Today, children routinely receive vaccines that provide a lifetime of protection from disease. Children are also immunized against typhus, diphtheria, whooping cough, smallpox, and tetanus. Untold millions of people around the world are healthy adults because of these vaccines, which were made possible through animal research. Diabetes is another example of the importance of biomedical research. In the United States, 7% of the population has Diabetes. Over 1 million new cases of Diabetes are diagnosed each year, and based on death certificate data, Diabetes contributed to nearly 225 000 deaths in 2002 alone. Without insulin treatments to regulate their blood sugar levels, many more diabetics would die. Dogs were crucial to research that identified the cause of diabetes, which led to the development of insulin. Recently, researchers have developed insulin pumps to replace injections, and current transplant research offers hope that Diabetes can be cure. The importance of animal research to those suffering from heart and circulatory diseases cannot be overlook. According to recent estimates, one in four US adults has high blood pressure, which can cause strokes, heart attacks, and heart disease, and nearly one - third of them do know it. Research involving animals has helped identify causes of high blood pressure and develop more effective drugs to control the problem. Other research has resulted in treatments for strokes and heart attacks that save thousands of lives and reduce recovery time. Dogs have been especially important to researchers who are developing open - heart surgery, pacemakers, and heart transplants. These techniques have revolutionized therapy for people who have severe heart disease. In spite of remarkable medical progress during the last century, there is still work to be done. As average life span increases, more people will develop diseases that primarily affect elderlyAlzheimers, Parkinsons, and certain types of cancers. There is still much to be learnt about diseases such as AIDS. And millions of people around the world suffer from other incurable diseases such as cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and genetic birth defects. Researchers are trying to learn causes of and cures for these diseases. Animals benefit from biomedical research as well. Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus infections are major causes of death in cats. In the US, it is estimated that 2 - 3% of all cats are infected with one or both of these diseases. Vaccines are available to prevent these diseases, but much additional work is necessary to explain these diseases and their treatment. Sometimes research can have unexpected benefits.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

The recent emergence of acquire immune deficiency syndrome as a major health threat exemplifies not only the unpredictability of research needs, but also the criticality of animals in research. The similarity of simian AIDS, identified in rhesus monkeys at two primate centers, to human AIDS has allowed disease in monkeys to serve as a model for human disease. In monkeys, viruses that cause disease have been isolate, infectibility studies have been conduct, and some experiments have provided preliminary indications of the possibility of vaccine development. This animal model might prove useful for testing the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutic agents developed to prevent or treat human disease. Recently, new virus called feline T - lymphotropic lentivirus has been discover. It resembles morphologically human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS, although it differs antigenically, and causes disease naturally in cats similar to AIDS. Thus, infected cats might prove useful as animal models for study of certain aspects of human AIDS.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Transplantation

In 2016, Sergio Canavero announced plans to perform the first human head transplant by the end of 2017. While the procedure, to which Canavero assigned the acronym HEAVEN, has been pushed back for various logistical reasons, Canavero and his collaborator, Xiaoping Ren, are committed to performing the operation in relatively near future. Two have received significant backlash, with medical experts and ethicists arguing both that the technique is not possible given our current technology, and that even if patient survive, procedure would likely be unethical. Ren and Canavero, however, claim that academic and popular media have failed to engage in fair, open conversation about ethical issues at play in human head transplantation. They claim that they have successfully demonstrated the merits of their techniques through animal experimentation, and that nobody has addrest true contentious points: life extension, gender reassignment, and cosmetic body swap. This article addresses two main topics that have been largely ignored by Ren and Canavero, and in public debates about human head transplantation: ethics of performing head transplantation experiments in nonhuman animals, and the lack of proper medical justification for performing head transplantation on specific human patients.


Organ transplants

Chronic kidney disease often requires patients to have waste products and excess water removed from their blood through dialysis, procedure that was developed using guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs and monkeys. Dialysis takes three to four hours and needs to be done three times a week. Research using animals has been involved in developing techniques for kidney transplants, which give patients freedom from dialysis, allowing them to lead a normal life. Of 5 000 people who develop kidney failure every year in the UK, one in three would die without a kidney transplant. Surgery behind transplantation itself but also methods of tissue - typing and anti - rejection drugs were developed using dogs, rabbits and mice from 1950 onwards.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cardiovascular-Renal Systems

Hypertension IS the most common chronic disease in the world and produces substantial morbidity and mortality. However, in the majority of individuals, precise cause of elevated blood pressure cannot be determine. Risk factors for primary hypertension include advancing age, obesity, high dietary NaCl consumption, and low dietary potassium intake, Although these appear to contribute to, but not cause, hypertension. Renin - sodium profiling has been used to classify primary hypertension, suggesting that phenotypes are highly variable, but treatment remains largely empirical and influenced by race and comorbid disease. A number of Hypertensive subtypes also exist, and although they may make up only a small fraction of cases of Hypertension, they can nonetheless be relatively common, given the broad prevalence of Hypertension itself. Malignant Hypertension IS related to, but pathophysiologically distinct from, primary Hypertension, As IS syndrome of preeclampsia. Secondary causes may involve Renal vasculature, endocrine organs, and kidney and may be involved in up to 20% of cases of resistant Hypertension. Finally, increasing number of drugs used to treat cancer and other conditions are now recognized as causing Hypertension, which IS often severe. Genetic forms of Hypertension With mendelian inheritance are rare but have helped to identify important BP - regulating pathways. Over the past 20 years, some of the most important scientific breakthroughs have emanated from the discovery of the basis of rare subtypes of human Hypertension. Among these are solutions of nearly all monogenic causes of Hypertension; identification of discrete somatic mutations that cause primary aldosteronism; discovery that polymorphisms in APOL1 Gene underlie some racial disparities in Hypertensive kidney disease; discovery that placental insufficiency generates placental growth factor and sFlt - 1, factors that mark and contribute to preeclampsia; and Finally, recognition that certain anticancer drugs commonly cause Hypertension by impairing function of Vascular endothelium and glomerulus. Initial animal models of Hypertension to be developed involved constriction of renal arteries or parenchyma; pathophysiology closely mimics their human analogs. However, renovascular hypertension and Page kidney represent only a small fraction of human hypertension. Most experimental studies of hypertension using animals have therefore focused on understanding mechanisms of primary hypertension. Although excellent animal models with good human fidelity have been developed for many of these rare causes of hypertension, 1 2 models of primary hypertension have been more difficult to develop, largely because causes of human disorder are unclear. Of National Institutes of Health - sponsor Hypertension research, studies using Ang II infusion make up a disproportionate share. 3 Only 4% of studies focus on aging and 4% focus on DOCA - salt Hypertension. Thus, important unmet need IS to develop better animal models that more closely mimic discrete Hypertensive syndromes that now populate clinics such as primary aldosteronism. Corollary would be that portfolio of hypertension research might more closely mimic the spectrum of human hypertension. The second important unmet need IS to resolve ongoing controversies concerning pathogenesis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Nervous System

The human brain is a structure of extraordinary complexity. Each of its 200 billion neurons makes few thousand to several hundred thousand connections with other neurons, muscles, or glands. Neurons use large amounts of metabolic energy to carry out a host of functions: generation and conduction of impulses; synthesis, transport, secretion, and uptake of transmitters; and modification of structure and synaptic efficacy in response to activity and environmental perturbations. Many basic aspects of neuronal development can be studied in cell and tissue cultures, in brain slices, and in simple invertebrate neuronal systems. Computer simulations and noninvasive human studies can also provide important data on fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory. Yet there is no adequate substitute for animal studies in attempt to understand complex behavioral and cognitive functions of the brain in health and disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Behavior

Animal studies in science are experiments that control animal' behaviour or physiology for study, often to serve as models for human biology where testing on humans is impractical or unethical. The species or classification of animals used in testing largely depends on the goal of the experiment. For example, zebrafish are quick to breed, easy to house, and transparent as embryos - but they also carry 70 percent of genes found in humans. All this makes them suitable for studies on human disease and embryological development. Rodents have a long history of being used for science experiments, and today make up around three quarters of all animal subjects in testing. Easy to raise and breed, their mammalian physiology and genomes overlap even more considerably with those of humans, making them suitable models for studying behaviours, toxicology, and effects of medical treatments. Non - human primates, especially chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys, have also been used extensively in scientific testing. While harder to reproduce in large numbers and challenging to house comfortably, experiments on our closest evolutionary relatives can yield valuable information on a wide range of issues, from drug toxicity to neurology. However, close likeness of non - human primates to ourselves also means their use in experiments is the most controversial of all types of animal testing. Generally, data across different countries, including the European Union, show that non - human primate research constitutes less than 1 percent of all animal studies. However, studies on monkeys aren't yet phased out: in 2017, US had a record - high number of studies involving monkeys.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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