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Birth Defects In India Hidden Truth Need For Urgent Attention

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Last Updated: 18 October 2020

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Birth defects are rising as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to extent. Seventy percent of Birth Defects are preventable through application of various cost - effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for Birth Defects, eg, universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriage rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India, being the second most populous country with a large number of infants born annually with Birth Defects, should focus its attention on strategies for control of Birth Defects. Many population base strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of the proven strategies for control of Birth Defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have very little impact on its consumption. Community genetic services for control of Birth Defects can easily flourish and integrate with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation in infant mortality rate in different states in India, there is a need for a deferential approach to implementing community genetic services in states that have already achieved the national goal of IMR. On other hand, states that have not achieved national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality. Birth Defects can be defined as structural or functional abnormalities, including metabolic disorders, which are present from birth. The term Congenital disorder is considered to have the same meaning and the two terms are used interchangeably. According to the March of Dimes global Report on Birth Defects, worldwide 7. 9 million births occur annually with serious Birth Defects and 94% of these births occur in middle and low income countries. According to the joint World Health Organization and MOD meeting Report, Birth Defects account for 7% of all neonatal mortality and 3. 3 million under five deaths. In India, Birth Defects prevalence varies from 61 to 69. 9 / 1000 live births. Major Birth Defects include Congenital heart Defects, neural tube Defects and Down syndrome, hemoglobinophathies and glucose - 6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, cause 20% of infant mortality and are responsible for a substantial number of childhood hospitalizations. It has been estimated that 70% of Birth are preventable. Risk Factors for Occurrence of Congenital Birth Defects in Indian Scenario incidence of Down syndrome is related to the fertility status of older females who constitute around 17% of the female population.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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Historical record authors investigate go back 2500 years. What about prehistory when our ancestors lived as hunter - gatherers? Good evidence here is much harder to come by. To study mortality at a young age in prehistoric societies, researchers need to mostly rely on evidence from modern hunter - gatherers. Here, one needs to be cautious of how reflective modern societies are of the past. This is because recent hunter - gatherers might have been in exchange with surrounding societies and often currently live in marginalized territories, as the authors say. Both of these could affect mortality levels. To account for this, Volk and Atkinson have attempted to only include hunter - gatherers that are best representative of living conditions in the past; they limited their sample only to those populations that have not been significantly influenced by contact with modern resources that could directly influence mortality rates, such as education, food, medicine, birth control, and / or sanitation. Again, researchers found very similar mortality rates across their sample of 20 different studies on hunter - gatherer societies from very different locations: average infant mortality rate was 26. 8% and average mortality before puberty, 48. 8%. Almost exactly the same as the historical sample discussed above. All but one of these study societies are modern hunter - gatherers. One study on mortality rates of paleolithic hunter - gatherers investigated the famous Indian Knoll archaeological site from around 2 500 BCE, located in todays area of Kentucky. 9 for this community estimate suggests that mortality at a young age is even higher than average for modern - day hunter - gatherers: 30% die in their first year of life, and 56% do not survive to puberty.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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