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Blood Cells

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The rate of production of blood cells is controlled by the needs of the body. Normal blood cells last a limited time and should be replaced with a constantly. Certain conditions can trigger an additional production of blood cells. When the oxygen content of body tissues is low or the number of red blood cells decreases, the kidneys produce and release erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. The bone marrow produces and releases more white blood cells in response to infections. It produces and publishes more platelets in response to bleeding.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Blood types

Table

A+A-
B+B-
AB+AB-
O+O-

Categorizing Blood according to Type helps prevent reactions when someone gets A Blood transfusion. Red Blood cells have markers on their surface that characterize the Type of cell. These markers are proteins and sugars that our bodies use to identify Blood cells as belonging in the united states. Type A: this Type of Blood has A marker known as. Type B: this Type of Blood has A marker known as B. Type of AB: this Type of Blood has both and B markers. Type O: this Type of Blood has no or B markers. The Blood is further classified as Rh positive or Rh negative. O negative. This Type of Blood does not have or B markers, and has no Rh factor. Positive. This Type of Blood does not have or B markers, but if you have the Rh factor. Or positive Blood is one of the two most common Blood types. Negative. This Type of Blood has only marker. Positive. This Blood Type has A marker and A Rh factor, but not A B marker. Along with or positive, it is one of the two most common types of Blood. B negative. This Blood Type has B marker only. B positive. This Blood Type has A marker B and A Rh, but not A marker. AB negative. This Blood Type has and B markers, but not the Rh factor. AB positive. This Type of Blood has all three types of markers, B and Rh factor. Having any of these markers does not make the Blood of A person or stronger. It is just A genetic difference, such as having green eyes instead of curly or straight.


What Are the Components of Blood?

Red Blood cells look like small doughnuts without holes; their red color comes from hemoglobin, which is a protein that contains iron that bind to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red Blood cells use their hemoglobin to bring oxygen from the lungs to tissues and organs. Red Blood cells then collect carbon dioxide from the tissues and organs and carry it back to the lungs for disposal. In a healthy individual, red Blood cells remain alive for about 120 days. The average adult has about 25 trillion red Blood cells. To keep this level, the bone marrow in the person's body produces 7. 5 billion red Blood cells every hour, or about 2 million seconds. In transfusion medicine, red Blood cells are isolated from all donated Blood and reconstituted in an additive solution that allows their 4C storage for several weeks until the patient requires transfusion. When red Blood cells are damaged and their content is released into the Blood, we say the Blood is hemolysed. Red Blood cells that are damaged can no longer carry oxygen and release cell content is toxic to the body. High levels of hemoglobin and other cellular debris can damage the kidneys.

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Table2

Blood typePercent of CanadiansBlood types of compatible recipients (red blood cells)Blood types of compatible recipients (plasma)
O-7All blood typesO-, O+
O+39O+, A+, B+, AB+O-, O+
A-6A-, A+, AB-, AB+O-, O+, A-, A+
A+36A+, AB+O-, O+, A-, A+
B-1B-, B+, AB-, AB+O-, O+, B-, B+
B+8B+, AB+O-, O+, B-, B+
AB-<1AB-, AB+All blood types
AB+3AB+All blood types
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Parts of Your Blood

White blood cells fight infection and are an important part of your immune system. They make up a very small part of your total blood. There are 3 types of white blood cells: granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Each type has an important role. There are 3 types of granulocytes: Neutrophils help to fight against bacterial and fungal infections. Basophils are part of the immune response of your body. Their exact function is not well known. Eosinophils help fight infections caused by parasites. Monocytes break down and remove foreign organisms and die cells from your body. The lymphocytes cause your immune system. White blood cells have a wide range of useful life, from hours to years.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Red blood cell disorders

The anemias, where there are not enough red Blood cells or cells do not function properly, are one of the most common Blood Disorders. According to the American Society of Hematology, anemia affects more than 3 million Americans. Iron deficiency anemias when the body does not have enough iron or can ' t absorb it properly.


Types of white blood cell disorders

Medical examination and complete medical history blood tests, urine tests, bone marrow aspiration and treatment for the lumbar puncture, where doctors collect spinal fluid for imaging examination, such as X-rays, CT, or PET scans, MRI and ultrasound blood cell cancers that do not yet cause symptoms may not require the treatment aside from monitoring.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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White blood cell disorders

Two main types of White Blood Cell Disorders are proliferative Disorders and leukopenies. In proliferative Disorders, there is an increase in the number of White Blood cells. This increase is commonly the reaction due to infection, but can, be less commonly, related to some types of cancer. In leukopenias, a decrease in the number of White Blood cells, which can be caused by the cells that are destroyed by the disease or by other conditions. A particular type of leukopenia is neutropenia, meaning there are fewer neutrophils in the Blood. The external cause of neutropenia include chemotherapy, drugs, toxins and viral disease. Disorders that can cause neutropenia within the body include bone marrow defects, or conditions in which the person is born with too few neutrophils. Both leukopenia and neutropenia can cause deficiency in the immune system, which can increase the risk of infection. Leukopenia treatment and neutropenia are intended to the underlying cause of change in Cell counts. An increase in the number of White Blood cells in circulation is called leukocytosis. Leukocytosis can be caused by inflammation and other Disorders that result in increased bone marrow production, also many WBCS that are released from bone marrow all at once, or Disorders that prevent WBCS from joining the tissues and being absorbed by the body's tissues.


What is a white blood count (WBC)?

A healthcare professional will take a blood sample from the vein in the arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected in a test tube or a vial. You may feel a bit of sting when the needle enters or out. To test the kids, health care providers will take samples from the heels or the tip of the fingers. The provider will clean the heels or the tip of the fingers with the alcohol and the site poke with a small needle. The provider will pick up a few drops of blood and put a dressing on the site.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Platelet disorders

Platelet count is usually about 140 000 to 440 000 platelets per microlitre. The platelet count may vary according to the menstrual cycle. It can decrease near the end of pregnancy and increase in response to inflammation. None of these conditions is severe, and most affected people have no problem resulting from one. In essential thrombocythemia, bone marrow cells that cause platelets grow excessively and do too many platelets despite no other disorder being identified. Surprisingly, the increase in the number of platelets more often causes excessive bleeding rather than clotting. Doctors sometimes give people aspirin to reduce the risk of abnormal clotting if they have vascular disease or are at higher risk of heart attack. Medications to reduce platelet count can sometimes be needed in reactive Thrombocytosis, another medical disorder stimulates the bone marrow to do too many platelets. Such disorders include infections, chronic inflammation, iron deficiency, and certain cancers. A higher number of platelets usually do not cause any increase in clotting or risk of bleeding. Specific treatment is not necessary for a high number of platelets, but the underlying condition may need to be treated. Bleeding on your skin can be the first sign of a low platelet count or platelet dysfunction. Many small red spots usually appear on the skin in the lower legs, and minor injuries can cause black and blue bruising. The gums can bleed and the blood may appear in the stool or urine. Menstrual periods or nosebleeds may be unusually heavy. Lower platelet count, more serious symptoms. People with too many platelets can have the same signs of bleeding as people with too few platelets because a very high number of platelets can absorb enough important clotting factors to cause bleeding. However, some people instead have symptoms caused by abnormal blood clots. For example, people may have swollen the blood clots in the vein leg, or may have numbness and weakness due to the blood clot in their brain causing a stroke.


Treatment

Treatment for platelet disorders is also varied and is determined by your specific diagnosis. Some platelet disorders may not require any specific treatment, while others may only require treatment during acute events such as bleeding. Platelet transfusions can be used if you have severe bleeding. Platelet transfusions can be used for platelet function disorders and most platelet disorders with thrombocytopenia. Steroids such as prednisone can be used in immune-related platelet disorders, such as immune thrombocytopenia. Intravenous immunoglobulin is commonly used in platelet disorders related to immune, such as immune thrombocytopenia and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Aspirin reduces the function of platelets and can be used to prevent blood clots from being formed in the essential thrombocythaemia. Anti-fibrinolytic drugs are drugs used to help stabilize clots, particularly in the humid surfaces of the mucosa. These drugs are commonly used in these conditions for nosebleeds, gum bleeding and menorrhagia. They may also be used after surgical procedures to prevent bleeding. It is important to discuss with your doctor what the best treatment is for you and your diagnosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Plasma cell disorders

Multiple Myeloma cells are abnormal plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow and form tumors in many body bones. Normal plasma cells cause antibodies to help the body fight infection and disease. As the number of Multiple Myeloma cells increase, more antibodies are made. This can cause the blood to thicken and prevent the bone marrow from making enough healthy blood cells. Multiple Myeloma cells also damage and weaken the bone. Stem cell transplantation.: Blood is taken from a vein in the donor arm. The patient or other person may be a donor. Blood flows through machines that remove stem cells. Then the blood is returned to the donor through a vein in another arm.: A patient receives chemotherapy to kill blood formation cells. The patient may receive radiation therapy.: The patient receives stem cells through a catheter placed in the blood vessel in the chest. CAR T cell therapy. Type of Treatment in which patients T cells are changed in the lab so that they will bind to the cancer cells and kill them. Blood from the vein in the patient arm flows through a tube to the apheresis machine, which removes white blood cells, including T cells, and sends the rest of the blood back to the patient. Then, gene for a special receptor called a chimeric antigen receptor is inserted into T cells in the lab. Millions of CAR T cells are grown in the lab and then given to patients by infusion. CAR T cells are able to unite to antigen on cancer cells and kill them.


Overview

Multiple myeloma is cancer that forms in the type of white blood cell called plasma cell. Healthy plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. In multiple myeloma, cancer plasma cells build up in bone marrow and crowd healthy blood cells. Instead of producing useful antibodies, cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications. Treatment for multiple myeloma is not always necessary immediately. If multiple myeloma is slow growing and is not triggering signs and symptoms, your doctor may recommend close monitoring instead of an immediate treatment. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, number of options are available to help control disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Platelets (also called thrombocytes)

Platelets, also known AS thrombocytes, are blood cells responsible for blood clotting. If the blood vessel wall becomes damage, the platelets will rush to the injury site and form a plug or clot to stop the bleeding. If the platelet count is low, the risk of bleeding or prolonged. When there are too many platelets in the blood, it can lead to an abnormal blood clot formation, which can be serious and life-threatening. Your doctor can help you evaluate your platelet count by looking at the full blood count test. Root thrombo in thrombocyte means clot. You will see it used with diseases and conditions that affect platelets and blood clotting.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Table

TESTReference Range 2Examples of causes of low resultExamples of causes of high result
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)Conventional Units Men: 4.5-5.9 x 10 6 /microliter Women: 4.1-5.1 x 10 6 microliter SI Units Men: 4.5-5.9 x 10 12 /L Women: 4.1-5.1 x 10 12 /LKnown as anemia Acute or chronic bleeding RBC destruction (e.g., hemolytic anemia, etc.) Nutritional deficiency (e.g., iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency ) Bone marrow disorders or damage Chronic inflammatory disease Chronic kidney diseaseKnown as polycythemia Dehydration Lung (pulmonary) disease Kidney or other tumor that produces excess erythropoietin Smoking Living at high altitude Genetic causes (altered oxygen sensing, abnormality in hemoglobin oxygen release) Polycythemia veraa rare disease
Hemoglobin (Hb)Conventional Units Men: 14-17.5 g/dL Women: 12.3-15.3 g/dL SI Units Men: 140-175 g/L Women: 123-153 g/LUsually mirrors RBC results, provides added informationUsually mirrors RBC results
Hematocrit (Hct)Conventional Units Men: 41.5-50.4% Women: 35.9-44.6% SI Units Men: 0.415-0.504 volume fraction Women: 0.359-0.446 volume fractionUsually mirrors RBC resultsUsually mirrors RBC results; most common cause is dehydration
MCVConventional Units 80-96 micrometer 3 SI Units 80-96 fLIndicates RBCs are smaller than normal (microcytic); caused by iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias , for example.Indicates RBCs are larger than normal (macrocytic), for example in anemia caused by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, myelodysplasia , liver disease , hypothyroidism , etc.
MCHConventional Units 27.5-33.2 pg SI Units 27.5-33.2 pgMirrors MCV results; small red cells would have a lower value.Mirrors MCV results; macrocytic RBCs are large so tend to have a higher MCH.
MCHCConventional Units 33.4-35.5 g/dL SI Units 334-355 g/LMay be low when MCV is low; decreased MCHC values (hypochromia) are seen in conditions such as iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia.Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is more concentrated inside the red cells, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in burn patients, and hereditary spherocytosis, a rare congenital disorder.
RBC Distribution Width (RDW, RDW-SD, RDW-CV) Not always reportedIndicates that RBC are uniform in size.Indicates mixed population of small and large RBCs; young RBCs tend to be larger. For example, in iron deficiency anemia or pernicious anemia, there is high variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size (along with variation in shape - poikilocytosis), causing an increase in the RDW.
Reticulocyte Count Not always doneConventional Units 0.5-1.5% or 25-125 x 10 3 /microliter SI Units 0.005-0.015 number fraction or 25-125 x 10 9 /LIn the setting of anemia, a low reticulocyte count indicates a condition is affecting the production of red blood cells, such as bone marrow disorder or damage, or a nutritional deficiency (iron, B12 or folate).In the setting of anemia, a high reticulocyte count generally indicates peripheral cause, such as bleeding or hemolysis , or response to treatment (e.g., iron supplementation for iron deficiency anemia).

A Complete blood count is a common blood test that is done for a variety of reasons: to check your overall health. Your doctor may recommend a full blood count as part of a routine medical exam to monitor your overall health and to screen for a variety of disorders, such as anemia or leukemia. To diagnose medical condition. Your doctor may suggest Complete blood count if you are experiencing weakness, fatigue, fever, inflammation, bruising or bleeding. A Complete blood count can help diagnose the cause of these signs and symptoms. If your doctor suspects you have an infection, test can also help confirm that diagnosis. To monitor the medical condition. If you have been diagnosed with a blood disorder affecting blood cell counts, your doctor may use Complete blood counts to monitor your condition. To watch medical treatment. A Complete blood count can be used to monitor your health if you are taking medicines that can affect blood cell counts.


Overview

A full blood count gives important information about the types and numbers of cells in the blood, especially red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. CBC helps your doctor check any symptoms you may have, such as weakness, fatigue or bruising. CBC also helps him or her diagnose conditions, such as anemia, infection, and many other disorders. White blood cell counts. White blood cells protect the body against infection. If an infection develops, white blood cells attack and destroy bacteria, viruses, or other body that causes it. White blood cells are larger than red blood cells, but fewer in number. When a person has a bacterial infection, the number of white cells is rising very quickly. The number of white blood cells is sometimes used to find the infection or to see how the body is dealing with cancer treatment. White blood cell types. The main types of white blood cells are neutrophil, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Immature neutrophil, call the neutrophil band, are also part of this test. Each type of cell plays a different role in protecting the body. The numbers of each of these types of white blood cells give important information about the immune system. Too many or very few different types of white blood cells can help find infection, allergic or toxic reactions to drugs or chemicals, and many conditions, such as leukemia. Red blood cell counts. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. They also carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs so you can exhale. If the RBC count is low, the body may not be getting the oxygen you need. If the count is too high, there is a chance of red blood cells to join and block small blood vessels. This also makes it difficult for your red blood cells to carry oxygen. Hematocrit. This test measures the amount of red blood cells takes up blood. The value is given as a percentage of red blood cells in the volume of the blood. For example, the hematocrit of 38 means that 38 % of the volume of the blood is made from red blood cells. Hematocrit and Hemoglobin values are two main tests that show if anemia or polycythemia is present. Hemoglobin. The Hemoglobin molecules are filled in red blood cells. It carries oxygen and gives blood cells in your red color.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Table2

TestReference Range 2Examples of causes of a low countExamples of causes of a high count
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)Conventional Units 1 4,500-11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) SI Units 1 4.5-11.0 x 10 9 per liter (L)Known as leukopenia Bone marrow disorders or damage Autoimmune conditions Severe infections ( sepsis ) Lymphoma or other cancer that spread to the bone marrow Dietary deficiencies Diseases of immune system (e.g., HIV/AIDS )Known as leukocytosis Infection , most commonly bacterial or viral Inflammation Leukemia , myeloproliferative neoplasms Allergies , asthma Tissue death (trauma, burns, heart attack ) Intense exercise or severe stress
White Blood Cell Differential (Diff)(Not always performed; may be done as part of or in follow up to CBC)
Absolute neutrophil count, % neutrophils (Neu, PMN, polys)Conventional Units Percent (mean): 56% Absolute count (per microliter): 1800-7800 SI Units Mean number fraction: 0.56 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter: 1.8-7.8Known as neutropenia Severe, overwhelming infection (sepsis) Autoimmune disorders Dietary deficiencies Reaction to drugs Immunodeficiency Myelodysplasia Bone marrow damage (e.g., chemotherapy , radiation therapy) Cancer that spreads to the bone marrow Congenital neutropeniaKnown as neutrophilia Acute bacterial infections Inflammation Trauma, heart attack, or burns Stress, rigorous exercise Certain leukemias (e.g., chronic myeloid leukemia) Cushing syndrome
Absolute lymphocyte count, % lymphocytes (Lymph)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 34% Absolute count (per microliter): 1000-4800 SI Units Mean number fraction: 0.34 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter: 1.0-4.8Known as lymphocytopenia Autoimmune disorders (e.g., lupus , rheumatoid arthritis ) Infections (e.g., HIV, viral hepatitis , typhoid fever, influenza , Covid-19) Bone marrow damage (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy) CorticosteroidsKnown as lymphocytosis Acute viral infections (e.g., chicken pox , cytomegalovirus (CMV) , Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) , herpes , rubella ) Certain bacterial infections (e.g., pertussis (whooping cough) , tuberculosis (TB) ) Toxoplasmosis Chronic inflammatory disorder (e.g., ulcerative colitis) Lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma Stress (acute)
Absolute monocyte count, % monocytes (Mono)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 4% Absolute count (per microliter) 0-800 SI Units Mean number fraction 0.04 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter 0-0.80Usually, one low count is not medically significant. Repeated low counts can indicate: Bone marrow damage or failure Hairy cell leukemia Aplastic anemiaChronic infections (e.g., tuberculosis, fungal infection ) Infection within the heart (bacterial endocarditis) Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., lupus, scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis ) Monocytic or myelomonocytic leukemia (acute or chronic)
Absolute eosinophil count, % eosinophils (Eos)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 2.7% Absolute count (per microliter) 0-450 SI Units Mean number fraction 0.027 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter 0-0.45Numbers are normally low in the blood. One or an occasional low number is usually not medically significant.Asthma, allergies such as hay fever Drug reactions Parasitic infections Inflammatory disorders ( celiac disease , inflammatory bowel disease ) Some cancers, certain acute or chronic leukemias or lymphomas Addison disease Connective tissue disorders
Absolute basophil count, % basophils (Baso)Conventional Units Percent (mean) 0.3% Absolute count (per microliter) 0-200 SI Units Mean number fraction 0.030 Absolute count X 10 9 per liter 0-0.20As with eosinophils, numbers are normally low in the blood; usually not medically significantRare allergic reactions (hives, food allergy) Inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis) Some leukemias Uremia

Table3

TestReference Range 2Examples of causes of low resultExamples of causes of high result
Platelet Count (Plt)Conventional Units 150-450 x 10 3 /microliter SI Units 150-450 x 10 9 /LKnown as thrombocytopenia: Viral infection ( mononucleosis , measles , hepatitis ) Rocky mountain spotted fever Platelet autoantibody Drugs (acetaminophen, quinidine, sulfa drugs) Cirrhosis Autoimmune disorders (e.g., ITP) Sepsis Leukemia , lymphoma Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapyKnown as thrombocytosis: Cancer ( lung , gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis , inflammatory bowel disease , lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia)
MPV (Not always reported)Mean Platelet VolumeIndicates average size of platelets is small; older platelets are generally smaller than young ones and a low MPV may mean that a condition is affecting the production of platelets by the bone marrow.Indicates a high number of larger, younger platelets in the blood; this may be due to the bone marrow producing and releasing platelets rapidly into circulation.
PDW (Not always reported)Platelet Distribution WidthIndicates uniformity in size of platelets.Indicates increased variation in the size of the platelets, which may mean that a condition is present that is affecting platelets.

Table4

LOINCLOINC Display Name
47288-6CBC WO Differential panel (BldCo)
57021-8CBC W Auto Differential panel (Bld)
57022-6CBC W Reflex Manual Differential panel (Bld)
57782-5CBC W Ordered Manual Differential panel (Bld)
58410-2CBC panel Auto (Bld)
69742-5CBC W Differential panel, method unspecified (Bld)
74412-8CBC W Differential panel (BldCo)
95215-0CBC W Differential panel (Stem cell product)
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Hemoglobin binds oxygen

The old or damaged RBCs are removed from circulation by macrophages in the spleen and liver, and hemoglobin they contain is broken down into haeme and globin. The globin protein can be recycled, or broken down further to its constituent amino acids, which can be recycled or metabolized. Heme contains precious iron that is preserved and used in the synthesis of new hemoglobin molecules. During their metabolism, heme is converted to bilirubin, yellow pigment that can discolor the skin and the ocelera of the eye if it builds up in the blood, the condition known as jaundice. Instead, the plasma protein album binds to bilirubin and brings it to the liver, where it is secreted into bile and also contributes to the color of the stool. Jaundice is one of the complications of incompatible blood transfusion. This occurs when the recipient's immune system attacks the donor's RBC as being foreign. The rate of RBC destruction and subsequent production of bilirubin can exceed the ability of the liver to metabolize the bilirubin products.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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