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Brain Cells Does A Kid

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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As the highest, most recent evolved part of the brain, cerebral cortex is responsible for all of our conscious thoughts, feelings, memories, and voluntary actions. Although all of the neurons in the cortex are produced before birth, they are poorly connect. In contrast to the brain stem and spinal cord, cerebral cortex produces most of its synaptic connections after birth, in a massive burst of synapse formation know as exuberant period. At its peak, cerebral cortex creates an astonishing two million new synapses every second. With these new connections come babys many mental milestones, such as color vision, pincer grasp, or strong attachment to his parents. At two years of age, toddlers ' cerebral cortex contains well over a hundred trillion synapses. This period of synaptic exuberance varies in different parts of the cerebral cortex: it begins earlier in primary sensory regions, like the visual cortex or primary touch area of the cortex, while it takes off somewhat later in temporal and frontal lobes, brain areas involved in higher cognitive and emotional functions. Nonetheless, number of synapses remains at this peak, over-abundant level in all areas of the cerebral cortex throughout middle childhood. Beginning in middle elementary school years and continuing until the end of adolescence, number of synapses then gradually declines down to adult levels. This pattern of synaptic production and pruning corresponds remarkably well to children's overall brain activity during development. Using PET imaging technology, neuroscientists have found dramatic changes in the level of energy use by children's brains over the first several years of lifefrom very low at birth, to rapid rise and over-shoot between infancy and early elementary school years, followed by gradual decline to adult levels between middle childhood and end of adolescence. In other words, children's brains are working very hard, especially during period of synaptic exuberance that correspond to various critical periods in their mental development. Besides synapse formation and pruning, other most significant event in postnatal brain development is myelination. The newborn brain contains very little myelin, dense impermeable substance that covers the length of mature brain cells and is necessary for clear, efficient electrical transmission. This lack of myelin is the main reason why babies and young children process information so much more slowly than adultswhy it might take children a minute or more to begin responding to requests such as Joey, bring Mommy teddy bear. Myelination of the cerebral cortex begins in primary motor and sensory areasregions that receive first input from eyes, ears, nose, skin, and mouthand then progress to higher-order, or association regions that control more complex integration of perception, thoughts, memories, and feelings. Myelination is a very extended process: although most areas of the brain begin adding this critical insulation within the first two years of life, some of the more complex areas in frontal and temporal lobes continue the process throughout childhood and perhaps well into person 20s.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Types of Neurons (Nerve Cells)

Prepare by Judith Graham, Extension human Development Specialist, University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Revise by Leslie. Forstadt, ph. D Child and Family Development Specialist, University of Maine Cooperative Extension. For Information About UMaine Extension programs and Resources, visit Extension. UMaine. Edu. Find more of our publications and books at extensionpubs. Umext. Maine. Edu. Like constructing a house, brains are built upon a strong foundation. This starts before birth, and is very important during the first three years of life. BRAIN Cells are raw materials much like lumber is raw material in building house, and children's experiences and interactions help build structure, put in wiring, and paint walls. Heredity determines basic number of Neurons children are born with, and their initial arrangement. At birth, babys BRAIN contains 100 billion Neurons, roughly as many nerve cells as there are stars in Milky Way, and almost all Neurons BRAIN will ever have. BRAIN starts forming prenatally, about three weeks after conception. Before birth, BRAIN produced trillions more neurons and synapses than it need. During the first years of life, BRAIN underwent a series of extraordinary changes. In BRAIN, neurons are there at birth, as well as some synapses. As neurons mature, more and more synapses are make. At birth, number of synapses per Neuron is 2 500, but by age two or three, it is about 15 000 per Neuron. BRAIN eliminates connections that are seldom or never used, which is a normal part of BRAIN development. Windows of Opportunity are sensitive periods in childrens lives when specific types of learning take place. For instance, scientists have determined that neurons for vision begin sending messages back and forth rapidly at 2 to 4 months of age, peaking in intensity at 8 months. It is no coincidence that babies begin to take notice of the world during this period. Scientists believe that language is acquired most easily during the first ten years of life. During these years, circuits in children's brains become wire for how their own language sounds. Infants repeat exposure to words clearly help her BRAIN Build neural connections that will enable her to learn more words later on. Language can be learnt in a multitude of ways, like casual conversation, songs, rhymes, reading, music, story telling and much more. Early stimulation sets the stage for how children will learn and interact with others throughout life. A child's experiences, good or bad, influence the wiring of his BRAIN and connection in his nervous system. Loving interactions with caring adults strongly stimulate children's BRAIN, causing synapses to grow and existing connections to get stronger. Connections that are use become permanent. If a child receives little stimulation early on, synapses will not develop, and BRAIN will make fewer connections. Stress can become toxic when a child has frequent or prolonged experiences like abuse, neglect or poverty without adult support.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Biggest Part: the Cerebrum

Hereas something to wrap your mind around: Human BRAIN is more complex than any other known structure in the universe. Weighing in at three pounds, on average, this spongy mass of fat and protein is made up of two overarching types of cellsacalled glia and neuronsaand it contains many billions of each. Neurons are notable for their branch-like projections called axons and dendrites, which gather and transmit electrochemical signals. Different types of glial cells provide physical protection to neurons and help keep them, and BRAIN, healthy. Cerebrum is the largest part of BRAIN, accounting for 85 percent of the organ's weight. The distinctive, deeply wrinkled outer surface is the cerebral cortex. It's cerebrum that makes the human brainaand therefore, humansaso formidable. Animals such as elephants, dolphins, and whales actually have larger brains, but humans have the most developed cerebrum. It's packed to capacity inside our skulls, with deep folds that cleverly maximize the total surface area of the cortex. Cerebrum has two halves, or hemispheres, that are further divided into four regions, or lobes. Frontal lobes, located behind the forehead, are involved with speech, think, learning, emotion, and movement. Behind them are parietal lobes, which process sensory information such as touch, temperature, and pain. At the rear of BRAIN are occipital lobes, dealing with vision. Lastly, there are temporal lobes, near temples, which are involved in hearing and memory. The third-largest part is Diencephalon, located in the core of BRAIN. Complex of structures roughly the size of an apricot, its two major sections are the thalamus and hypothalamus. Thalamus acts as a relay station for incoming nerve impulses from around the body that are then forward to the appropriate BRAIN region for processing. The Hypothalamus controls hormone secretions from nearby pituitary gland. These hormones govern growth and instinctual behaviors, such as when new mother starts to lactate. Hypothalamus is also important for keeping bodily processes like temperature, hunger, and thirst balance. This led scientists to learn that BRAIN has an ingenious, protective layer. Call blood-BRAIN barrier, itas made up of special, tightly bind cells that together function as kind of semi-permeable gate throughout most of the organ. It keeps the BRAIN environment safe and stable by preventing some toxins, pathogens, and other harmful substances from entering BRAIN through the bloodstream, while simultaneously allowing oxygen and vital nutrients to pass through. Alzheimeras disease, which is characterized in part by gradual progression of short-term memory loss, disorientation, and mood swings, is the most common cause of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with it is growing. Worldwide, some 50 million people suffer from Alzheimeras or some form of dementia. While there are a handful of drugs available to mitigate Alzheimeras symptoms, there is no cure. Researchers across the globe continue to develop treatments that one day might put an end to diseaseas devasting effects.


What Are the Parts of the Brain?

Nerve cells in the brain send and receive electrical impulses to and from the body. If you take a close look at the human brain, you'll find it has three main parts. The largest is cerebrum on top. The surface of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex. Although less than 0. 5cm thick, cerebral cortex is critical to your child's ability to move, to understand what they see and hear and to think-complex process of making decisions, learning, remembering and planning. Cerebrum is divided into two halves called hemispheres. Corpus callosum is 'electric highway' of nerve fibres which connect two hemispheres and allow information to pass between. Hemispheres are divided into smaller parts: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. At the back of your brain and beneath the cerebral cortex is the cerebellum. The Cerebellum coordinates skilled movement, giving your child the ability to walk without stumbling and to use their hands smoothly and precisely. Locate at the base of the brain is the brain stem, stalk-like structure that connects the brain to the spinal cord. Brain stems take care of basic and involuntary functions such as breathing, blinking and bowel regulation.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Caring, Responsive Relationships

During the first three years of life, children go through period of prolonged helplessness, dependent on others for safety, survival, and socialization. Because Babies brains are program to learn from their caregivers, this period of helplessness is strength, not weakness. Infants and toddlers time with others wires their brains for survival in anticipation of future functioning. The brain builds crucial structures and pathways that serve as the foundation for future social, emotional, language, and intellectual functioning. Therefore, relationships child experiences each day and the environments in which those relationships play out are building blocks of the brain. By participating in learning experiences with their caregivers, babies shape their brains to function in particular physical, social, and linguistic environments of those who care for them. Babies learn, largely by attending to their caregivers modeling, how to feel, think, and act. Simple, daily interactions have enormous impact. For example, caregivers who perform routines in a gentle way and use language to help children anticipate what will happen next, teach children to learn about caring relationships and support language development. During this formative period, it is critically important for caregivers to create a climate of care with healthy brain growth in mind. Simply state, young children develop and function well when provided care in safe, interesting, and intimate settings where they establish and sustain secure and trusting relationships with knowledgeable caregivers who are responsive to their needs and interests. The infant brain is at once vulnerable and competent; both of these attributes need to be addrest simultaneously for healthy brain development. A vulnerable baby is dependent on relationships with adults for physical survival, emotional security, safe base for learning, help with self-regulation, modeling and mentoring social behavior, and information and exchanges about the workings of the world and rules for living. Yet at the same time, babies come into the world with great competence as curious, motivate, self-starting learneranss, imitator, interpreter, integrator, inventor, explorer, communicator, meaning seeker, and relationship builder. For the brain to grow robustly, it needs context of caring relationships that simultaneously provide emotional predictability for the babys vulnerable side and a climate of intellectual novelty for the competent side. When do caring relationships start to influence development of the brain? Earlier than most of us think. Although this article primarily focuses on relationships established during the time period from birth to age 3, developing the brain before birthand even before conceptiondeserves some attention. A Woman's health and habits before becoming pregnant shape development of embryo. From at least three months before conception, prospective mothers ' food, drinks, drugs, toxins, stresses, and other experiences influence the early womb environment in which the brain develop; this may affect children's future learning. Since many women become pregnant while in poor health or while engaging in unhealthy habits, connection between preconception and healthy brain development needs to be address.


Conclusion

What we are learning from brain science helps us better understand multiple factors that influence young children's development and provide us with caregiving strategies that are in harmony with the developing brain. In essence, brain development is about the whole child, from the health of the mother to children's early experiences in the culture and language of their family, their community, and their early learning program. Foundation of brain development is social and emotional development ground in caring relationships. If caregivers are mindful of how children's whole experienceparticularly, emotional tenorinfluences developing brain, they can provide caring relationships that help children feel secure and open up to an engaging world of exploration and learning throughout early years.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Importance of Experience

Account of brain development in the early years of childhood is only complete if we first examine the origins of this process during prenatal months. Brain development is a protracted process that begins about 2 weeks after conception and continues into younger adulthood 20 years later. Brain development that occurs during prenatal months is largely under genetic control, although clearly environment can play a role; for example, it is well known that lack of nutrition and the presence of toxins can both deleteriously influence the developing brain. In contrast, much of brain development that occurs postnatally is experience-dependent and defined by gene-environment interactions. Below we provide brief descriptions of anatomical changes that characterize the early stages of brain development. About 2 weeks after conception, developing embryo has organized itself into a three-layer, spherical structure. In one area of this sphere, cells thicken to form what is called neural plate. This plate then folds over on itself, forming a tube that gradually closes first at bottom and then on top, much like a zipper. This creates neural tube, inner cells of which will lead to formation of the central nervous system while outer cells will give rise to the autonomic nervous system. Once the neural tube is close, it becomes a three-vesicle structure and shortly thereafter five-vesicle structure. Different regions of tissue around ventricles will become distinct brain structures. The anterior portion of the tube will become the forebrain, which includes cerebral hemispheres; diencephalon; and basal ganglia. Cells around the middle vesicle will become midbrain, structure that connects the diencephalon to the hindbrain. The rear-most portion of the tube will give rise to the hindbrain, which will consist of the medulla oblongata, pons, and cerebellum. Finally, cells that remain will give rise to the spinal cord. Once the general structure of the neural tube has been laid out, cells that line the innermost part of the tube, call ventricular zone, proliferate at a logarithmic rate. As these cells multiply, they form a second zone, marginal zone, which will contain axons and dendrites. This proliferative stage continues for some time, with the consequence that the newborn brain will have many more neurons than the adult brain. Overproduction of neurons is eventually balanced by the process of apoptosis, or program cell death. Apoptosis is responsible for the decrease in cell numbers to adult levels and is completely under genetic control. After cells are born, they travel to their final destinations. The cerebral cortex is composed of multilayered tissue several millimeters thick. It is formed by movement of cells in inside-out direction, beginning in the ventricular zone and migrating through the intermediate zone, with cells eventually reaching their final destination on the outside of the developing brain.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Can You Do?

Parents and other caregivers can help nurture positive BRAIN development. Here are some important ways you can help your babies ' BRAIN development. Remember that BRAIN development begins before birth. Nutrition provides foundation for BRAIN development even before a baby is born. Women who are pregnant should eat nutritious foods, avoid alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, and have regular prenatal checkups to help ensure that their babies are born healthy. Make sure your baby's world is safe and secure. A baby feels stress when the environment is dangerous or when caregivers do not respond to him, and that stress can slow BRAIN development. Remove any safety hazards from the environment. Respond lovingly and consistently to your babys cries. Give her attention. Talk to your baby. When he makes a sound, repeat it. Smile at him. Talk about things youre doing together. Interacting face-to-face builds BRAIN connections needed for both language skills and healthy emotional bond. Read to your baby beginning at birth. Hearing adults read helps BRAIN develop language connections. It also gives parents and babies the chance to spend time together. And reading aloud helps your baby start building a lifelong love of books. If you use Child care, ensure that it is high quality. Babies need sensitive, loving care and stimulating experiences, in Child care as well as at home, to ensure healthy development. Choose a child care provider who will interact warmly with your baby oneon-one. Look for a safe and clean environment, low baby-to-adult ratio, caregivers who understand how children grow and develop, and a rich variety of age-appropriate toys. Get information you need. If you have questions about your babys development, there are many places you can go for answers. Ask your doctor questions during check-ups. Have your librarian recommend good books on child development. Contact the Family and Consumer Sciences agent in your county Extension Office for more information on parenting. Check out the Better Brains for Babies website for more information on supporting healthy BRAIN development.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Mass Production of Brain Cells

The top graph on left shows brain weights of males and females at different ages. The bottom graph shows brain weight to total body weight ratio. Adult brain make up about 2 % of total body weight. Do YOU KNOW? The Touch is first sense to develop. A developing fetus responds to touch of lips and cheeks by 8 weeks and to other parts of its body at 14 week. A sense of taste may develop by 12 weeks and that of sound at 22-24 weeks.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Migration To The Cerebral Cortex

The Mammalian brain develops from the core outward. Long before the recognizably wrinkled surface of the cerebral cortex appear, hollow, fluid-fill ventricles are present. These serve both as connection back to the spinal cord and as site of origin for new elements that will ultimately be assembled into the outermost surface of the brain, cerebral cortex. Thus, in the course of development, neurons and supporting glial cells of the cortex must somehow make their way there from the Ventricular zone. This stage has been described as massive migration of cells, and distances involved are enormous, at least from the point of view of a single cell: some may travel as much as several millimeters to their eventual destination in the cortex. But how do cell know its eventual destination? Pasko Rakic suggests that columns play an important role here. More specifically, columns that make up protomap at Ventricular surface could be seen as including a proliferative unit at the base and then a cellular pathway along which nerve cells travel when they have stopped dividing and begin to mature. As neurons of each unit migrate along pathway in set order and settle into position in the cortex, they would reproduce faithfully orderly arrangement of units in which they originateda feature term cytoarchitectonic, for architecture of cells. According to this model, surface area of each region of the cerebral cortex would be function of the number of proliferative units contributing to it, whereas thickness of the cortex at any particular spot would depend on the number of cell-division cycles that occur within unit. As example, primary visual cortex of monkey comprises roughly 2. 5 million such units, each containing about 100 to 120 cells. Migrating neuron is guided along its set pathway by a special adhesion molecules array on a temporary framework of supporting cells. Glial cells composing pathways for most neurons are extremely elongated and stringy in form, making dense radial pattern from the Ventricular zone to outer layers of the developing brain. Once the stage of migration is accomplish, some of these glial cells degenerate; others undergo cell division and join mature network of supporting cells, white matter, in the brain. Although occasionally migrating neuron may transfer from one set of radial glial fibers to another en route, most of the time, adhesion molecules are strong enough to keep neuron in the path to which it first becomes attached from the Ventricular zone and to draw neuron without entanglement through dense arrangement of other cells, axons, and dendrites that are accumulating in cortex. A Smaller numbers of cells are apparently uninfluenced by radial glial pathways and instead follow different sets of paths by adhering to the surface of axons.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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