Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Brain Tumor Treatment

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 July 2021

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape close them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. A Brain Tumor, know as an intracranial Tumor, is an abnormal mass of tissue in which cells grow and multiply uncontrollably, seemingly unchecked by mechanisms that control normal cells. More than 150 different brain tumors have been document, but two main groups of brain tumors are termed primary and metastatic. Primary brain tumors include tumors that originate from tissues of the brain or the brain's immediate surroundings. Primary tumors are categorized as glial or non - glial and benign or malignant. Metastatic Brain tumors include tumors that arise elsewhere in the body and migrate to the brain, usually through the bloodstream. Metastatic tumors are considered cancer and are malignant. Metastatic tumors to brain affect nearly one in four patients with cancer, or an estimated 150 000 people a year. Up to 40 percent of people with lung cancer will develop metastatic brain tumors. In the past, outcomes for patients diagnosed with these tumors were very poor, with typical survival rates of just several weeks. More sophisticated diagnostic tools, in addition to innovative surgical and radiation approaches, have helped survival rates expand up to years; and also allowed for improved quality of life for patients following diagnosis. Chordomas are benign, slow - growing tumors that are most prevalent in people ages 50 to 60. Their most common locations are the base of the skull and lower portion of the spine. Although these tumors are benign, they may invade adjacent bone and put pressure on nearby neural tissue. These are rare tumors, contributing to only 0. 2 percent of all primary brain tumors. Craniopharyngiomas are typically benign, but are difficult tumors to remove because of their location near critical structures deep in the brain. They usually arise from a portion of the pituitary gland, so nearly all patients will require some hormone replacement therapy. Gangliocytomas, gangliomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors that include neoplastic nerve cells that are relatively well - differentiate, occurring primarily in young adults. Glomus jugulare tumors are most frequently benign and typically are located just under the skull base, at top of the jugular vein. They are the most common form of glomus Tumor. However, glomus tumors, in general, contribute to only 0. 6 percent of neoplasms in the head and neck. Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumors, comprising 10 to 15 percent of all brain neoplasms, although a very small percentage are malignant. These tumors originate from meninges, membrane - like structures that surround the brain and spinal cord. Pineocytomas are generally benign lesions that arise from pineal cells, occurring predominantly in adults. They are most often well - define, noninvasive, homogeneous and slow - growing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Radiation therapy

Highly target Radiation Therapy may be used to destroy brain tumor cells and to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor. This therapy allows doctors to increase dosage and precisely target radiation to brain tumor, while reducing damage to healthy brain tissue. Radiation Therapy for Brain Cancer patients may be used after biopsy, or following surgical resection of the tumor, to help destroy remaining microscopic tumor cells. It may also be an option for unresectable brain tumors or brain metastases, tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. External beam Radiation is commonly used for Brain Cancer. The area radiate typically includes tumor and the area surrounding tumor. For brain metastases, radiation is sometimes delivered to the entire brain. Because lung cancer commonly spreads to the brain, some lung cancer patients receive Whole - Brain Radiation as preventive therapy to stop tumors from developing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. A doctor may use just one drug or a combination, usually giving drugs orally or by injection into blood vessel or muscle. Intrathecal chemotherapy involves injecting drugs into cerebrospinal fluid. Chemotherapy is usually given in cycles. The treatment period is followed by a recovery period, then another treatment period and so on. Patients often don't need to stay in hospital for treatment and most drugs can be given in doctor's office or clinic. However, depending on the drugs used way they are given and the patient's general health, short hospital stay may be necessary. Advances in chemotherapy include direct placement into tumor cavity using a new technique called convection enhance delivery.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

CT Scan vs. MRI

CT scan uses X - rays to create detailed pictures of organs, bones, and other tissues. People lie on a table that moves through scanning ring, which looks like a large doughnut. Data collected can be assembled to form three - dimensional images. Images reveal abnormalities in both bone and soft tissues, such as pneumonia in lungs, tumors in different organs, or bone fractures. Mri also creates detailed pictures of areas inside the body, but it uses radio waves and powerful magnet to generate pictures. People also lie on a table that moves into doughnut - shaped device, but the doughnut is much thicker. Similarly, these pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue.


Imaging tests

For PET scan, you are injected with a slightly radioactive substance which collects mainly in tumor cells. A special camera is then used to create pictures of areas of radioactivity in the body. Picture is not as detailed as CT or MRI scan, but it can provide helpful information about whether abnormal areas seen on other tests are likely to be tumors or not. This test is more likely to be helpful for fast - growing than for slower - growing tumors. This test is also useful after treatment to help determine if an area that still looks abnormal on an MRI scan is remaining tumor or if it is more likely to be scar tissue. The remaining tumor might show up on PET scan, while scar tissue will not.


Brain or spinal cord tumor biopsy

This type of biopsy may be used if, based on imaging tests, surgery to remove the tumor might be too risky, but samples are still needed to make a diagnosis. A patient may be asleep or awake during the biopsy. If patient is awake, neurosurgeon injects local anesthetic into areas of skin above the skull to numb them. Biopsy itself can be done in two main ways: one approach is to get MRI or CT, and then use either markers placed on different parts of the scalp, or facial and scalp contours, to create a map of the inside of the head. Incision is then made in scalp, and a small hole is drilled in the skull. An Image - guidance system is then used to direct hollow needle into the tumor to remove small pieces of tissue. In approach that being used less often, rigid frame is attached to the head. Mri or CT scan is often used along with frame to help neurosurgeons guide hollow needle into tumor. This also requires an incision in the scalp and a small hole in the skull. Remove tissue is sent to a pathologist. Sometimes it might need to be looked at by a neuropathologist, pathologist who specializes in nervous system diseases. Pathologists look at it under microscope to determine if the tumor is benign or malignant and exactly what type of tumor it is. This is very important in determining a person's prognosis and the best course of treatment. Preliminary diagnosis might be available on the same day, although it often takes at least a few days to get final diagnosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Brain Cancer Surgery

Surgery is the main treatment for non - cancerous brain tumours. The aim is to remove as much of the tumour as safely as possible without damaging surrounding brain tissue. In most cases, procedure called craniotomy will be perform. Most operations are carried out under general anaesthetic, which means you 'll be asleep during the procedure. But in some cases you may need to be awake and responsive, in which case local anaesthetic will be used. Area of your scalp will be shaven and a section of skull cut out as a flap to reveal the brain and tumour underneath. A Surgeons will remove the tumour and fix the bone flap back into place with metal screws. Skin is closed with either sutures or staples. If it is not possible to remove the entire tumour, you may need further treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The Cancer Research UK website has more information about Brain tumour surgery.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Radiosurgery

Site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape close them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. It uses sophisticated, 3 - Dcomputerized imaging to precisely focus photon beams, delivering a highly - concentrated dose of radiation to a precise target in a single session. Stereotactic Radiosurgery is not surgery, in the conventional sense, because there is no incision involved and general anesthesia is not required for adults. Srs works by distorting and destroying DNA of tumor cells, much same way as other forms of radiation. As a result, these cells lose their ability to reproduce and die. Stag Radiosurgery, also know as fractionated stereotactic Radiosurgery, is a process in which the total dose of stereotactic radiation is divided into several smaller doses of radiation, on separate days of treatment. Typically, this consists of two to five treatments. In some cases, stag treatment effectively kills tumors while seemingly decreasing potential side effects compared with single - dose Radiosurgery. In order to precisely direct radiation beams, frame is placed on patients ' head. Local anesthetic is administer, and the frame is secured to the skull by four sterile pins; only discomfort is during administration of local anesthetic. Pin themselves does not cause pain if the area is well anesthetize. Additional analgesic medication, such as morphine, may be administered intravenously to facilitate patient comfort during procedure. A CT scan is obtained with contrast administration and is then merged or fuse with MRI of the brain that is usually obtained prior to procedure. Ct complements MRI, and together, two studies improve the accuracy of procedure. Children, or in some rare cases, adults, may require general anesthesia to perform this procedure, in which case anesthesiologist is present throughout. The treatment team is made of a number of specialized medical professionals: radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, medical radiation physicist, dosimetrist, radiation therapist and radiation therapy nurse. Neurosurgeon and radiation oncologists are primary caregivers and are responsible for safe and effective administration of radiation and completion of procedure. They analyze images and formulate a radiation plan with the rest of the team. Once finalize, radiation is administer. Patient simply has to lie on a table, much like in a CT scanner, and the head frame is fixed securely to an apparatus on the table, where radiation beams are precisely direct. Generally, treatment time for one tumor or lesion is in the range of 30 minutes. When more than one tumor is target, it may take longer.


Overview

Stereotactic radiosurgery uses many precisely focused radiation beams to treat tumors and other problems in the brain, neck, lungs, liver, spine and other parts of the body. It is not surgery in the traditional sense because there's no incision. Instead, stereotactic radiosurgery uses 3D imaging to target high doses of radiation to affected area with minimal impact on surrounding healthy tissue. Like other forms of radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery works by damaging the DNA of targeted cells. Affected cells then lose the ability to reproduce, which causes tumors to shrink. Stereotactic radiosurgery of the brain and spine is typically completed in a single session. Body radiosurgery is used to treat lung, liver, adrenal and other soft tissue tumors, and treatment typically involves multiple sessions. When doctors use stereotactic radiosurgery to treat tumors in areas of the body other than the brain, it's sometimes called stereotactic body radiotherapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. Doctors use three types of technology to deliver radiation during stereotactic radiosurgery to the brain and other parts of the body: linear accelerator machines use X - rays to treat cancerous and noncancerous abnormalities in the brain and other parts of the body. Linac machines are also known by brand names of manufacturer,s such as CyberKnife and TrueBeam. These machines can perform stereotactic radiosurgery in a single session or over three to five sessions for larger tumors, which is called fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Gamma Knife machines use 192 or 201 small beams of Gamma rays to target and treat cancerous and noncancerous brain abnormalities. Gamma Knife machines are less common than LINAC machines and are used primarily for small to medium tumors and lesions in the brain associated with a variety of conditions. Proton beam therapy is the newest type of stereotactic radiosurgery and is available in only a few research centers in the US, although the number of centers offering proton beam therapy has greatly increased in the last few years. Proton beam therapy can treat brain cancers in a single session using stereotactic radiosurgery, or it can use fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy to treat body tumors over several sessions.


Risks

Stereotactic radiosurgery doesn't involve surgical incisions, so it's generally less risky than traditional surgery. In traditional surgery, you may have risks of complications with anesthesia, bleeding and infection. Early complications or side effects are usually temporary. They may include: fatigue. Tiredness and fatigue may occur for the first few weeks after stereotactic radiosurgery. Swelling. Swelling in the brain at or near treatment site can cause signs and symptoms such as headache, nausea and vomiting. Your doctor may prescribe anti - inflammatory medications to prevent such problems or to treat symptoms if they appear. Scalp and hair problems. Your scalp may be red, irritated or sensitive at sites where a device is attached to your head during treatment. Some people temporarily lose a small amount of hair. Rarely, people experience late side effects, such as other brain or neurological problems, months after treatment.


Results

Treatment effects of Gamma Knife radiosurgery occur gradually, depending on the condition being treat: benign tumors. Gamma Knife radiosurgery results in failure of tumor cells to reproduce. Tumors may shrink over a period of 18 months to two years, but the main goal of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for benign tumors is to prevent any future tumor growth. Malignant tumors. Cancerous tumors may shrink more rapidly, often within few months. Arteriovenous malformations. Radiation therapy causes abnormal blood vessels of brain AVM s to thicken and close off. This process may take two years or more. Trigeminal neuralgia. Gamma Knife radiosurgery creates lesions that block transmission of pain signals along trigeminal nerve. Pain relief may take several months. You 'll receive instructions on appropriate follow - up exams to monitor your progress.


What happens before treatment?

On day of treatment, arrive at the center and check in with the receptionist. You may bring a friend or relative with you for company. Please arrange for a family member or friend to drive you home after treatment. Depending on target size and location, either a facemask or head frame will be used to hold your head completely still during treatment. Step 1: facemask or frame attachment. Stereotactic facemask is custom - made to fit your face exactly. It will be used during imaging and treatment to hold your head perfectly still. You will lie with your head on a cradle of mesh stretch between U - shaped appliance.S Strips of stretchy plastic are then placed across your forehead, under your nose, and over your chin. You will be asked to bite small piece of plastic with your front teeth. Next, thermoplastic mesh is dipped into the water bath, making the mesh very flexible. Mesh is placed over the face and allowed to conform. You will be able to easily breathe. Cold mitts help mesh, cool and harden. Creation of a mask takes about 30 minutes. It may be necessary to use a stereotactic frame attached to your head with small pins. If so, you will receive intravenous sedation to minimize discomfort. While you are seat, frame is temporarily positioned on your head with velcro straps. Four pin sites are clean and injected with local anesthesia. You may receive light sedative to minimize discomfort. You may feel some pressure as pins are tighten. Placement of the head frame takes about 30 minutes and is well tolerate. Step 2: imaging Next, you will undergo imaging scans while wearing a facemask or head frame. Reflective balls are placed on the facemask and worn during the CT scan. These markers appear on scan and help pinpoint exact three - dimensional coordinates of target in the brain. It may be necessary to obtain a new MRI scan. After the scan, you will be taken to a private room and given a light snack while doctors plan a radiation prescription for later same day. Your family and friends may keep you company. If you had head frame attach, it will remain in place until treatment is complete. Step 3: treatment planning Information about the tumor's location, size, and closeness to critical structures is gathered by CT or MRI scan. Advanced computer software uses scans to create a 3D view of your anatomy and tumor. Using software, radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, and a physicist worked as a team to determine: each individual beam is too weak to damage the healthy brain as it passes through on its way to target. But at the intersection of all beams, energy dose is strong enough to destroy tumor. Step 4: position patient. Once the radiation machine is calibrated and prepared for your specific treatment plan, you will lie on the table.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Types of brain tumors

There are two main types of brain and spinal cord tumors: Tumors that start in the brain or the spinal cord are called p rimary Brain Tumors. Tumors that start in another part of the body and then spread to the brain or spinal cord are called metastatic or secondary Brain Tumors. In adults, metastatic tumors in the brain are actually more common than primary brain tumors, and they are treated differently. This information is about primary Brain Tumors. Unlike cancers that start in other parts of the body, tumors that start in the brain or spinal cord rarely spread to distant organs. Even so, brain or spinal cord tumors are rarely considered benign. They can still cause damage by growing and spreading into nearby areas, where they can destroy normal brain tissue. And unless they are completely removed or destroy, most brain or spinal cord tumors will continue to grow and eventually be life - threatening.


Gliomas

Astrocytomas are tumors that start in glial cells called astrocytes. About 2 out of 10 brain tumors are astrocytomas. Most astrocytomas can spread widely throughout the brain and blend with normal brain tissue, which can make them very hard to remove with surgery. Sometimes they spread along cerebrospinal fluid pathways. It is very rare for them to spread outside of the brain or spinal cord. As with other types of brain tumors, astrocytomas are often grouped by grade. Low - grade astrocytomas tend to grow slowly. These include: non - infiltrating astrocytomas, which do not usually grow into nearby tissues and tend to have good prognosis. Examples include pilocytic astrocytomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. These are more common in children than in adults. Grade II astrocytomas, such as diffuse astrocytomas and pleomorphic xanthroastrocytomas. These tumors tend to be slow growing, but they can grow into nearby areas, which can make them harder to remove with surgery. These tumors can become more aggressive and faster grow over time. High - grade astrocytomas tend to grow quickly and spread into surrounding normal brain tissue. These include: anaplastic astrocytomas Glioblastomas, which are the fastest growing. These tumors make up more than half of all gliomas and are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosis

To diagnose a brain tumor, your doctor will start by asking questions about your symptoms, overall health, and family health history. Then they do physical exam,s including neurological exam. If there's reason to suspect a brain tumor, doctor may request one or more of the following tests: imaging studies like CT scan or MRI to see detailed images of brain Angiogram or MRA, which use dye and X - rays of blood vessels in the brain to look for signs of tumor or abnormal blood vessels doctor may also ask for biopsy to see if tumor is cancer. They remove tissue samples from your brain. They might do it during surgery to remove tumor. Or they could insert a needle through a small hole drilled into your skull. They send samples to the lab for testing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Clinical trials

Clinical trials play an important role in getting new drugs and medical devices to market. The US Food and Drug Administration requires any new drug or device to be approved before being sell. To gain FDA approval, manufacturer or distributor of a drug or device must submit full reports of studies conducted to show that the drug or device is safe and effective for its intended use. Clinical trials are the primary way for manufacturers to show that their products are safe and effective. They also provide opportunities to learn more about various medical conditions. Results of clinical trials are measured against the best standard therapy available for particular condition. Clinical trials are available throughout the world at university hospitals, cancer centers, and hospitals. Because brain tumors are relatively rare, many single institutions cannot enroll enough patients to get meaningful data in a reasonable timeframe. As a result, there are a number of clinical cooperative groups offering brain tumor trials.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.