Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Breast Cancer Be Inherited

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 13 October 2020

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Breast Cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, most common form of Breast Cancer begins in cells lining milk ducts. In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk. Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare. In its early stages, Breast Cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As cancer progress, signs and symptoms can include lump or thickening in or near the breast; change in size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction; and skin irritation, dimpling, redness, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that person definitely has Breast Cancer. In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If Breast Cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited cases, and new tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. Breast Cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. About one in eight women in the United States will develop invasive Breast Cancer in her lifetime. Researchers estimate that more than 276 000 new cases of invasive Breast Cancer will be diagnosed in US women in 2020. Male Breast Cancer represents less than 1 percent of all Breast Cancer diagnoses. Scientists estimate that about 2 600 new cases of Breast Cancer will be diagnosed in men in 2020. Particular gene mutations associated with Breast Cancer are more common among certain geographic or ethnic groups, such as people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage and people of Norwegian, Icelandic, or Dutch ancestry. Cancers occur when buildup of mutations in critical genesathose that control cell growth and division or repair damaged DNAaallow cells to grow and divide uncontrollably to form tumor. In most cases of Breast Cancer, these genetic changes are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells in the breast. These changes, which are called somatic mutations, are not inherit. Somatic mutations in many different genes have been found in Breast Cancer cells. Less commonly, gene mutations present in essentially all of the body's cells increase the risk of developing Breast Cancer. These genetic changes, which are classified as germline mutations, are usually inherited from parent.Ssss

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutations

Genes most commonly affected in hereditary BReast and ovarian CAncer are BReast CAncer 1 and BReast CAncer 2 genes. About 3% of BReast cancers and 10% of ovarian cancers result from inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Normally, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes protect you from getting certain cancers. But some mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes prevent them from working properly, so that if you inherit one of these mutations, you are more likely to get BReast, ovarian, and other cancers. However, not everyone who inherits the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation will get BReast or ovarian CAncer. Everyone has two copies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, one copy inherited from their mother and one from their father. Even if a person inherits BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation from one parent, they still have a normal copy of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene from the other parent. Cancer occurs when a second mutation happens that affects normal copy of gene, so that person no longer has BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene that work properly. Unlike inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, second mutation would not be present throughout person's body, but would only be present in CAncer tissue. Breast and ovarian CAncer can also be caused by inherited mutations in genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2. This means that in some families with history of BReast and ovarian CAncer, family members will not have mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, but can have mutations in one of these other genes. These mutations might be identified through genetic testing using multigene panels, which look for mutations in several different genes at the same time. You and your family members are more likely to have BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation if your family has a strong history of BReast or ovarian CAncer. Family members who inherit BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations usually share the same mutation. If one of your family members has known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, other family members who get genetic testing should be checked for that mutation. If you are concerned that you could have BRCA1, BRCA2, or other mutation related to BReast and ovarian CAncer, first step is to collect your family health history of BReast and ovarian CAncer and share this information with your doctor.


BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes

Genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in cell growth, cell division, and repair of damage to DNA. Mutations in BRCA genes can cause DNA damage in cells to go unrepaired, which increases the chance that person will develop some types of cancer. Breast and ovarian cancer are the most common diseases linked to BRCA1 and BRCA2 changes, but mutated forms of BRCA genes may increase people's risk for other cancers as well. For example, men with BRCA2 mutations are at increased risk of getting prostate cancer. In general, people with BRCA mutations have an increased risk of getting cancer at an early age, developing breast cancer in both breasts, or developing more than one type of cancer in their lifetime. For people with no personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer, likelihood of carrying BRCA mutation is very low. In addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2, there are other gene mutations that can cause breast or ovarian cancer to run in family, some of which have not yet been identify.


BRCA1/2 mutations and cancer risks

Women who have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation have an increased risk of breast cancer. Estimates of risk are different for BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers. By age 70, chance of developing breast cancer is: 55 - 65 percent for BRCA1 carriers 45 - 55 percent for BRCA2 carriers. Women in the general population have about 7 percent chance of getting breast cancer by age 70. In a group of 100 women without BRCA1 / 2 mutation, about 7 will get breast cancer. In group of 100 women with BRCA1 / 2 mutation, 45 - 65 will get breast cancer. These numbers represent average risk, so the risk of breast cancer for any one woman with a BRCA1 / 2 mutation may fall outside this range. Note these risks are not 100 percent. Many women with BRCA1 / 2 mutation will never have breast cancer. A combination of factors likely cause breast cancer. Brca1 / 2 mutations are thought to explain a large portion of hereditary breast cancers. Most breast cancers, however, are not related to inherited gene mutations. Learn about risk - lowering options for women at higher risk.


Genetic testing

Brca1 / 2 is only recommended for people with high risk of having BRCA1 / 2 gene mutation, including those with: family member with BRCA1 / 2 gene mutation, personal history of breast cancer at age 45 or younger, personal history of bilateral breast cancer, personal history of triple negative breast cancer diagnose at age 60 or younger Ashkenazi Jewish heritage and personal history of breast cancer personal history of breast cancer at age 46 - 50 and close family member diagnose with breast cancer at any age personal history of breast cancer at any age and close family member diagnose with breast cancer at age 50 or younger personal history of breast cancer at any age and 2 or more close family members diagnose with breast cancer at any age personal history of breast cancer at any age and close family member diagnose with pancreatic cancer, aggressive prostate cancer or metastatic prostate cancer at any age family member diagnose with breast cancer at age 45 or younger personal or family history of ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, aggressive prostate cancer or metastatic prostate cancer personal or family history of male breast cancer in most cases, testing is first do on person with breast, ovarian, pancreatic or aggressive prostate cancer. If no mutation is find, cancer was not due to BRCA1 / 2 mutation. If BRCA1 / 2 mutation is find, other family members can be tested for specific mutation. Just because one person in the family has a mutation doesnt mean everyone in the family has a mutation. Only identical twins have the exact same genes. Other family members share some, but not all, of their genes. For example, if your mother has a BRCA1 gene mutation, there is a 50 percent chance you will also have a BRCA1 gene mutation.


Screening for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancers

Women with BRCA mutations may wish to consider taking drugs that prevent or delay cancer onset to help reduce their cancer risk. Examples include tamoxifen and raloxifene, which can lower breast cancer risk in the general population. However, it is not clear whether these drugs reduce breast cancer risk in women with BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 changes. Oral contraceptives may be taken to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. However, it remains uncertain whether oral contraceptives have an impact on breast cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. Women with BRCA mutations may choose to have surgery to reduce their cancer risk. For example, breasts may be removed to prevent breast cancer, and ovaries and fallopian tubes may be removed to prevent ovarian cancer. Removing fallopian tubes and ovaries before age 50 also reduces breast cancer risk. Other surgeries may be performed to help detect cancers early. Earlier ovaries are remove, greater decrease in risk of both breast and ovarian cancer. In rare cases, cancer of the peritoneum, which lines the wall of the abdomen, may develop after such surgery. There is no proven way to screen for peritoneal cancer risk, but we are currently conducting study to see if CA125 blood tests after surgery can detect cancer of peritoneum.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Other genes

Family history is one of the unavoidable Genetic Risk Factors for developing Breast Cancer. Ongoing research is helping identify genes that are responsible for this inherited increased risk. Brca1 and BRCA2 gene mutations are currently the best - known and most discussed Genetic Risk Factors, but new genetic links are being discovered regularly. Below are a number of other genes that are known to influence Breast Cancer Risk. In each case, having a normal and healthy copy of gene decreases the risk of developing Breast Cancer. Risk only increases if a gene is mutated or abnormal, and therefore does not perform its natural cancer - prevention functions. Palb2 - After BRCA1 and BRCA2, PALB2 is currently the third most prevalent Breast Cancer gene. Palb2 is short for Partner and Localizer of BRCA2. In other words, it works in partnership with the BRCA2 gene to repair DNA damage and thereby prevent Breast Cancer from developing. Estimate 35% of women with mutated PALB2 gene will develop Breast Cancer by age 70. Chek2 - Checkpoint Kinase 2, or CHEK2, creates protein that helps suppress tumor growth. Having mutated CHEK2 gene doubles the Risk of Breast Cancer in Women. In men, it makes male Breast Cancer 10 times more likely to occur. Cdh1 - CDH1, or CaDHerin 1, is a tumor suppression gene that helps groups of cells stick together to form organized tissues. Mutations in CDH1 gene can increase the risk of forming lobular Breast Cancer, or Cancer that begins in breast milk - producing lobules. Since genes normally help cells stick together, mutations can also make it easier for individual cancer cells to break off from breast tumor and metastasize, or spread to other parts of the body. Pten - Phosphatase and TENsin homolog genes help prevent tumor growth by controlling the rate of cell division. It also causes damaged cells to self - destruct before they can become cancerous. Like CDH1, PTEN also plays a role in helping cells stick together, which can help prevent Cancer from spreading. Stk11 - Serine / Threonine Kinase 11 is another tumor suppressor. Stk11 gene mutations cause Peutz - Jeghers syndrome. Peutz - Jeghers syndrome carries increased risk for multiple types of cancer, including Breast Cancer. Tp53 - Also know as P53, tumor Protein P53 recognizes when cell DNA has been damage. It then either activates DNA repair genes or causes cell to self - destruct. If TP53 is mutate, damaged DNA will be repaired and cell will live on, perhaps becoming cancer cell. Though some TP53 mutations are inherit, most of them occur during a person's life and are only found in cells that become cancerous.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Steps you can take

While BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations may increase your odds of developing Breast Cancer, your odds of having either mutation are pretty small. Estimate 0. 25% of the general population carries mutated BRCA gene, or about one out of every 400 people. For some people, though, chances of having BRCA gene mutation are much higher. Genes are inherit, which is why knowing your family history is important when determining breast cancer risks. If one of your parents has a BRCA mutation, you have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene. Odds can also vary depending on the person's ethnicity. For example, people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent have 2. 5% chance of inheriting BRCA mutation, or about 10 times the rate of the general population. Because overall odds are so low, most experts recommend that only people with heightened risk get test for BRCA Mutations. Likewise, insurance companies often only cover genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at high risk. A person could be considered at high risk for BRCA Mutations if they have a family history of: Breast Cancer diagnosed before age 50. Male Breast Cancer at any age. Multiple relatives on same side of family with Breast Cancer. Multiple Breast cancers in the same woman. Both Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the same woman. Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. There are also other gene mutations besides BRCA that could increase the risk of Breast Cancer. The most prominent of these is PALB2. As with BRCA1 and BRCA2, Testing for Other Genetic Mutations is recommended only if you are at high risk for that particular gene. Genetic counseling is recommended for those who are interested in being tested for Breast Cancer gene mutations. You can talk to a doctor about getting referral to genetic counselor, who can help determine whether genetic testing would make sense based on family history and risk factors. Since many genetic tests only look for one specific gene mutation, counselors can often help determine which mutations to test for. The genetic test itself simply involves taking small sample of blood or saliva, which is sent to the lab for analysis. Results can take several weeks or months. Test result can be positive, meaning that the patient does carry gene mutation. Negative test results indicate that they do not have that particular gene mutation. It does not, however, rule out the possibility of having mutations in other genes. It also does not rule out the possibility of developing Breast Cancer. Most Breast Cancer cases are not hereditary, so everyone should still have an early detection plan. Genetic test results can also be uncertain or ambiguous. Ambiguous test results mean that mutation has been found in gene, but it is not yet know whether that particular mutation has any effect on the chances of developing Breast Cancer. After receiving genetic test results, patient should meet again with genetic counselor to clarify what results mean.


Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing

I strongly recommend you speak with a Genetic Counselor before deciding whether to test for BRCA1, BRCA2 or other inherited gene mutations. A Genetic Counselor can discuss the benefits and risks of testing with you. People who meet the criteria above should strongly consider testing. In certain cases, people who don't meet the criteria above may also wish to consider testing. A Genetic Counselor can help you determine whether genetic testing will provide you with useful information. For More Information on Genetic counseling, visit National CAncer Institute's website or visit the National Society of Genetic Counselors website. The National Society of Genetic Counselors also has an online directory to help you find genetic counselor.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer

Absolute lifetime cancer risks associated with HBOC

Cancer TypeBRCA1BRCA2General Population
Breast46-87%38-84%12.3%
Male Breast1.2%7-8%0.1%
Ovarian39-63%16.5-27%1.6%
Pancreatic1-3%2-7%0.5%
ProstateUp to 8.6%15%11%
MelanomaNo increaseIncreased1.6%

Diagnosis of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome is considered when there are multiple cases of Breast Cancer and / or Ovarian Cancer on the same side of the family. The chance that family has HBOC increases in any of these situations: 1 or more women are diagnosed at age 45 or younger. 1 or more women are diagnosed with Breast Cancer before age 50 with additional family history of Cancer, such as prostate Cancer, melanoma, and Pancreatic Cancer. There are breast and / or Ovarian cancers in multiple generations on the same side of the family, such as having both grandmother and aunt on the father side both diagnosed with these cancers. A woman is diagnosed with second Breast Cancer in the same or other breast or has both Breast and Ovarian Cancer Male relative is diagnose with Breast Cancer There is history of Breast Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, prostate Cancer, and / or Pancreatic Cancer on same side of family Having Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

2020 BCRF Research Highlights

Bcrf has announced 48. 5 million commitment to Breast Cancer Research for 2015 - 2016, and grants commencing October 1 to 240 grantees on five continents. Bcrf announced six key areas of research for 2015 - 2016 to continue to advance its mission to prevent and cure Breast Cancer. Bcrf celebrates October with two research symposia to highlight progress made in Breast Cancer Research and honor two individuals whose commitment and dedication have helped to advance the field. On October 29, more than 180 researchers from around the globe will gather alongside 1000 guests at the New York Symposium and Awards Luncheon at Waldorf Astoria title progress in Killing Drug - Resistant Cancer Cells. Panelist DR. Joan Brugge of Harvard Medical School will be honored with the JILL rise Award for her distinguished work to advance Understanding of Molecular and Cellular Biology of Breast Cancer. Dr. Suzanne Fuqua of Baylor College of Medicine and DR. Vered Stearns of Johns Hopkins University will also serve on a panel moderated by BCRF Scientific Director DR. Larry Norton and BCRF Scientific Advisory Chairman DR. Clifford Hudis of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Journalist and Breast Cancer survivor Joan Lunden will host and designer and BCRF Board Member Tory Burch will receive the Sandra Taub Humanitarian Award in recognition of her leadership and commitment to BCRFs mission of eradicating Breast Cancer. On October 23, Boston Research Symposium and Luncheon title Understanding Women's Risk for Breast Cancer and Other Cancers, will gather more than 300 guests and feature panelists DR. Judy Garber and DR. Nadine Tung of Harvard Medical School with discussion moderated by Chairman of BCRF's Scientific Advisory Board DR. Clifford Hudis. Journalist and Breast Cancer survivor Kelley Tuthill will host a conversation with fellow Breast Cancer survivor Davina McNaney who ran 466 miles from Michigan to New York to raise funds for Breast Cancer Research. Bcrf funds a diverse array of research topics and areas of focus, including following major impact areas. Bcrf researchers are available for interviews to discuss these priority areas, which will also be highlighted during BCRF symposia. This year, over one - quarter of BCRF S Annual grants focus on metastatic Breast Cancer. Studies include Understanding the Biology of why and how Cancer Cells spread, Development of New treatments for advanced disease, clinical trials for New Drugs or Drug combinations and related studies to discover biomarkers that can predict which breast cancers are more likely to spread. In 2014, BCRF established the Evelyn H. Lauder Founders Fund, multi - year international program dedicated to metastasis that is the first large - scale global effort to unravel the biology of metastasis. With 31 million raised to date, it is the largest privately Fund project exclusively focus on metastasis in the world. Bcrf is committing more than 14 million to research on improving treatments for Breast Cancer Patients. Studies include understanding why treatment fails some patients and not others, why tumors become resistant to drugs and discovering biomarkers that can match patients to the right therapy.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Breast cancer subtypes

The new analysis, published May 18 in Nature Genetics, makes use of data gathered by Cambridge, UK - base Breast Cancer Association Consortium from more than 100 Breast Cancer studies conducted over the past 15 years, mostly among women of European ancestry. Analysis includes new methods allowing identification of DNA variants that have heterogeneous effects across subtypes, such as Luminal - and triple negative, which can be defined by various tumor characteristics. Research was conducted in collaboration with investigators across a large number of institutions, including the National Cancer Institute in US, Harvard University's T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge University, and Netherlands Cancer Institute. Prior genetic studies in this field have analyzed only risks of Breast Cancer generally, or of relatively simple sets of subtypes such as estrogen receptor - positive versus estrogen receptor - negative Breast cancers. Assessing Breast Cancer subtype risk more comprehensively has long been the goal of Cancer researchers, because these subtypes - which include aggressive triple - negative and BRCA1 subtypes - often vary tremendously in long - term risks they pose to the life and health of patients. Findings from this analysis enhance our understanding of biology that differentiates subtypes and may improve our ability to predict women's Breast Cancer risks, even at the level of specific Breast Cancer subtype, say Nilanjan Chatterjee, PhD, Bloomberg distinguish Professor in Department of Biostatistics at Bloomberg School and the paper's corresponding author. Each year, more than 250 000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 40 000 die of it. Prior to the new analysis, researchers had identify, across the genome, more than 170 gene variants or other DNA variants that appear to raise - or in some cases, lower - risks of getting these cancers. Each one of these variants has a small apparent effect on Breast Cancer risk, and there may be substantial effect when a person has a combination of them, Chatterjee say. Researchers have sought to identify these risk factors as comprehensively as possible, so that women can be informed in advance about their likely chances of developing Breast Cancer, and can be screened for cancer more frequently should their risk seem high. To that end, new analysis reviews one of the largest - ever sets of data from Breast Cancer genetic studies. It also involves application of new tools to link DNA variants to specific Breast Cancer subtypes, defined for example by presence of different receptors on cancer cells surface, by cancer grade - low / intermediate / high metric of tumor's potential to spread - and by common combinations of such factors. In all, analysis identified 32 new risk variants for Breast Cancer generally. Of these, 15 variants were also linked independently to one or more specific Breast Cancer subtypes. Seven of 15 were linked to estrogen receptor status, seven to tumor grade, four to HER2 receptor status and two to progesterone receptor status.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Should I Have Genetic Screening?

It may take a few weeks before test results are available. You meet with your Genetic Counselor to learn your test results, discuss their implications and GO over your options. A Positive test result means that you have a mutation in one of BReast CAncer genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, and therefore a much higher risk of developing BReast CAncer or Ovarian CAncer compared with someone who doesn't have a mutation. But a positive result doesn't mean you are certain to develop CAncer. Follow - up Care after positive test result might include taking specific measures to modify type and frequency of screening for CAncer and to considering procedures and medications designed to reduce your CAncer risk. What you choose to do depends on many factors, including your age, medical history, prior treatments, past surgeries and personal preferences. Negative test results mean that no BRCA gene mutation was find. However, assessing your CAncer risk is still difficult. Test result is considered true negative only if it finds that you don't carry specific BRCA mutation that's already been identified in relative.S Negative test result doesn't mean you definitely won't get BReast CAncer. You still have the same CAncer risk as that of the general population. Ambiguous result, also know as variant of uncertain significance, occur when analysis finds genetic variant that may or may not be associated with increased risk of CAncer. It is helpful to meet with your Genetic Counselor to understand how to interpret this finding and decide on appropriate follow - up. New models are being developed to help determine the risk of CAncer with ambiguous results. Most variants of uncertain significance are eventually reclassified into either positive or negative result. To be informed when this happen, stay in touch with doctor or Genetic Counselor who will order your genetic test. Although the BRCA gene test can detect the majority of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, you could have gene mutation that the test wasn't able to detect. Or you may be at high risk of Hereditary CAncer if your family carries high - risk gene mutation that researchers haven't yet identify. Finally, your family may have another Hereditary CAncer gene mutation that can be detected with other genetic tests. Researchers are continuing to study gene mutations that increase the risk of CAncer and developing new gene tests. If your gene test was done more than five years ago, your doctor might recommend testing again with newer tests. If your family health history changes, such as if additional family members develop CAncer, your doctor might also recommend additional gene testing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is HER2?

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is a gene that creates HER2 proteins. Her2 proteins are found on the surface of BReast cells and promote BReast cell growth. In healthy BReast cell,ss HER2 is responsible for repairing cells and growing more cells. If HER2 gene is mutate, it causes an abnormal increase in the amount of HER2 proteins on the surface of cells. This causes cells to grow and divide out of control, which may lead to CAncer. About 20 percent of BReast cancers are HER2 - positive, meaning the HER2 gene doesnt function correctly. Her2 - positive BReast CAncer is not inherit. Instead, it is considered a somatic genetic mutation. This type of mutation occurs after conception. Having a close relative with HER2 - positive BReast CAncer does not increase your risk of BReast CAncer or HER2 - positive BReast CAncer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tests for HER2-positive breast cancer

Her2 - positive breast cancers are sometimes more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. If you have been diagnosed with Breast Cancer, your doctor may conduct a test to determine if your breast cancer is HER2 - positive. If so, this will affect your treatment course. Two types of tests can determine your HER2 status: immunohistochemistry assay and an in situ hybridization test. These tests are performed on sample of tumor. Her2 tests are sometimes inaccurate, however. Talk with your doctor about their confidence in your test results. If youre concern, or if your results are inconclusive, ask for a second HER2 test. If your cancer is HER2 - positive, specific and targeted therapies are available to treat it.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What causes HBOC?

Hboc is an inherited genetic condition. This means that CAncer Risk is passed from generation to generation in the family. There are 2 primary genes linked with most families who have HBOC: BRCA1 and BRCA2. Brca stands for BReast CAncer. A mutation,s or harmful genetic change, in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 gives woman increased Life Risk of Developing BReast and ovarian cancers. Men with these gene mutations also have increased risk of BReast CAncer and prostate CAncer. There is a slight increase in the risk of other cancers including pancreatic CAncer and melanoma among people with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Not all families with multiple cases of BReast and ovarian CAncer have mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. There are also other genes that have been linked with increased risk of developing BReast and other cancers, such as mutations in TP53, PTEN, CDH1, ATM, CHEK2, or PALB2 tumor suppressor genes and others. Blood tests now include many of these genes, including BRCA1 or BRCA2, in a single, multiple - gene panel test.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.