Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 12 mil and more summaries

Brodmann area 25

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 18 January 2022

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Brodmann area 25

Identifiers
LatinArea subgenualis
NeuroNames1029
FMA68622

Connectivity of Area 25 in and Infralimbic Cortex in rodents. In Macaque Area 25 widespread efferent and afferent connections with many cortical and subcortical regions that are comparable to efferent and afferent connections of IL in rat. Afferents and effects are depicted superimposed on Orbital, Medial and Lateral views of macaque and rat brains on anterograde and retrograde tracing studies. Macaque:. Rat:. Abbreviations: AC, Anterior Cingulate; Acb, Accumbens; AIa / P, Agranular Insula Anterior / Posterior; Amyg, Amygdala; AON, Anterior Olfactory Nucleus; BF, Basal Forebrain; cc, Corpus Callosum; Cdm, Medial Caudate; CLA, Claustrum; CLi, Central linear Nucleus; CPu, CaudatePutamen; EC, Entorhinal Cortex; ECT, Ectorhinal Cortex; FPm, Frontal Polar Cortex, Medial; HF, Hippocampal Formation, Hyp, Hypothalamus; IL, Infralimbic; IP, interpeduncular Nucleus; OFC, Orbitofrontal Cortex; opro, Orbital proisocortex; OPAI, Orbital periallocortex; Pons / Medulla; pg, perigenual; PL, Prelimbic; PRC, Perirhinal RPO, Nucleus pontis oralis; RSC, Retrosplenial Cortex; SNc, Substantia nigra pars compacta; Thalamus:; STG, Superior Temporal Gyrus, STS, Superior Temporal Sulcus; TEI, TF, TP, Temporal pole; VTA, Ventral Tegmental Area; Brodmanns Areas, 9 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 28 30 32 35 36 46, TE1, TF,. Nomenclature of Cortex parcellation in macaque base On. Examples of relationship between cardiovascular and endocrine responsivity and Area 25 / Infralimbic activity in emotional and non-emotional conditions in human, macaque, marmoset and rat. In humans, stimulation of Area 25 via deep brain stimulation causes brief hypertension followed by pronounced hypotension in anesthetized humans, while administration of peripheral cortisol decreases Area 25 activation to sad stimuli in absence of any stressors. In macaques, stimulation of Area 25 in anesthetized animals causes brief hypertension followed by hypotension, similar to humans, and cortisol release correlates with ventromedial prefrontal Cortex activity during neutral conditions, and specifically with Area 25 during both stressful and neutral conditions. In marmosets, pharmacological inactivation of Area 25 with GABA and B agonists in neutral condition caused reduction in heart rate and mean arterial Blood Pressure that was accompanied by increase in heart rate variability. Subdivision of cardiac vagal and cardiac sympathetic indices reveal that this HRV change was caused by selective increase in parasympathetic CVI. In rats, inactivation of IL had no effect on HR and MAP, unlike humans and non-human primates, but selective glucocorticoid receptor silencing within IL reduced activity within open field test indicating that cortisol modulate ILs impact on emotional behavior. Thus, whereas manipulation of Area 25 in neutral setting consistently modulates cardiovascular function in humans and non-human primates, such changes are not apparent after IL manipulation in rat. However, glucocorticoids appear to modulate negative emotion in both Area 25 and IL, indicating similarities in functional domains, but not others. Over-activation and inactivation of Area 25 in marmoset has largely opposing effects on tests measuring regulation of responsivity rewarding and punishing stimuli.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Function

As well as autonomic component of visceral control, there is strong evidence that area 25, and associated prefrontal regions, also regulate endocrine components via interactions with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, bodys primary stress response system. Unfortunately, as discussed below, surprisingly few studies have examined neural correlates of HPA regulation in humans. Those that have, identify area 25 as important contributor because it not only shows sensitivity to circulating cortisol levels but appears to be able to directly regulate HPA axis function. Exogenous cortisol administration directly modulates response of area 25 to sad stimuli, blunting sadness-induced activation. This indicates that area 25 is to circulating cortisol. Furthermore, in adolescents, salivary cortisol measurements during social stress positively correlate with elevated functional connectivity between area 25 and salience network, including dACC and bilateral anterior insula. However, it is unclear whether this correlation specifically reflects actions of cortisol on activity within this network, or of stressor per se or effects of area 25 on HPA axis function. Stronger negative functional connectivity has also been observed between region of vmPFC and amygdala that was associated with higher cortisol levels. It was proposed that this negative functional reflects top-down regulation of amygdala during stress, which subsequently modulates HPA axis activity. Conversely, however, correlation could reflect impact of elevated cortisol on network activity. Nevertheless, together, these findings highlight complex interactions between prefrontal top-down regulation of HPA axis, and its regulation by cortisol. This complex relationship between 25, HPA axis and sensitivity to cortisol is also seen in non-human primates. High densities of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, which are sensitive to cortisol and stress hormones, have been found in vmPFC and lateral PFC of squirrel monkeys, indicating that these areas are sensitive to cortisol. Macaque also show direct projections to central autonomic centers such as hypothalamus, but also indirect projections to adrenal medulla itself, through which it can regulate HPA axis activity. Recent anatomical tracing studies have used injections of rabies virus into adrenal medulla and survival time series analysis method to identify third and fourth order neurons areas 24c, 25 and 32 as densest projections to adrenal medulla. These regions are broadly similar to regions identified in human functional imaging studies relating to autonomic modulation, negative affect and cognitive control, that this medial region may mediate effects of chronic stress on visceral function. Consistent with this, metabolic within area 25 has been related to individual differences in HPA axis regulation in macaque monkeys. Having been exposed to four situations of increasing stress for 30 minutes, macaques then underwent femoral venipuncture for levels together with-2deoxy-2fluoro-Dglucose positron Emission tomography scan. Area 25 was only brain region in which activity correlated with cortisol output across different contexts. However, as already described for humans, directionality relationship between area 25 activity and circulating cortisol remains unclear.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Involvement in depression

Subcallosal cingulate gyrus CG25, which consists of BA25 as well as parts of BA24 and BA32, has been implicated as playing important role in major Depression and has been target of deep brain stimulation to treat disorder. One study found BA25 is metabolically overactive in treatment-resistant Depression. Different studies find that metabolic hyperactivity in this area is associated poor therapeutic response of persons with major depressive disorder to cognitive-behavioral therapy and venlafaxine. In 2005, Helen S. Mayberg and collaborators described how they successfully treated number of depressed peopleindividuals virtually catatonic with Depression despite years of talk therapy, drugs, and electroconvulsive therapywith pacemaker-like electrodes in area 25. Recent Study Found That Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Is More Clinically Effective In Treating Depression When Targeted Specifically To Brodmann Area 46, Because This Area Has Intrinsic Functional Connectivity With Area 25. Another recent study has found that responses of area 25 to viewing sad stimuli affected by cortisol. This suggests that Depression related changes in activity in area 25 could be to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2022 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.