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Causes Of Kidney Cancer

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

You have two kidneys. They are fist - sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. Tubes inside filter and clean your blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in lining of tiny tubes inside your kidneys. Kidney cancer becomes more likely as you age. Risk factors include smoking, having certain genetic conditions, and misusing pain medicines for long time. You may have no symptoms at first. They may appear as cancer grows. See your health care provider if you notice blood in your urine lump in your abdomen. Weight Loss for no reason Pain in your side that does not go away. Loss of appetite tests to diagnose kidney cancer include blood, urine, and imaging tests. You may also have a biopsy. Treatment depends on your age, your overall health and how advanced cancer is. It might include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, biologic, or targeted therapies. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. Target therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Factors that can increase risk of kidney cancer include: older age. Your risk of kidney cancer increases as you age. Smoking. Smokers have a greater risk of kidney cancer than nonsmokers do. Risk decreases after you quit. Obesity. People who are obese have a higher risk of kidney cancer than people who are considered to have healthy weight. High blood pressure. High blood pressure increases your risk of kidney cancer. Treatment for kidney failure. People who receive long - term dialysis to treat chronic kidney failure have a greater risk of developing kidney cancer. Certain inherited syndromes. People who are born with certain inherited syndromes may have an increased risk of kidney cancer, such as those who have von Hippel - Lindau disease, Birt - Hogg - Dube syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma or familial renal cancer. Family history of kidney cancer. The risk of kidney cancer is higher if close family members have had the disease.


Symptoms

Many kidney cancers go undetected due to lack of symptoms and are incidentally detected during medical evaluation of unrelated problem.s Kidney cancers can cause symptoms by compressing, stretching or invading structures near or within the kidney. Symptoms caused by these processes include pain and blood in urine. If cancer spreads beyond kidney, symptoms depend upon which organ is involve. Blood in urine. Lump in abdomen pain in side or back that doesnt go away. Loss of appetite. Weight loss for no known reason. Fatigue and anemia. Sometimes renal cell cancer causes associated clinical or laboratory abnormalities called para - neoplastic syndromes. These syndromes are observed in approximately 30 % of patients with kidney cancer and can occur in any stage. Clinical symptoms include weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, sweats and high blood pressure.


Causes

Risk factor is anything that increases persons chance of developing cancer. Risk factors can influence development of cancer, but most do not directly cause cancer. Many individuals with risk factors will never develop cancer and others with no known risk factors will. Some cancers, however, are more likely to develop in individuals with certain risk factors that increase individuals chance of developing cancer. Following factors may raise persons risk of developing renal cancer. Smoking Overuse of certain pain medications for long time. Obesity High blood pressure. Family history of renal cell cancer. Hereditary conditions Von Hippel - Lindau disease.


How is kidney cancer treated?

Kidneys are a pair of bean - shaped organs located on either side of spine, protected by the lower ribcage. Although the body has two kidneys, only part of one kidney is necessary to function. The main job of the kidneys is to filter blood and remove excess water, salt and other substances from the body. Most of these fluids run though tubes called Renal tubules, which filter fluids in Kidney before waste is discharged into bladder. Most Kidney tumors form when cells that line these tubules, Renal cells, mutate and grow out of control. Renal Cell Carcinoma is most common type of Kidney Cancer. Obesity, Smoking, Kidney dialysis, High Blood pressure, Family history of Kidney Cancer or Kidney disease

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms

Kidney Cancer is often found incidentally through routine medical examination or testing for another condition, and symptoms are rarely present in the early stages of disease. Symptoms below could be signs and symptoms of Kidney Cancer, especially in its later stages, but they also could be an indication of many benign conditions. We recommend you consult with your doctor if you are showing any of following symptoms: blood in urine, Low back pain on one side, mass or lump on side or lower back, Fatigue Loss of appetite, Weight Loss not caused by dieting, Persistent Fever unrelated to infection Anemia

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

Exact cause of renal cell carcinoma is not know. However, history of smoking does increase the risk of developing this disease. Patients with von Hippel - Lindau disease, horseshoe kidneys, adult polycystic kidney disease and kidney failure are also more prone to developing renal cell carcinoma. Recent research suggests that two genes on the short arm of chromosome 3 may be involved in the development of this particular type of malignancy. This form of kidney cancer has developed in several members of the same family, leading scientists to believe that there may be a genetic form of the disorder or perhaps a genetic predisposition toward developing renal cell carcinoma. However, exactly how disease may be inherited is still unknown. Another gene, known as VHL, has also been linked with kidney cancer. Renal cell carcinoma spreads easily to the lungs and other organs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

Some people inherit genes that can increase their chances of developing certain types of cancer. Dna in each of your cells that you get from your parents may have changes that give you this risk. Some rare inherited conditions can cause kidney cancer. It is important that people who have hereditary causes of RCC see their doctors often, especially if they have already been diagnosed with RCC. Some doctors recommend regular imaging tests to look for new kidney tumors in these people. People who have conditions listed here have a much higher risk of getting kidney cancer, although they account for only a small portion of cases overall.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prevention

In many cases, cause of kidney cancer is not know. In some other cases, even when cause is known, it may not be preventable. But there are some ways you may be able to reduce your risk of this disease. Cigarette smoking is responsible for a large percentage of cases, so stopping smoking may lower your risk. Obesity and high blood pressure are also risk factors for renal cell cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight by exercising and choosing a diet high in fruits and vegetables may also reduce your chance of getting this disease. Avoiding exposure to harmful substances such as trichloroethylene at work, may also reduce your risk for renal cell cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Changes (mutations) in genes

Kidney Cancer affects nearly 270, 000 patients annually worldwide and is responsible for over 115, 000 deaths each year. Kidney Cancer is not single disease; rather, it is comprised of a number of different histologically and genetically distinct types of cancer, each with a different histologic type, each of which has different clinical course and different responses to therapy. If a patient presents with small cancer localized to the kidney, this patient can be managed by surgery and can expect 95 % 5 - to 10 - yr survival. However, if a patient presents with advanced Kidney Cancer, in which the primary tumor has spread to other organs, nearly 80 % will die of this disease within 24 mo. Studies of inherited forms of Kidney Cancer have led to identification of a number of genes important for this disease. There are a number of different types of familial Kidney Cancers, including Von Hippel - Lindau, hereditary papillary renal carcinoma, Birt - Hogg - Dube, hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma, succinate dehydrogenase Kidney Cancer, tuberous Sclerosis Complex, and Cowden's disease. Identification of genes that cause Kidney Cancer has improved management of Patients with Kidney Cancer and provided foundation for development of therapeutic approaches for Patients with advanced forms of this disease. The conventional approach to therapy for patients with localized Clear cell, Type 1 papillary, or chromophobe Kidney Cancer has traditionally been to surgically remove the tumor. For decades, conventional surgical approach has been to remove the entire kidney. Over past two decades, surgical approach of partial nephrectomy has been developed and is now recommended approach for most patients diagnosed with localized Kidney Cancers that are 7 cm or less in size. Role of adjuvant therapy is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients who develop metastatic disease. Kidney Cancer is not single disease; it is made up of a number of Cancers that occur in Kidney, each with distinct histology, each with different clinical course, each responding differently to therapy, and each caused by different gene. The VHL gene is mutated in Germline of 100 % of Von Hippel - Lindau Families and the majority of sporadic Clear cell RCCs. Meet gene is mutated in Germline of 100 % of hereditary papillary renal carcinoma families and is mutated in a subset of tumors from patients with sporadic, Type 1 papillary Kidney Cancer. Fumarate hydratase gene is gene for inherited form of Type 2 papillary Kidney Cancer associated with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma. Sporadic papillary Type 2 RCC is composed of a mixture of Kidney Cancers including collecting duct and medullary RCC. Gene for sporadic Type 2 papillary RCC, collecting duct RCC, and medullary RCC is not know. Flcn is mutated in 96 % of families affected with inherited form of chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma associated with Birt - Hogg - Dube syndrome. Genes for sporadic forms of chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma are not know.


Introduction

Renal Cell Cancer is among more commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. In United States in 2020, about 73, 750 cases of kidney Cancer and Renal Pelvis Cancer are expected to occur and lead to an estimated 14, 830 deaths. This cancer accounts for about 4 % of all adult malignancies. The male - to - female ratio is 1. 9: 1. Rcc is distinct from kidney Cancer that involves Renal Pelvis or Renal medulla, and it only applies to cancer that forms in lining of the kidney bed. Non - RCCs of the kidney, including Cancer of Renal Pelvis or Renal medulla, are not addrest in this summary. Genetic pathogenic variants have been identified as the cause of inherited cancer risk in some RCC - prone families; these pathogenic variants are estimated to account for only 5 % to 8 % of RCC cases overall. It is likely that other undiscovered genes and background genetic factors contribute to development of familial RCC in conjunction with nongenetic risk factors. Rcc occurs in both sporadic and heritable forms. The following four major autosomal dominantly inherited RCC syndromes have been identify: these genetic syndromes comprise the main focus of this summary. Von Hippel - Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant disease with a predisposition to multiple neoplasms. Germline pathogenic variants in the VHL gene predispose individuals to specific types of both benign and malignant tumors and cysts in many organ systems. These include central nervous system hemangioblastomas; retinal hemangioblastomas; clear Cell Renal Cell cancers and Renal cysts; pheochromocytomas, cysts, cystadenomas, and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas; endolymphatic sac tumors; and cystadenomas of epididymis and of broad ligament. A multidisciplinary approach is required for evaluation, and in some cases management, of individuals with VHL. Specialists involved in care of individuals with VHL may include urologic oncology surgeons, neurosurgeons, general surgeons, ophthalmologists, endocrinologists, neurologists, medical oncologists, genetic counselors, and medical geneticists.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What causes kidney cancer?

Information in this document refers to renal cell carcinoma - most common form of Kidney Cancer. However, there are different types of Kidney Cancer, including: renal cell carcinoma: This is the most common form of Kidney Cancer in adults and accounts for 85 % of all Kidney cancers. Renal cell carcinoma usually develops as a single tumor in one kidney, but it can affect both kidneys. Renal cell carcinoma begins in cells that line small tubes that are part of nephrons within kidneys. Transitional cell carcinoma: Transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 6 % to 7 % of all Kidney cancers. This Cancer usually begins in the area where the ureter connects to the main part of the kidney. This area is called renal pelvis. Transitional cell carcinoma also occurs in the ureters or bladder. Renal sarcoma: This is least common form of Kidney Cancer, accounting for only 1 % of Kidney Cancer cases. It begins in the connective tissues of kidneys and, if not treat, can spread to nearby organs and bones. Wilms tumor: This is the most common type of Kidney Cancer in children. It accounts for about 5 % of Kidney cancers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Genetics

Four major heritable renal cell Cancer syndromes with autosomal dominant inheritance are listed in Table 1, along with their susceptibility genes. These syndromes are summarized in detail in following sections of This summary. Autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is pattern of transmission reported within families affected by these major RCC syndromes. Autosomal dominant means that it is sufficient for an altered gene to be present in one of the parents and that the chances of transmitting this gene and disease to offspring is 50 % for each pregnancy. Genetic tests performed in Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments - certify laboratories are available for genes associated with VHL, BHD, HLRCC, and HPRC. Genetic Counseling is a prerequisite for genetic testing. Choyke PL, Glenn GM, Walther MM, et al.: Von Hippel - Lindau disease: Genetic, Clinical, and imaging features. Radiology 194: 629 - 42, 1995. Lonser RR, Glenn GM, Walther M, et al.: Von Hippel - Lindau disease. Lancet 361: 2059 - 67, 2003. Launonen V, Vierimaa O, Kiuru M, et al.: Inherited susceptibility to uterine leiomyomas and renal cell Cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S 98: 3387 - 92, 2001. Alam NA, Olpin S, Leigh IM: Fumarate hydratase mutations and predisposition to cutaneous leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and renal Cancer. Br J Dermatol 153: 11 - 7, 2005. Toro JR, Nickerson ML, Wei MH, et al.: Mutations in Fumarate hydratase gene cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell Cancer In Families In North America. Am J Hum Genet 73: 95 - 106, 2003. Wei MH, Toure O, Glenn GM, et al.: Novel mutations In FH and expansion of spectrum of phenotypes expressed in families with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell Cancer. J Med Genet 43: 18 - 27, 2006. Toro JR, Wei MH, Glenn GM, et al.: Bhd mutations, Clinical and molecular Genetic investigations of Birt - Hogg - Dube syndrome: new series of 50 Families and review of published reports. J Med Genet 45: 321 - 31, 2008. Toro JR, Glenn G, Duray P, et al.: Birt - Hogg - Dube syndrome: novel marker of kidney neoplasia. Arch Dermatol 135: 1195 - 202, 1999. Zbar B, Alvord WG, Glenn G, et al.: Risk of renal and colonic neoplasms and spontaneous pneumothorax In Birt - Hogg - Dube syndrome. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11: 393 - 400, 2002. Pavlovich CP, Walther MM, Eyler RA, et al.: Renal tumors in Birt - Hogg - Dube syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol 26: 1542 - 52, 2002. Schmidt L, Duh FM, Chen F, et al.: Germline and somatic mutations in tyrosine kinase domain of MET proto - oncogene In papillary renal carcinomas. Nat Genet 16: 68 - 73, 1997. Schmidt LS, Nickerson ML, Angeloni D, et al.: Early onset hereditary papillary renal carcinoma: Germline missense mutations in tyrosine kinase domain of MET proto - oncogene. J Urol 172: 1256 - 61, 2004.


Can I inherit kidney cancer?

Birt - Hogg - Dube is autosomal dominant, hereditary Cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for development of bilateral, multifocal kidney tumors as well as pulmonary cysts and cutaneous fibrofolliculomas. Whereas patients affected with von Hippel - Lindau develop clear cell kidney Cancer and patients with HPRC develop type 1 papillary kidney Cancer, patients affected with BHD are at risk for development of number of different histologic types of kidney Cancer, including chromophobe, hybrid oncocytic, clear cell, and oncocytoma. Bhd kidney Cancer is managed in same fashion as kidney Cancer in patients with VHL and HPRC; patients with BHD - associate kidney Cancer are managed with active surveillance until the largest tumor reaches the 3 - cm threshold. At this point, surgical intervention is recommend.


Family history

Rcc accounts for about 4 % of all adult malignancies in the United States. Epidemiologic studies of RCC suggest that family history of RCC is a risk factor for disease. Analysis of renal carcinomas up to year 2000 in Sweden Family - Cancer Database, which includes all Swedes born since 1931 and their biological parents, led to observation that the risk of RCC was particularly high in siblings of those affected with RCC. Higher relative risk in siblings than in parent - child pairs suggest that recessive gene contributes to development of sporadic renal carcinoma. Investigators in Iceland studied all patients in Iceland who developed RCC between 1955 and 1999. In addition, they use an extensive computerized database to perform unique genealogic studies that include more than 600, 000 Icelandic individuals. Results reveal that nearly 60 % of RCC patients in Iceland during this time had either first - degree relative or second - degree relative with RCC, with an estimate RR of 2. 5 for siblings of RCC - affected patient.s A study that evaluated 80, 309 monozygotic twin individuals and 123, 382 same - sex dizygotic twin individuals in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden found excess cancer risk in twins whose co - twin was diagnosed with Cancer. Estimate cumulative risks were absolutely 5 % higher in dizygotic twins and absolutely 14 % higher in monozygotic twins for twins whose co - twin also developed cancerthan that in the overall cohort. Overall heritability of Cancer, calculated by assessing relative contribution of heredity versus share environment, was estimated to be 33 %. Heritability of kidney cancer was estimated to be 38 %, with share environmental factors not showing significant contribution to overall risk. Young age at onset is also a clue to possible hereditary etiology. In contrast with sporadic RCC, which is generally diagnosed during the fifth to seventh decades of life, hereditary forms of kidney cancer are generally diagnosed at an earlier age. In a review from National Cancer Institute of over 600 cases of hereditary kidney Cancer, median age at diagnosis was 37 years, with 70 % of cases being diagnosed at age 46 years or younger, compared with median age at diagnosis of 64 years in the overall population. Bilaterality and multifocality are common in most heritable RCC. Retrospective analysis of 1, 235 patients with RCC who underwent genetic testing revealed that 6. 1 % of this population had positive genetic test results, 75. 5 % had negative test results, and 18. 4 % had variant of unknown significance. The only variable associated with positive test result was younger age at diagnosis of RCC. There is no consensus regarding whom to refer for genetic consultation for possible hereditary kidney Cancer syndrome, although the following organizations have offered guidance:


Introduction

Hereditary kidney cancer accounts for 3 to 5 % of all kidney cancer; however, this number is likely underestimate. Currently, ten inherited Cancer susceptibility syndromes are associated with inherited risk of kidney cancer and 12 genes have been identify. The number of families with identified hereditary conditions leading to kidney cancer continues to increase. Description of families with inherited syndromes associated with increased risk of kidney cancer has and will lead to discovery of mutated genes critical to the pathogenesis of kidney cancers. Patients with these inherited syndromes develop kidney cancer at earlier age; furthermore lesions can be multifocal, bilateral and heterogeneous. Herein, we describe most prevalent of these syndromes. Many of genes identified through study of familial renal cancer have also proven to be important in sporadic rneal cancers with von Hippel Lindau disease being an exemplar of this paradigm. Recent Cancer Genome Atlas and other massively parallel sequencing studies will no doubt raise our awareness of other processes important to causality and aggressive behavior, related to inherit genetics of kidney cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Types of Renal Tumors

Clear Cell RCC accounts for approximately 80 percent of all renal Cell Carcinomas. Tumor cells appear very pale or clear when observed under a microscope. Papillary RCC is the second most common type of RCC and accounts for 10 - 15 percent of kidney cancers. Cancerous cells develop finger - like projections in tumor. Chromophobe RCC, like clear Cell RCC, has tumor cells that appear pale or clear under microscope. However, cells related to this type of cancer tend to be larger in size. Collecting duct RCC is a rare and aggressive type of RCC, accounting for less than one percent of kidney cancers. Cancerous cells form irregular tubes inside tumor. Unclassified RCC is another rare type of kidney cancer. These cells cannot be classified based on their appearance under a microscope. Alternately, cancers that have more than one subtype may be grouped in this category. Transitional Cell carcinoma develops in the region where kidney and ureters join. Ureters are tubes that carry urine from kidneys to the bladder. Tumor cells may begin to look more like bladder cancer cells than kidney cancer cells when observed under a microscope. This Cancer type may also be referred to as urothelial Cancer or renal pelvis carcinoma. Renal sarcoma is a rare type of kidney cancer that develops in the connective tissue of the kidney.


The kidneys

Kidney Cancer is a disease that starts in the kidneys. It happens when healthy cells in one or both kidneys grow out of control and form lump. Renal Cell Carcinoma is the most common type of Kidney Cancer in adults. It most often begins in the lining of tiny tubes in kidney. Renal tubules clean your blood and make urine. Renal Cell Cancer often stays within the kidney, but it may spread to other parts of the body, most often bones, lungs, or brain. There are many different types of Renal Cell Carcinoma. Most common types are called clear - Cell, chromphobe, and papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Continued

Urine Tests, Blood Tests, Biopsy Tests to see how well your liver is working. Ultrasound, which uses sound waves to make picture of organs inside your body. Ct scan, test that uses powerful X - ray to make detailed pictures inside your body. Nephrectomy, when doctors remove part of one of your kidneys, or sometimes whole kidney, to check It for renal cell carcinoma. Youall have this test if your doctor has already spotcheck tumor, but does know if itas cancer. If results show that you have renal cell carcinoma, your doctor will find out what Stage itas is so you can decide on the best treatment options. The stage of Cancer depends on how large your tumor is and whether cancer has spread to other parts of your body. You may have tests to take a closer look inside your chest and belly, like: chest X - ray, CT scan MRI, which uses powerful magnets and radio waves to take pictures of the inside of your body. Bone scan

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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