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Child Immunizations Polio Vaccine

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a crippling and potentially deadly disease. It is caused by poliovirus. Virus spreads from person to person and can invade infected persons brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis. Polio can be prevented with a vaccine. The Inactivate polio vaccine is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since 2000. It is given by shot in the arm or leg, depending on the person's age. The Oral polio vaccine is used in other countries. Cdc recommends that children get four doses of polio vaccine. They should get one dose at each of the following ages: 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 through 18 months old 4 through 6 years old. Almost all children who get all recommended doses of polio vaccine will be protected from polio. The first polio vaccine was available in the United States in 1955. Thanks to widespread use of polio vaccine, United States has been polio - free since 1979. But poliovirus is still a threat in some countries. It takes only one traveler with polio to bring the disease into the United States. The best way to keep the United States polio - free is to maintain high immunity in US population against polio through vaccination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Is Polio?

Inactivate Polio Vaccine is mostly given as booster dose to adults who had series of Polio Vaccine in childhood and are at increased risk of exposure to Polio virus. Examples of adults at increased risk include those who will be working or traveling in areas of the world where Polio still occurs and health care workers, including laboratory workers, who may be exposed to human feces. People who have not been immunized and may be exposed to Polio virus, for example through work or travel, should also get vaccine. These people need 3 doses of vaccine. The first 2 doses are given 4 to 8 weeks apart, and the third dose is given 6 to 12 months after the second dose. In young children, immunization against Polio is combined with other vaccines, such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. A series of inactivated Polio Vaccine can also be given to infants and children who have already received protection from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Hib in other vaccines.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

IPV Immunization Schedule

Prior to IPV introduction into Brazil's childhood Immunization schedule, revision of the National Polio vaccination policy was discussed at multiple meetings of the National technical Advisory committee on immunizations, composed of Immunization Experts and representatives of professional societies. Considerations include risk of WPV importation, Vaccine safety, sustainability, equity, vaccination strategies, and optimal schedule. In 2008, National Immunization Program began developing plan for IPV introduction through routine immunization services. Main components of the revised Polio vaccination policy include use of sequential IPV - OPV schedule, continuation of Polio vaccination Strategies until Global Polio Eradication, and sustainability of Polio vaccination in the recommended childhood Immunization schedule. As long as wild poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, all Polio - free countries are at risk for WPV importation; countries immediately bordering endemic countries and those with low routine immunization coverage are at highest risk. Transmission potential following importation is also higher in tropical countries with suboptimal sanitation. Brazil has not had any WPV importations since certification of elimination, and all reported cases of paralytic poliomyelitis in the Americas have been caused by vaccine viruses or VDPVs. However, importations of WPV into Polio - free countries have occurred as a result of international air travel, and previously Polio - free regions have experienced extensive outbreaks resulting from WPV importation. Routine coverage with 3 doses of OPV in Brazilian infants, based on administrative data, has been maintained above 95% nationally since 2000. Due to limitations of administrative data to monitor immunization coverage at municipal level, state and municipal immunization programs increasingly use rapid coverage monitoring to identify undervaccinated populations. A survey of children in state capital cities shows high OPV3 coverage at all socioeconomic levels. In addition, introduction of the National Immunization registry in 2012 will eventually provide more accurate estimates of vaccination coverage and reduce reliance on administrative data. Between 1970 and 2010, indicators of sanitation infrastructure and socioeconomic conditions improved dramatically in Brazil. However, sanitation, development, and immunization coverage are heterogeneously distributed throughout Brazil, and a large number of municipalities report less than 95% coverage with OPV3, especially in tropical areas. In these areas, continue OPV use in routine immunizations and SIAs provides advantages for boosting mucosal immunity, facilitating administration in remote areas, and providing herd immunity through secondary spread of vaccine viruses. Prevention of VAPP and risk of VDPVs in immunocompromised children, despite their rare occurrence, was considered important for maintaining public confidence in the National Immunization Program. Report incidence of VAPP in Brazil of 1 case per 10. 7 - 13 million OPV doses administered was lower than estimates from the United States, raising concerns about the completeness of VAPP ascertainment in Brazil. In Brazil, AFP Surveillance is conducted by state and municipal health departments and coordinated by the Secretariat for Health Surveillance of the Ministry of Health. While the main objective of AFP Surveillance is early detection of WPV importation, it is also essential for detection of Vaccine - associate cases and VDPVs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The vaccine

If person getting the vaccine has any severe, life - threatening allergies. If you ever had life - threatening allergic reaction after dose of IPV, or have severe allergy to any part of this vaccine, you may be advised not to get vaccinate. Ask your health care provider if you want information about vaccine components. If the person getting the vaccine is not feeling well. If you have a mild illness, such as cold, you can probably get a vaccine today. If you are moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until you recover. Your doctor can advise you.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Oral Poliovirus (OPV)

Brazil is one of a growing number of countries that have introduced IPV in National Immunization programs. As of December 2012, 66 WHO member States include IPV in National Immunization programs, including 7 in the Americas. In an additional 18 member States, IPV was recommended for children at increased risk of VAPP, including immunocompromised children. Ipv use is expected to increase as countries implement WHO recommendations for Polio Endgame strategy. With the introduction of the sequential IPV - OPV Polio vaccination schedule, Brazil National Immunization Program initiated plans for IPV use following worldwide Eradication of Polio, when only IPV use will be recommend. Introduction of IPV in Brazils National Immunization Program also meets updated recommendations from WHOs Strategic Advisory Group of Experts in November 2012 that all countries introduce at least 1 dose of IPV in routine infant Immunization schedules prior to withdrawal of type - 2 OPV virus from trivalent OPV to mitigate risks of poliomyelitis associate with type - 2 VDPVs. Several considerations were important for the choice of sequential IPV - OPV schedule in Brazil National Immunization Program. Despite limited experience with sequential IPV - OPV schedules for routine infant immunizations in Latin America, experiences from the United States and countries in other regions have demonstrated success in maintaining elimination of wild poliovirus and preventing VAPP. Several other Latin American countries, including Costa Rica and Mexico, have maintained National Polio Immunization Days with OPV following IPV - only routine infant Immunization schedule, as recommended by PAHO. In Brazil, decision to maintain 1 NID with OPV was based on reducing the risk of poliovirus transmission in the event of WPV or VDPV importation and maintaining annual outreach activities to difficult - to - access populations during campaigns. Financial sustainability of IPV introduction was also considered in the context of increased government commitment to the National Immunization Program with the introduction of new childhood vaccines in the past decade, including oral rotavirus vaccine, and pneumococcal and meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines. Finally, IPV introduction in Brazil contributes to equitable access to recommended vaccines among all Brazilian children, in accordance with founding principles of the Brazils National Immunization Program. Interpretation of Immunization coverage and AFP surveillance data from Brazil is subject to several limitations. Declining reporting rates of VAPP since certification of Polio elimination likely reflect underreporting of AFP cases; incidence of VAPP in Brazil, while still rare, was believed to be higher than report. Administrative coverage estimates are based on numbers of doses administered rather than children vaccinate, and municipal estimates of coverage are unreliable because doses are recorded by health centers rather than place of residence. Brazil's National Immunization Program has initiated a National Immunization registry to provide more reliable immunization coverage data. Data from Immunization coverage surveys were only available for select urban populations. Concerns about heterogeneous Polio Immunization coverage and pockets of susceptible populations, especially in rural areas with conditions favorable to poliovirus transmission, motivate maintenance of 2 OPV doses in the routine Polio Immunization schedule and continuation of 1 annual Polio Immunization day for children aged < 5 years.


Oral poliovirus vaccine

Prior to development of tOPV, monovalent OPVs were developed in early 1950s, but largely dropped out of use upon adoption of tOPV. It was not available at the time of founding of GPEI in 1988. Monovalent oral polio vaccines confer immunity to just one of three serotypes of OPV. They are more successful in conferring immunity to serotype target than tOPV, but do not provide protection to other two types. Monovalent OPVs for type 1 and type 3 poliovirus were licensed again in 2005, thanks to successful action taken by GPEI. They elicit the best immune response against serotype they target of all vaccines. Monovalent OPV type 2 has been stockpiled in the event of cVDPV2 outbreak.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What are the side effects?

Since the 1960s, there have been about 100 studies reporting individual cases, case series, and National surveillances of Vaccine - associated cases of paralytic poliomyelitis. Case definitions have been well developed by CDC and the World Health Organization; case of Vaccine - associate paralytic poliomyelitis is said to occur in recipients if onset of disease begins 7 - 30 days postvaccination and is said to occur in contact of Vaccine recipients if onset of disease begins 7 - 60 days after recipient's vaccination. Laboratory tests can identify strain of infecting virus as wild - type or vaccine strain of Poliovirus. Cases described above in section History Of suspect Association are typical of those that followed in the 1970s and 1980s. Who and CDC have used standard definitions of cases of paralytic poliomyelitis for almost 30 years, and many nations have implemented polio surveillance systems to monitor their polio immunization programs. Table 7 - 2 summarizes national data from the United States, England and Wales, Belgium, Spain, Romania, Hungary, Italy, and northern Greece. Despite differences in ways that data are categorized and reported and changes in incidence of polio from 1959 to present, all National data show low incidence of Vaccine - associate paralytic polio, in order of few cases per 1 million doses give or few cases per 1 million Vaccine recipients. Cdc data for years 1975 to 1984 show the incidence of 1 case of Vaccine - associate paralytic polio per 3. 22 million doses of OPV distribute. When cases among immunodeficient recipients and contacts and patients with Vaccine - like viruses are include, incidence is 1 case per 2. 64 million doses of OPV distribute. Incidence is greater with the first dose of vaccine. Cdc has estimated that overall dose - related incidence is 1 case per 520 000 first doses distributed versus 1 case per 12. 3 million subsequent doses distribute. The Monitoring System for Adverse Effects Following Immunization does not list poliomyelitis as a Separate Adverse Event, although it may be included under categories such as other neurologic symptoms, other Reactions, and serious events. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System contains several reports that may be cases of poliomyelitis, but data is generally insufficient to state whether cases of Vaccine - associate polio have occur. Of eight VAERS reports suggestive of Vaccine - associate poliomyelitis, six provide insufficient information, one provide enough information to rule out Vaccine - associate poliomyelitis, and one report provide information sufficient to be well - document case of Vaccine - associate poliomyelitis. Report, which was filled out by physician, state, Vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis confirmed by box 12 oligonucleotide sequencing of type III viral isolate. Occur in unvaccinated contact of recently vaccinated eight - month old.S Data regarding OPV - related nonparalytic polio are more scarce than those for paralytic disease. The Report of poliomyelitis surveillance in England and Wales from 1969 to 1975 documents 44 cases of nonparalytic poliomyelitis. Twelve of those cases were believed to have been associated with the Administration of OPV.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Path to improved health

There is a need for making target efforts and activities directed toward increasing utilization of immunization services at various health facilities, by people. Similarly, combination Vaccine has improved the efficiency of service delivery and health system. On outcomes of health systems, there is evidence that program reviews and new Vaccine Introduction are opportunities to improve equity. With the introduction of new vaccines in public Program, these have become universally available for all children. Free of cost availability of Vaccines in public Program ensure financial protection. A specific case study of the Health System approach contributing to the introduction of new interventions such as pentavalent Vaccine in two States of India in 2011 - 12 has been document. An Opportunity to introduce Hib as pentavalent Vaccine was used to prepare the health system to introduce this vaccine. This experience from India suggests that health systems could be strengthened prior to the introduction of new health interventions and introduction of new interventions could be Plan in way to strengthen the health system in due course.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

When to see your doctor

Children usually get inactivated poliovirus vaccine at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 - 18 months, and 4 - 6 years. Sometimes IPV is given in combination vaccine along with other vaccines. In this case, child might receive five doses of IPV. This is safe. The Oral poliovirus vaccine is still in used in many parts of the world, but hasn't been used in the United States since 2000. Using IPV eliminates small risk of developing polio after receiving live oral polio vaccine. Opv doses given before April 2016 can count toward children's US polio vaccination requirements. Doses given after that will not count.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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