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Children Have Received No Vaccines

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Although rates of recommended vaccinations for children have remained stable overall, number of children receiving no vaccines at all has quadrupled from previous years. According to NEW Report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this small but increasing group of children aged younger than 2 years that have not received any immunizations is concerning officials. These reports show that most US parents are protecting their children from Vaccine - preventable diseases by making sure they are getting recommended vaccines, says CDC spokesperson Ian Branam, MA, but we are seeing an increase in the number of children younger than 2 years of age WHO receive no Vaccines. This increase means that there are about 100 000 children under 2 years old that are not protected against potentially serious Vaccine - preventable diseases. According to Report, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1. 3% of children born in 2015 had not received any vaccinations by the 2017 National Immunization Survey - Child. 1 This figure indicates an upward trend in children in the 19 - month to 35 - month age group going without vaccinations, up from 0. 9% in 2011 and 0. 3% in 2001. The Cdc Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends vaccinations against 14 diseases by the age of 24 months, and CDC says it is working to understand the reason for upward tick in missed opportunities for vaccination in this age group. While the percent of US children WHO receive no vaccines is still very low, CDC is doing more work to understand factors contributing to this increase and how to address them, Branam say. Parental choice may play some role, but CDC data suggests that many of these parents do want to vaccinate their children, but they may not be able to get vaccines for them. They may face hurdles, like not having a healthcare professional nearby, not having time to get their children to the doctor, and / or thinking they cannot afford vaccines. Coverage for most vaccines remains stable overall, according to the report, with more than 90% of children aged 19 to 35 months receiving 3 or more doses of poliovirus Vaccine; 1 or more doses of Measles / mumps / Rubella Vaccine; 3 or more doses of hepatitis B Vaccine; and 1 or more doses of varicella Vaccine. Vaccine coverage was generally lower for most recommended vaccines among children WHO are uninsured or uninsured by Medicaid when compared with children with private health insurance, according to the report. Specifically, 17. 2% of unvaccinated children were uninsured compared with 2. 8% of all children. Vaccination rates also were lower in rural areas, report notes. Researchers also discovered disparities for vaccines that require booster dose in the second year of life, including diphtheria / tetanus / acellular pertussis, haemophilus influenzae type B, and pneumococcal conjugate Vaccine. While the total number of uninsured children in the survey was small, they were overly represented in the unvaccinated group. Among Children Survey in 2017 7. 1% of uninsured children receive no vaccines, compared with 0. 8% and 1. 0% of children with private insurance and Medicaid, respectively.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

2017 Vaccination Coverage

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that children be vaccinated against 14 potentially serious illnesses during the first 24 months of life. Cdc uses data from the National Immunization Survey - Child to assess vaccination coverage with recommended number of doses of each vaccine at National, state, territorial, and select local levels * among children born in 2015 and 2016. Coverage by age 24 months was at least 90% nationally for 3 doses of poliovirus Vaccine, 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella Vaccine, 3 doses of hepatitis B Vaccine, and 1 dose of varicella Vaccine, although MMR coverage was < 90% in 20 States. Children were least likely to be up to date by age 24 months with 2 doses of influenza Vaccine. Only 1. 3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 had received no vaccinations by second birthday. Coverage was lower for uninsured children and for children insured by Medicaid than for those with private health insurance. Vaccination coverage can be increased by improving access to vaccine providers and eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate children during health care visits. Increase use of local vaccination coverage data is needed to identify communities at higher risk for outbreaks of measles and other Vaccine - preventable Diseases. Nis - Child is a random - digit - dial telephone survey of parents or guardians of children aged 19 - 35 months. Respondents are asked to provide contact information for all providers WHO administer Vaccines to their Children. With parental consent, survey is mailed to each identified provider, requesting the children's vaccination history. Multiple responses for individual children are synthesize into a comprehensive vaccination history which is used to estimate vaccination coverage. To estimate coverage for 25 059 children with adequate provider data born in 2015 and 2016, NIS - Child data from 2016 - 2018 were combine; for Survey year 2018, Council of American Survey Research Organizations response rate was 24. 6%, and 54. 0% of children with household interviews had adequate provider data. With this Report, CDC has transition to reporting NIS - Child data by birth year rather than Survey year. Vaccination coverage by age of 24 months was estimated using Kaplan - Meier analysis to account for children WHO were aged < 24 months on date vaccination status was assess. Coverage with 2 doses of hepatitis Vaccine was assessed at 35 months, because the second dose of HepA can be administered as late as age 41 months under the current schedule. Previous NIS - Child weighting methods were modified to optimize estimation by birth year and to reflect the shift from dual landline and cellular telephone sample frame to exclusively cellular telephone sampling frame in 2018. * Differences in coverage estimates were evaluated using t - tests on weighted data; p - values of < 0. 05 were considered statistically significant. Analyses were performed using SAS and SUDAAN. No evidence for change in survey accuracy from 2017 to 2018 survey year was detect.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Discussion

The effects of the ongoing measles outbreak Center in Washington state have spread well beyond patients who contracted the virus, creating logistical challenges for schools and Public Health officials, which spent 1 million to contain illness. School - age vaccine mandates have been credited with practically eradicating many severe illnesses. In 2000, for example, public health officials declared that measles had been eliminate. But some parents ' refusal to vaccinate their children because through misinformation and distrust of public institutionshas once again given those diseases foothold in some communities as vaccination rates fall below recommended thresholds, those officials say. Now legislators in states like Colorado, Oregon, and Washington are debating ways to reverse the trend by promoting parent education and moving to close broad philosophical and personal belief loopholes in state law that allow families to opt out of vaccine requirements for reasons that are medical or religious. And at national level, lawmakers and federal agencies are calling for further research on those parents ' decisions to find ways to address their concerns, halt misinformation, and improve rates of vaccination in future. There always seem to be two sides to discussion, Ethan Lindenberger, senior at Norwalk High School in Norwalk, Ohio, told the US Senate Health and Education committee Tuesday. Though this is true in most instances, this is not true in the vaccine debate. Lindenbergers mother refused to have him vaccinated as a child, relying largely on false information she found on the Internet to support her belief that the procedure may cause autism and possible brain damage, he say. Convince that she was wrong, Lindenberger had himself vaccinated when he turned 18, turning to strangers on the Internet for advice. He was invited to testify before a committee as federal and state - level officials scramble to contain public health crisis sparked in part by parents who share their mothers ' concerns. From Jan. 1 to Feb. 28, 206 cases of measles have been confirmed in 11 States, according to the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seventy of those cases occurred in Clark County, Wash., Alone61 of them among people who had not been fully vaccinate, data show. Agencies like the CDC say vaccination levels of about 95 percent of the population are needed to promote herd immunity, level necessary to slow the spread of illness and to protect people who cannot be vaccinate, like infants and those with compromised immune systems. In Clark County, about 78 percent of all public school students have received All mandate vaccines, state data show. While 5. 9 percent of countys students claim broad personal exemptions, only about 0. 9 percent claim medical exemption and 0. 8 percent claim religious exemptions. To claim personal exemption, parents simply check a box on the form. They dont have to explain their objections or provide more specific reasons for opting out. Statewide, 88. 6 percent of Washington students are fully vaccinate, data show. We have lost ground, Washington state Secretary of Health John Wiesman told a Senate committee Tuesday.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Truth Behind the Myth

Truth: this is one of the oldest claims made by people that are anti - vaccination, but to be clear, Autism and vaccinations are not link. So, where does this claim come from? In 1998, study was published in the Lancet by a physician that had conflicts of interest and approved these false claims. Lancet then retracted the article in 2010 and stated that what Dr. Wakefield wrote was incorrect and contrary to findings of an earlier investigation. This myth continues to be debunked by large - scale scientific studies. The latest study, published in March 2019, examined more than 650 000 children born in Denmark between 1999 and 2010, and found no link between the MMR vaccine and Autism.


Vaccines: Myths and facts

US public health officials and physicians have been combating misconceptions about vaccine safety for over twenty years. They 've had mixed success. Despite the fact that numerous studies have found no evidence to support the notion that vaccines cause autism and other chronic illnesses, growing number of parents are refusing to vaccinate their children. Researchers now link falling immunization rates to recent resurgences of Vaccine - preventable diseases. In 2010, California saw 9 120 cases of whooping cough, more than any year since whooping cough Vaccine was introduced in the 1940s. Ten infants too young to be vaccinated died of whooping cough during the outbreak. Cdc warns that events like these will become more frequent and harder to control if vaccination rates continue to fall. Fears over the safety of vaccines are understandable. The CDC vaccination schedule calls for children to receive up to 14 inoculations by the age of six - many of them vaccines developed within the last twenty years. Many parents distrust these vaccines; worry about potential for risks and long - term side effects. Research, however, shows that most of our biggest fears about vaccinations are unfounded. These eight major vaccine myths that research has shown to be baseless:

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Unvaccinated Children With Autism

Numerous studies have been done comparing Autism rates between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. No difference has been find. For example: one study from Japan looked at MMR Vaccine, which was withdrawn from the country due to concerns about aseptic meningitis. In that study, statistically significant number of children were found to have developed Autism even though they had not received MMR Vaccine. Another study published in the February 2014 issue of Journal Autism find, rates of Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis do not differ between immunized and non - immunized younger sib groups. One 2018 study report in JAMA Pediatrics aims to determine vaccination patterns of children with and without Autism, as well as those of their younger siblings. This, study authors note, suggests that these children are at higher risk for Vaccine - preventable diseases. So, while there is no proven benefit of avoiding vaccines in terms of Autism prevention, this research highlights the proven danger of doing so.


Methods:

Patient data was obtained from EMR systems from three pediatric practices in the United States. All data used directly for study was first de - identified such that specific patient identification could not be made from source files used in statistical programming. Institutional Review Board at Simpson University for research with human subjects Review and authorized this analysis independent of researchers. Patients in the study were minimum of 3 years of age and continuously enrol in their medical practice from birth to June 2018. All patients were born after November 2005. The process of cohort selection is shown in Figure 1. Vaccination date, age at time of vaccination and type were obtained from practice EMRs and tabulated into separate, de - identify data file. All diagnoses considered were based on appropriate International Classification of Diseases - 9 and ICD - 10 codes. Diagnoses considered include developmental delays, asthma, ear infections and gastrointestinal disorders. Head injury was included as negative control outcome, or control diagnosis, presumed not to be associated with vaccination status. Other diagnoses, including autism and ADD / ADHD, were considered for assessment. However, insufficient numbers of cases exist among practices to complete rigorous statistical analysis. Diagnosis codes used for each condition are shown in Table 1. Truncate codes, for example, ICD - 9 code 315 as broad category for developmental delays, include all codes under that classification. Icd - 9 code of 315. 9 would, therefore, be counted as a case in category developmental delay. Also, in some instances, such as gastrointestinal disorders, range of ICD - 9 and ICD - 10 codes was used to determine cases. Specifically, for gastrointestinal disorders, only non - infective enteritis and colitis were consider. Since ear infections may occur more than once in the same child, cases were identified as children who received diagnosis code in at least one medical provider visit. Thus, for example, children who had one ear infection or multiple ear infections were counted as cases and children with no reported ear infections were counted as non - cases. Patients in the vaccinated category receive a minimum of one vaccine dose prior to their first birthday plus 15 days to capture 1 - year vaccines as recommended in the CDC schedule, whereas unvaccinated patients had no vaccine dose on record prior to their first birthday plus 15 days. The number of vaccine doses received prior to 1 year of age was calculated as the number of times ICD - 9 or ICD - 10 code for vaccination was recorded in patients ' EMR. This age cut - off was used because the largest proportion of vaccines given based on the US CDC infant and child vaccination schedule is administered prior to 1 year of age. This also accounts for multiple vaccine doses given in single visit to medical provider. Due to differences in recording practices among participating pediatricians, no attempts were made in this study to differentiate between types of vaccines administered to these infants.

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Myths and Misconceptions

Hans Rosling was a brilliant statistician, medical doctor and communicator, WHO truly understood the value of immunization. One of the greatest myth - busters working in Public Health, once asked the audience at the World Economic Forum in Davos: what percentage of children today are vaccinated against measles: 30%, 50% or 85%?. Some of the smartest people in the world mostly get it wrong, with just one in five correctly saying 85%. Hans tells this story to drive home how little most of the US understand about the positive impact of immunization. Such a low percentage of correct answers was, he say, clear evidence of preconceived ideas. Folks at Davos were just ignorant of facts - most of them didnt recognize immunization as an incredibly high - impact intervention. Sadly, Hans, WHO passed away in February, is no longer around to set the record straight. Immunization is actually one of the most incredible scientific innovations, and has contributed hugely to preventing deaths - mostly of children - and to dramatic rises in life expectancy and economic development. Every 1 invested in immunization returns estimate 16 in health - care savings and increased economic productivity. Getting back to numbers, 85% worldwide coverage for measles is much better than 30% or 50%, but it is still well below the 95% required to ensure population - wide protection. Just a few weeks ago, Health Minister of Romania reported that 17 children had died in a measles outbreak that has infected thousands of people, most of whom live in areas where immunization coverage is low. This can happen all too easily when kids do receive life - saving vaccines, and that is why we need to push much harder to increase immunization coverage for all vaccine - preventable diseases, not just for measles.


Vaccines: Myths and facts

Widespread fear that vaccines increase the risk of autism originates in a 1997 study published by Andrew Wakefield, British surgeon. An article was published in Lancet, prestigious medical journal, suggesting that measles, mumps, rubella Vaccine was increasing autism in British children. Paper has since been completely discredited due to serious procedural errors, undisclosed financial conflicts of interest, and ethical violations. Andrew Wakefield lost his medical license and his paper was retracted by Lancet. Nonetheless, hypothesis was taken seriously, and several other major studies were conduct. None of them find a link between any vaccine and the likelihood of developing autism. Today, true causes of autism remain a mystery, but to discredit the autism - vaccination link theory, several studies have now identified symptoms of autism in children well before they receive MMR Vaccine. And even more recent research provides evidence that autism develops in utero, well before the baby is born or receives vaccinations.

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Too Young to Be Vaccinated

Particularly vulnerable populations of children are those that cannot be immunized or develop immune response. These children rely primarily on herd immunity, vaccination of the critical mass of the population against life - threatening diseases. These populations include children under 12 months of age and children who have chronic medical conditions that prevent them from being able to receive vaccinations. In 2011, 15 percent of cases of measles were in children too young for vaccination. Within the 165 deaths associated with measles cases between 1987 and 1992, 14 - 16 percent were in children who had pre - existing conditions that prevented them from being vaccinate. Vulnerable groups of children are at particular risk when exposed to children of parents who willingly choose not to vaccinate their children, not only because of their increased susceptibility but because that increased susceptibility can also lead to worse sequelae in those infect. Other vulnerable populations include children who are not vaccinated for reasons other than medical indications. Analysis of the risk of measles within the population of children exempt from vaccination for nonmedical reasons shows that between 1985 and 1992, these children were 35 times as likely to contract measles as those without exception. Requirements for vaccination of children in school have also wan. As more nonmedical - exemptions from vaccination are accepted by schools, cases of vaccine - preventable illnesses rise. Traditionally, it has been the role of public health authorities to protect the most vulnerable groups within the population. If vaccination refusal is leading to more cases of vaccine - preventable illness affecting vulnerable groups of children, it is imperative that we equip physicians and parents with tools to assist in protecting children at risk.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Weak Immune System

Children and adults with weak Immune systems can fall into several broad categories. These include those WHO can't receive some Vaccines because they have weak Immune System. There are also those WHO may be fully vaccinate, but no longer have any Immune protection because they developed Immune System problem. And if they were to be vaccinate, depending on their degree of immune suppression, vaccine likely would not work well. There are at least 180 different types of primary Immune Deficiency disorders and many secondary ones. Among these Immune System disorders that might put children at risk for some Vaccine - preventable Diseases include: antibody deficiencies such as X - link agammaglobulinemia, Common variable immunodeficiency, selective IgA Deficiency, IgG subclass Deficiency, Partial and complete T - lymphocyte Defects such as severe combine immunodeficiency Disease, DiGeorge Syndrome, Wiskott - Aldrich Syndrome, ataxia - telangiectasia Defects in phagocyte function such as chronic granulomatous Disease, leukocyte adhesion defect, and myeloperoxidase Deficiency HIV / aid Many kinds of cancer Transplants receiving immunosuppressive therapy disorder requiring treatment with immunosuppressive doses of steroids according to Immune Deficiency Foundation, we want to create protective cocoon of immunized persons surrounding patients with primary immunodeficiency Diseases so that they have less chance of being expose to potentially serious infection like influenza. It shouldn't be hard to see that if some children are intentionally not getting vaccinate, then they certainly do pose a risk for these children with Immune System problems. The CDC report of death of Vaccinated Child with leukemia is a heartbreaking illustration of how kids with Immune System problems can be at high risk from Vaccine - preventable Diseases. A 4 - year - old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia develops fever 22 days after being exposed to chickenpox and just after starting another round of chemotherapy, which causes profound immunosuppression. She was hospitalized and died of multi - organ failure a few days later.

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Vaccinated and Unprotected

By time most children are 2 years old, they are protected against 14 Vaccine - preventable diseases, including diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type B, measles, mumps, pertussis, and polio, etc. Even if the measles vaccine is over 99% effective, if there are almost 74 000 000 children and teens under age 18 years in the United States, that would still put a lot of kids at risk from people who are intentionally not vaccinate. Whether it is a 6 - month - old going to the pediatrician for well child check - up, 6 - year - old with leukemia going to hospital for chemotherapy, or 16 - year - old with chronic granulomatous Disease, it should be clear that a lot of people are unnecessarily put at risk when someone makes decision to not vaccinate their kids or to use alternative immunization schedule.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Endnotes

These and other numbers in this entry are based on estimates by the World Health Organisation. Coverage estimates are calculated by dividing the total number of vaccinations given by the number of children in the target population. Target population size is usually based on census population projections. This means that there may be children in the target population that, for medical reasons, should be exempt from vaccination. These medical reasons may include factors such as allergies to vaccine components or severe immunodeficiencies. Notably, such cases are very rare and would have little effect on Global Coverage numbers. For example, study from 2003 identified severe allergic reaction in only 0. 000063% of all vaccinations, that's 0. 63 cases per million vaccinations. In addition, vaccines are always being improved with fewer ingredients that may cause allergic reactions. Vaccination of children with immunodeficiencies generally needs to be assessed by a specialist. Especially, for Vaccine that are based on live pathogens. For example, WHO recommends vaccinating HIV - positive children with Measles Vaccine if the child's HIV infection is asymptomatic or not severe. Similarly, children with severe immunodeficiency syndrome, genetic disorder that causes defects in the immune system, are safely vaccinated with many vaccines before SCID is even diagnose, but it's recommended not to vaccinate them with live vaccines. In fact, one of the reasons it is important to increase vaccination rates is that those children and adults WHO, for medical reasons, cannot be vaccinated would still be protected from diseases through Herd Immunity. Https: / www. Who. Int / en / news - room / fact - sheets / detail / Immunization - Coverage UNICEF and Hinman,. R. Estimate that in the absence of vaccine, world would have See 5 million deaths due to Smallpox every year in the mid - 1990s. Assuming that estimate for mid - 1990s provides midpoint estimate for the period since 1980 and therefore, multiplying the 5 million per year estimate by the number of years between 1980 and 2018 means that since eradication of disease, 190 million people's lives were save. Unicef Vaccines bring 7 Diseases under Control. Online here. See Oxford's Vaccine Knowledge Project for explanation here: http: / vk. Ovg. Ox. Ac. Uk / Herd - Immunity. Beutels P, Van Damme P, Van Casteren V, Gay NJ, De Schrijver K, Meheus. Difficult quest for data on vanishing Vaccine - preventable infections in Europe: case of Measles in Flanders. Vaccine. 2002 Oct 4; 20: 3551 - 9 here This table is taken from Wikipedia's entry on Herd Immunity. Original sources are listed there. Cholera, Dengue fever, Diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis E, Human papilloma - virus, Influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Malaria, Measles, Meningococcal Disease, Mumps, Pneumococcal Disease, Pertussis, Poliomyelitis, Rabies, Rotavirus gastroenteritis, Rubella, Tetanus, Tick - borne encephalitis, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, Varicella, Yellow fever, Shingles, and Smallpox. See https: / en. Wikipedia. Org / wiki / Vaccine - preventable_diseases and https: / www. Who. Int / Immunization / global_vaccine_action_plan / GVAP_doc_2011_2020 / en / See Francis EG Cox History of Discovery of Malaria Parasites and their Vectors. In Parasites and Vectors. Online here. Roush and Murphy Historical comparisons of morbidity and mortality for Vaccine - preventable Diseases in the United States. In Journal of American Medical Association, 298 18 2155–2163.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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