Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 12 mil and more summaries

Colon Cancer Tumor Marker

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 18 January 2022

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

If you have symptoms that might be from Colorectal Cancer, or if screening test show something abnormal, your doctor will recommend one or more of exams and tests below to find cause. Medical history and physical exam Your doctor will ask about your medical history to learn about possible risk factors, including family history. You will also be asked if youre having symptoms and, If so, when they started and how long youve had them. As part of physical exam, your doctor will feel your abdomen for masses or enlarged organs, and also examine rest of your body. You may also have digital rectal exam. During this test, doctor inserts lubricate, gloved finger into your rectum to feel for any abnormal areas. Tests To look For blood in Your stool If you are seeing doctor because of anemia or symptoms you are having, he or she may recommend stool test to check for blood that isnt visible to naked eye, which might be sign of Cancer. These types of tests-fecal blood test or fecal immunochemical test-are done at home, and require you to collect 1 to 3 samples of stool from bowel movement. For more how these tests are done, see Colorectal Cancer Screening Tests. Blood Tests Your doctor might also order certain blood tests to determine if you have Colorectal Cancer. These Tests can also be used to help monitor your if youve been diagnosed with cancer. Complete blood count: this test measures types of cells in your blood. It can if you have anemia. Some people with Colorectal Cancer become anemic because tumor has been bleeding for long time. Liver enzymes: You may also have blood test to check your liver function, because Colorectal Cancer can spread to liver. Tumor markers: Colorectal Cancer cells sometimes make substances called tumor markers can be found in blood. Most Common Tumor Marker For Colorectal Cancer Is Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Blood Tests for this tumor marker can sometimes suggest someone might have Colorectal but they ca be used alone to screen for or diagnose cancer. This is because tumor levels can sometimes be normal in someone who has cancer and can be abnormal for reasons other than cancer. Tumor marker Tests are most often along with other tests to monitor patients who have already been diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer. They may help show how treatment is working or provide early warning that cancer has return. Diagnostic Colonoscopy Diagnostic Colonoscopy Is Just Like Screening Colonoscopy, But It's Done Because Person Is Having Symptoms, Or Because Something Abnormal Was Found On Another Type Of Screening Test. For this test, doctor looks at entire length of Colon and rectum with colonoscope, thin, flexible, light tube with small video camera on end.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

Worldwide, colorectal Cancer annually affects more than one million men and women and causes more than half million deaths. In Europe in 2010, CRC was third most common malignant cancer in both men and women. There are 250000 cases of colorectal Cancer diagnosed on annual basis in Europe only. Five-year survival was 54 percent among adult Europeans diagnosed with colorectal between 1995 and 1999. More recent available data report that overall five-year relative survival can achieve 65 percent, but varies depending on stage of cancer disease. Number Of Biomarkers Used For Tests Continues To Grow. National Institute Of Health Defines Biomarkers As Biological Molecule Found In Blood, Other Body Fluids, Or Tissues That Are Sign Of Normal Or Abnormal Process, Or Of Condition Or Disease. Definition Of Biomarker Mostly Refers To DNA, RNA, MicroRNA, Epigenetic Changes Or Antibodies. Term Tumour Marker, By Some Researchers Consider As Synonym Of Biomarker, Refers To Substances Representing Biological Structures, Which Can Be Attributed To Development Of Normal Cells Or Carcinogenesis At Different Cell Development Stages Eg., Tumour-associate Antigens Which Are Largest Group Of Clinically Significant Markers. As result, concentration of TAAs typically correlates with number of specific neoplastic cells. In daily clinical practice, in process of diagnosis and therapy, there are several parameters for use of long-establish high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. These parameters have been selected from among tens of molecules produced by cells in long-term Laboratory tests, observational studies clinical trials. Concentrations of tumour markers tested at diagnostic stage are to assist in early cancer diagnosis and to be used in screening tests. Some of them are currently found to be more important treatment and long-term follow-up. On other hand, for some types of tumours, markers are also considered important in monitoring progress of treatment, efficacy of neo-adjuvant therapy, surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy and follow-up for possible recurrence. Long-term observational studies also point to fact that, apart from determining Antigen concentration, it can also be important to trace its progress and dynamics. In this review, we updated review published in 2014. We examine biomarkers associated with CRC and discuss their role in cancer screening, early detecting of disease recurrence and as prognostic and predictive factors.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Classical Tumor Markers

Carcinoembryonic antigen is glycoprotein oncofetal antigen that is expressed in many epithelial tumors. This relatively inexpensive blood test, first described by Gold and Freedman in was part of most recommended surveillance strategies. 10 CEA is glycoprotein which is formed in cells of large bowel. Seventy percent of patients with CRC have high CEA levels during diagnosis, which makes it very good marker for treatment and monitoring of disease after resection. Although CEA is usually considered cancer marker, its concentrations may also be elevated in variety of benign conditions, including hepatitis, pancreatitis, obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammatory bowel disease. According to commonly accepted units of measurement, values of up to 5 ng / mL are normal antigen level in blood. It has been observed that values in smokers, in cases of ulcer colitis or Liver cirrhosis, can increase up to 10 ng / mL 11. Tan et al conducted quantitative meta-analysis of 20 studies involving 4285 Patients investigated CEA performance characteristics when used to detect recurrence of Colorectal Cancer. Overall sensitivity was to be 0. 64 and specificity 0. 90. 12 study by Chen et al in Taiwan whether rising CEA was added value in detecting postoperative relapses. In study of 4841 patients, 999 had elevated CEA and relapse. About three-quarters of these patients had recurrence detected by other means at same time as first increase in CEA. 13 Patients for Colorectal Cancer should have CEA levels monitored every 3 months. Unfortunately, increase in CEA concentration is only sometimes observed during first stage of CRC. This mostly happens advanced stages of cancer. Increase in concentration of CEA prior to operation may with adverse prognosis. CA 19. 9 is glycoprotein characterized by high molecular weight which may be released into blood. This marker is used in diagnostics Pancreatic, colorectal and gastric cancers. Like CEA, it is not specific to particular histological type of carcinoma and organ which it comes from. Vukobrat-Bijedic et al that CA 19. 9 is sensitive than CEA. 14 combined of CEA and CA 19. 9 may diagnostic sensitivity in Colorectal Cancer detection. Moreover, determination of both of these Markers is used as postoperative prognostic factor evaluation of stage of disease and survival rate. 15 Nakatani et al in their research from 2012 provide data that colon Cancer located in region of Sigma had extremely high concentrations of CEA and CA19. 9 16 There is no significant increase in by combining CEA and CA 19. 9 determinations. Both CA 19. 9 concentration and sensitivity increase with higher Dukes stage of disease, but do not correlate with tumor location and of positive lymph nodes. Patients with Dukes C tumors preoperative CA 19. 9 concentrations higher 37 U / mL had shorter disease-free survival period.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2022 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.