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Corona Transmitted

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The new type OF respiratory tract disorder COVID - 19 is based on infection with a new type OF Coronavirus. Knowledge about exact transmission methods of this Coronavirus is still limit. However, transmission methods of other closely related coronaviruses are well know. Different types OF Coronavirus typically trigger conventional colds in humans. Moreover, other coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS coronaviruses, have occurred in the past and have led to severe respiratory tract disorders. The main target organs OF coronaviruses in humans are respiratory tract organs. The most important transmission pathway OF SARS - CoV - 2 is considered to be the so - called droplet Infection, in which viruses are released into the air by infected people via droplets - for example, when sneezing or coughing - and then inhale. In certain situations, aerosol transmission - for example, when speaking - also seems possible. Furthermore, transmission via contact or smear infections cannot be ruled out. In those cases, viruses located on hands enter mucus membranes of the nose or eyes, where they may lead to infection. Further information on these transmission pathways can be found at Robert Koch Institute at RKI is in close contact with the World Health Organisation and monitors all up - to - date news about the event. Https: / www. Rki. De and there are currently no cases which have shown evidence of humans being infected with a new type OF Coronavirus via consumption of contaminated food. There is also currently no reliable evidence OF transmission OF virus via contact with contaminated objects or contami - nated surfaces, which would have lead to subsequent human infections. However, transmission through smear infections via surfaces that shortly before have been contaminated with viruses cannot be ruled out. The stability of coronaviruses in the environment depends on several factors, such as temperature, air humidity and surface conditions, as well as specific virus strains and virus quantity. In general, human coronaviruses are not particularly stable on dry surfaces. Inactivation in dry conditions generally occurs within a period from a few hours to a couple of days. Initial laboratory tests by an American working group for new type OF Coronavirus SARS - CoV - 2 show that it can remain infectious for up to 3 hours as aerosol, up to 4 hours on copper surfaces, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to 2 - 3 days on stainless steel and plastic following heavy contamination. According to this laboratory - confirmed stability data, Coronavirus SARS - CoV - 2 has been been considered markedly less stable than many other pathogens, eg various non - enveloped viruses or bacterial spores. Stability mentioned in the study was determined in the laboratory under optimum conditions and with high concentrations of viruses In practice, it is expected that due to additional factors, such as daylight, fluctuations in temperature and humidity, and lower contamination levels, stability is lower than in laboratory study. Coronaviruses can generally reach cutlery or dishes through infected person sneezing or coughing directly on them and they can survive on these solid surfaces for some time.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Footnotes

Being within approximately 6 feet 2 meters of COVID - 19 case for a prolonged period of time; close contact can occur while caring for, living with, visiting, or sharing a health care waiting area or room with COVID - 19 case B having direct contact with infectious secretions of COVID - 19 case e. G, being cough on if such contact occurs while not wearing recommend personal protective equipment or PPE e. G, gowns, gloves, NIOSH - certify disposable N95 respirator, eye protection, criteria for PUI consideration are meet see CDCs update Interim Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Persons Under Investigation for 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Data to inform the definition of close contact is limit. Considerations when assessing close contact include duration of exposure e. G, longer exposure time likely increases exposure risk and clinical symptoms of person with COVID - 19 e. G, coughing likely increases exposure risk as does exposure to severely ill patient.S Special consideration should be given to those exposed in health care settings.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Respiratory transmission

Covid - 19 was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Covid - 19 is caused by the virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, new virus in humans causing respiratory illness which can be spread from person - to - person. Early in the outbreak, many patients were reported to have been linked to large seafood and live animal market, however, later cases with no link to the market confirm person - to - person transmission of disease. Additionally, travel - related exportation of cases has occur. Covid - 19 is primarily transmitted from person - to - person through respiratory droplets. These droplets are released when someone with COVID - 19 sneezes, coughs, or talks. Infectious droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people WHO are nearby or possibly be inhaled into lungs. A physical distance of at least 1 meter between persons is suggested by the World Health Organization to avoid infection, although some WHO member States have recommended maintaining greater distances whenever possible 1. Respiratory droplets can land on hands, objects or surfaces around person when they cough or talk, and people can then become infected with COVID - 19 from touching hands, objects or surfaces with droplets and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. Recent data suggests that there can be transmission of COVID - 19 through droplets of those with mild symptoms or those WHO do not feel ill 2. Current data does not support long range aerosol transmission of SARS - CoV - 2, such as seen with measles or tuberculosis. Short - range inhalation of aerosols is a possibility for COVID - 19, as with many respiratory pathogens. However, this cannot easily be distinguished from droplet transmission based on epidemiologic patterns. Short - range transmission is a possibility, particularly in crowded medical wards and inadequately ventilated spaces. 3. Certain procedures in health facilities can generate fine aerosols and should be avoided whenever possible. A wide range of symptoms for COVID - 19 have been reported 4. These include: fever or chills, cough, Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, Fatigue, headache, Nasal congestion or runny nose, muscle or body aches, Sore throat, New loss of smell or taste, Nausea or vomiting Diarrhea estimate incubation period is between 2 and 14 days with median of 5 days. It is important to note that some people become infected and do not develop any symptoms or feel unwell. Despite important concerns about case fatality rates, most COVID - 19 illnesses are - and we expect will continue to be - mild, and most patients will recover spontaneously with some supportive care, especially children and young adults. Data from several countries suggest that 14% - 19% are hospitalized and 3% - 5% will need intense Care unit admission. The first largest description of patients with COVID - 19 comes from China, where the outbreak of COVID - 19 start, and is described in detail below. Among 44 672 confirmed COVID - 19 cases reported from December 31 2019 through February 11 2020, clinical presentation was as follow: mild represented 80. 9% of confirmed patients with COVID - 19 in China. Critical represent 4. 7% of confirmed patients with COVID - 19 in China. 1 023 deaths were reported among 2 087 critically ill patients.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Aerosol transmission

Although direct transmission from an infected person / s is the primary source of aerosols and droplets, other scenarios such as medical procedures, surgeries, fast - running tap water and toilet flushes also generate aerosols that contaminate with infectious pathogens. The most common types of viruses causing infections in the respiratory tract through aerosol transmission are influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and parainfluenza viruses. Tellier has postulated three modes in which influenza virus can be transmit: aerosol transmission, droplet transmission, and self - inoculation of nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. Another classification is presented by Judson and Munster, which is often referred to as term of airborne transmission to describe disease spread by small droplet aerosols and droplet nuclei, while the term droplet transmission to describe infection by large droplet aerosols. The term airborne transmission defined by Morawska is quite similar to same apprehended by Judson and Munster. Besides, direct contact and fomite transmission produced by aerosol - generating medical procedures can also be considered as potential transmission pathways. Droplet transmission occurs by direct spray of large droplets onto conjunctiva or mucous membranes of the susceptible host when the infected patient sneezes, talks, or coughs. In the meantime, direct physical touch between an infected individual and susceptible host and indirect contact with infectious secretions on fomites can cause contact transmission. It is a well - known fact that COVID - 19 is transmitted by human - to - human contact; hence, contagious. One of the predominant mechanisms for COVID - 19 to be contagious is self - inoculation from contaminated fomites. Self - inoculation could occur by poor hand hygiene or by not following common disease - controlling etiquettes. Viral transmission because of frequent touches of contaminated fomites was found to be source of disease. Consequently, many researchers have paid attention to airborne transmission directly by virus - laden droplets and aerosols. However, novelty of this viral outbreak limits prima facie evidence to determine potential transmission routes, and thus, it is assumed that SARS - CoV - 2 also spreads like other human coronaviruses. Recent studies corroborate that COVID - 19 is transmitted primarily between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. Besides, evidence has been found that fecal contamination caused by an infected person is discernible to spread the SARS - CoV - 2 virus. A recent study in China has investigated 1 070 specimens collected from 205 infected patients at three hospitals in Hubei and Shandong Provinces, and about 29% of positive cases for COVID - 19 have been observed with transmission through feces. Further, they also highlight the fact that COVID - 19 could be transmitted via fecal routes after they detect live infectious agents of COVID - 19 in patients ' stools. Contrary to what has been stated above, WHO, in the early hours of manifestation of COVID - 19, has denounced that there was no supporting evidence for fecal - oral transmission of SARS - CoV - 2 virus. The same report also highlights the fact that airborne transmission has not played a significant role in disease transmission from 75 465 confirmed COVID - 19 cases in China as of March 27 2020.


1. Introduction

Virus - containing body secretions and excreta can be aerosolize into infectious virus - containing droplets or particles through a variety of ways. Respiratory secretions are known to be aerosolize through daily activities and medical procedures. Excreta can also be aerosolize through toilet flushing. Material that has deposited onto surfaces can be re - aerosolize by human activities. Biological specimens can be aerosolize through improper laboratory procedures. In all of these contexts, infectious aerosols can pose infection risks to people, influenced by complex environmental factors which affect survival, transport and fate of aerosolized viruses Aerosols are generally poly - dispersed droplets and particles which have many different sizes. Classical airborne aerosol hygiene research describes droplets of respiratory secretions evaporating to become droplet nuclei, which remain suspended in air currents or turbulence and may drift away considerable distances. Modern researchers generally use the phrase droplet nuclei to refer to respiratory aerosol droplets with aerodynamic diameter < 5 m, and some disease transmission research now refers to respiratory droplets in this size range as aerosols. Particles and droplets with aerodynamic diameter < 5 m have the ability to readily penetrate deep into the alveolar region of the lungs of bystander. In contrast, relatively large droplets are thought to arise from the upper respiratory tract and settle quickly and relatively close to their source. For example, 100 m droplets take about 10 s, whereas 10 m droplets take 17 min to fall to the floor, and 5 m droplets originating from the average height of speaking or coughing take 9 min to reach the ground. Droplets that settle more slowly have increased the opportunity to travel in air from source. The 1 m limit of safe spatial separation is based on limited and dated epidemiologic and simulation studies of some select infections, but more recent studies suggest droplets can travel much further than 2 m. For person near the source, large droplets may project onto facial mucous membranes or be inspired into upper airways. Modern technology confirms that aerosolized Respiratory secretions vary widely in size. The size and concentration of influenza virus aerosol droplets and particles to which susceptible person may be exposed is mainly under 2. 5 m and the average person can generate over 500 particles per liter of air. Existing epidemiological and experimental research demonstrate wide variety of respiratory viruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, influenza virus, and norovirus, could be transmitted by aerosols under many conditions. Striking examples of long range aerosol transmission inside buildings and to adjacent buildings were clusters of SARS cases at Amoy Gardens and Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong in 2003. Influenza viruses remain infectious in aerosols across a broad range of relative humidity, and this route has been used to explain transmission in hospitals and aircraft, which has been confirmed by epidemiological investigation, fluid dynamic models and animal models.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The takeaway?

Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that handling food or consuming food is associated with COVID - 19. Coronaviruses, like the one that causes COVID - 19, are thought to spread mostly person - to - person through respiratory droplets when someone cough, sneeze, or talks. It is possible that person can get COVID - 19 by touching surface or object, including food or food packaging, that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes. However, this is not thought to be the main way viruses spreads. After shopping, handling food packages, or before preparing or eating food, it is important to always wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer external icon that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all the surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel dry. Remember, it is always important to follow good food safety practices to reduce the risk of illness from common foodborne pathogens.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Treatment

Coronavirus Disease is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Most people infected with COVID - 19 Virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID - 19 Virus, disease it causes and how it spread. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using alcohol base rub frequently and not touching your face. The Covid - 19 Virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharges from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it is important that you also practice respiratory etiquette. At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID - 19. However, there are many ongoing Clinical Trials evaluating potential treatments. Who will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings become available. Protect yourself: advice For Public Myth busters Questions and answers Situation report All information on the COVID - 19 outbreak COVID - 19 affects different people in different ways. Most infected people will develop mild to moderate illness and recover without hospitalization. Fever. Dry cough. Tiredness. Aches and pains. Sore throat. Diarrhoea. Conjunctivitis. Headache. Loss of taste or smell. Rash on skin, or discolouration of fingers or toes. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Chest pain or pressure. Loss of speech or movement. Seek immediate medical attention if you have serious symptoms. Always call before visiting your doctor or health facility. People with mild symptoms WHO are otherwise healthy should manage their symptoms at home. On average, it takes 5 - 6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, However it can take up to 14 days.


About COVID-19

There is currently no evidence that people living with HIV are at higher risk of being infected with the coronavirus, virus that causes COVID - 19 illness. Our understanding of the risk of developing severe COVID - 19 in people living with HIV is evolving. Current evidence suggests that HIV is less of a risk factor for severe COVID - 19 than other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease, cancer, diabetes, or being over a certain age. People living with HIV WHO have compromised immune system may be at greater risk and should take extra steps to prevent infection. This includes people with low CD4 count, high viral load or recent opportunistic infection. The best way to stay healthy is by taking your antiretroviral treatment. To find out more, read our coronavirus and HIV page.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

From person to person

You can become ill if you are infected with SARS - CoV2, novel coronavirus that causes COVID - 19. Your body defends itself against viruses in different ways. The first line of defence is your skin. It forms a kind of wall around your body that is impenetrable to many pathogens. In addition, there are numerous other lines of defence that pathogen must pass through before you can become ill, such as your immune system. For that reason, single virus particle is rarely enough to make you sick. You will have to come into contact with many virus particles before you become ill. A person who is ill from novel coronavirus produces millions of copies of the virus inside their body. Viruss are mainly found in the lungs, but also in other moist parts of your body, such as your throat or nasal cavity. When you sneeze or cough, you are not just pushing out air: lots of droplets also come out of your lungs, throat or nasal cavity. Novel coronavirus spreads through these droplets.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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