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Covid Mmr

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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FRIDAY, Sept. 4 2020-New clinical trial will try to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella vaccine can protect health care workers from being infected with COVID-19. Hundreds of millions of people have received the MMR vaccine since it was developed nearly 50 years ago. It's usually given to children before age 6. Growing evidence suggests that vaccines may also prevent COVID-19. We know that the MMR vaccine is safe, and we think there are two main reasons that it could prevent COVID-19, say researcher Dr. Michael Avidan, head of the Department of Anesthesiology At Washington University School of Medicine Louis. First is this vaccine includes small amounts of live but very weakened measles, mumps and rubella viruses, Avidan explained in a University news release. This type of vaccine appears to strengthen the body's immune response to infections in general, not just to viruses in that particular vaccine. The MMR vaccine may also work because it protects against viruses that are similar to Coronavirus. Researchers think that antibodies made to MMR vaccine might also fight SARS-CoV-2. In addition, researchers hope that the MMR vaccine might make cases of COVID-19 milder. The Trial is funded by a $9 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Mastercard, and other public and philanthropic donors. Researchers hope to enroll as many as 30 000 health care workers around the world. Participants will be randomly selected to get the MMR vaccine or placebo. Most of those recruited for trial will receive booster, as they likely received vaccine as children. But in some countries where MMR vaccine isn't widely give, health care workers may be receiving vaccine for the first time, researchers note. Countries involved in study include Canada, Ghana, Ireland, South Africa, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Each study participant will be Follow for five months, and the entire trial is expected to last about a year, researchers say. Scientists at University College London will compile data from the trial.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Abbreviations

The ISMP National Vaccine Errors Reporting Program contains many cases of repetitive mix-ups between vaccines that reporters felt were caused by similar abbreviations or acronyms. For example, recent report involves confusion between Hib and HPV. During an office visit, healthcare practitioner administered 9vHPV to a 2-month-old baby who was supposed to receive Hib. This is not the first report of a mix-up between these two Vaccine abbreviations, but it is the first that involved an infant. We contacted Merck, manufacturer. Understandably, company was unable to provide information about adverse effects on infants. Searching the ISMP VERP database from September 2012 to February 2017, most frequently reported mix-ups among Vaccine abbreviations or acronyms involve: Tdap and DTaP DT and Td MMR and MMRV PCV13 and PPV23, or PCV and PPV Hib and HepB HepA and HepB DTaP-HepB-IPV, DTaP-IPV / Hib, and DTaP-IPV HPV and IPV HPV and HBV MCV and PCV MCV and MMR VAR and HZV IPV and PPD IIV and PPD PCV and PPD HPV and Hib MMRV and MPSV HepA and HPV4 HepB and HPV4 group of abbreviations use for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis were most frequently confused Vaccine abbreviations or acronyms in ISMP VERP database. Similar findings are well documented in various studies and analyses of Vaccine Errors. 1-4 However, we have also received more than a dozen reports of mix-ups between abbreviations used for pneumococcal vaccines, and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines with and without varicella component. Vaccine labeling and packaging may contribute to mix-ups because distinguishing factors, such as noting intend Vaccine age group, are not always prominent on label or are poorly position, as with DTaP and Tdap, and DT and Td. Also, federal requirement to list full nonproprietary name, which is often very long, above brand name on Vaccine packaging makes it hard to read labels and contributes to similarities if Vaccine components overlap. Errors caused by unclear Vaccine abbreviations have been a longstanding problem. More than a decade ago, ISMP surveyed health professionals about errors related to Vaccine abbreviations. 5 Almost half of survey respondents experienced errors stemming from Vaccine abbreviations used in handwritten orders; one in three encountered errors with abbreviations used on immunization records; one in four reported that abbreviations on Vaccine protocols or schedules had contributed to errors; and almost one in five were aware of Errors that result from Vaccine abbreviations use on pharmacy labels or manufacturers product labels. While 63% of respondents believe standard abbreviations should be used for vaccines, only 55% believe this would reduce the risk of errors. Problems continue to worsen as new vaccines are added to the arsenal. Please keep in mind that reports submitted to ISMP VERP likely represent just the tip of the iceberg. Clearly, use of Vaccine abbreviations and acronyms, even those that are standardize, is contributing to errors.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Fire up the humidifier

Patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia can experience impacted airway from increased sputum excretion, and our patient experience deterioration in his respiratory condition after almost complete impaction of the inside of the inserted endotracheal tube. Use of humidifier may be effective if a patient exhibits viscous sputum. Although only apply for short periods of time, prone positioning proves effective in improving respiratory conditions in our patient. Although anti-aerosol measures are important for severe COVID-19 pneumonia, it is necessary to pay attention to tube troubles caused by viscous sputum generated while the patient is being managed using a heat moisture exchanger.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tamp down aerosols

Onstage at Orchestra Hall, Michael Gast lifted his French horn and, As metronome click, played scale loudly. Once, twice, three times. His forehead red, his cheeks deflate, Gast turned to his audience: six University of Minnesota researchers. Two peer at the screen before nodding. They had been watching, more than listening, measuring not sound from Gasts horn but particles. Ph. D student adjust funnel in horn bell. U mechanical engineers are working with Minnesota Orchestra to study the strength and concentration of aerosols that emerge from brass and woodwind instruments, trying to assess how risky they might be to spread of the coronavirus that caused COVID-19. The first goal is to identify risks in the Orchestra Hall of virus-carrying particles flying between and among players and to figure out how to capture or disperse those particles, paving the way for safe, in-person concerts again. But results could reverberate beyond performing arts and play to a national audience of scientists and policymakers WHO are only beginning to understand the role of aerosols in fueling the pandemic. The findings are very significant, with potential impact beyond orchestra performance, said Jiarong Hong, associate professor of mechanical engineering and co-leader of research. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention this fall stated that aerosols can sometimes play a role in virus transmission, but that larger droplets are still the primary means when they are projected by infected people toward others nearby. Droplet risk prompts social distancing strategies to prevent viral transmission by having people stay 6 or more feet apart. SARS-CoV-2 might not present the aerosol risk that exists with the measles virus. Even so, little state or federal guidance suggests what to do about reducing this murky Aerosol threat, which could magnify as winter drives Minnesotans indoors. U teams first results, published in Journal of Aerosol Science, find that certain instruments generate more aerosols than others, small trumpet more than large tuba. The risk of instruments projecting virus-carrying aerosols horizontally into crowds wasnt as bad as fear. Aerosols taper off by 30 centimeters, or about a foot, Hong say. The next stage of their research involves airflow measurements in Orchestra Hall and strategies to contain aerosols. Results have yet to be publish, But Orchestra is putting them to use. The degree of aerosol coming out of wind instrument or brass instrument is actually less than we think it might be, says Dr. Jon Hallberg, WHO has been advising the Minnesota Orchestra on how to mitigate risk. As its players perform revised fall season, for broadcast only, to empty Hall. Realizing there isnt this enormous difference between breathing and playing instrument in terms of aerosol production, velocity and spread that become very reassuring, he add. Hallberg, U faculty member, connected the Orchestra with researchers, WHO already running simulations of how aerosols might spread under different ventilation levels in everyday environments such as elevators and classrooms.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Training the immune system

By Kathleen Berger, Executive Producer for Science & Technology in collaboration with Washington University School of Medicine theres one vaccine with nearly 50 years of proven safety that may strengthen Immune response to viral infections and possibly protect people from COVID-19. It is the MMR vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. The International Research Network of physicians and scientists launched a clinical trial to evaluate whether MMR can protect front-line healthcare workers against infection from SARS-CoV-2, virus that caused COVID-19. Some. Louis healthcare workers may be getting MMR shot, years after their childhood booster, to see if the vaccine could protect them against COVID-19. Washington University School of Medicine In. Louis is the Clinical coordinating center for the MMR vaccine trial enrolling up to 30 000 healthcare workers globally. The Trial is co-lead by Washington University, University College London and University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, via CROWN collaborative and involves researchers from institutions in African, European and North American countries. It is believed the MMR vaccine could broadly boost individuals ' immunity and prevent infection from SARS-CoV-2 for a limited period. This is because vaccines carry small amounts of live, weakened viruses that could train the body's immune system to fight multiple pathogens. If I say to you now, I am going to run around Forest Park. If Ive been training to run around Forest Park for a few weeks before, I would do much better running around Forest Park now. We similarly discover that the immune system of the body actually does well when its trained to respond to infections. Where weve discovered this in particular is in relation to weakened organisms that are used as vaccine, say one of collaborative principal investigators, Michael S. Avidan, MBBCh, Dr. Seymour and Rise T. Brown, Professor and head of the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University. Avidan and co-investigator Mary Politi, PhD, leader in Health decision-making and Professor of surgery in Division of Public Health Sciences at Washington University, are evaluating whether the MMR vaccine can truly protect against COVID-19 by decreasing the number of infections and severity of infections. Immunity to specific viruses of measles, mumps and rubella lasts a long time, hopefully a lifetime, say Politi. But to other viruses and other pathogens that you may be exposed to, that immune response is probably months to years. We dont know exactly how long. The second reason the MMR vaccine may be effective is similarities between weakened viruses in the vaccine and the SARS-CoV-2 virus. All of these viruses have similar proteins on their surfaces that are involved in infecting cells in the body, so researchers think that antibodies made in response to the MMR vaccine also may recognize and fight the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Research wants to learn whether the vaccine slows the spread of virus and protects healthcare workers from developing COVID-19. Theyll also determine if it can reduce the severity of illness for those who do become infected.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The evidence behind the theory

Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic has raised long-standing debate about the extent to which common respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2, are transmitted via respiratory droplets and aerosols. Droplets are classically described as larger entities that rapidly drop to the ground by force of gravity, typically within 3 to 6 feet of the source person. Aerosols are smaller particles that rapidly evaporate in air, leaving behind droplet nuclei that are small enough and light enough to remain suspended in the air for hours. Determining whether droplets or aerosols predominate in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has critical implications. If SARS-CoV-2 is primarily spread by respiratory droplets, wearing a medical mask, face shield, or keeping 6 feet apart from other individuals should be adequate to prevent transmission. If, however, SARS-CoV-2 is carried by aerosols that can remain suspended in air for prolonged periods, medical masks would be inadequate, face shields would provide only partial protection, and 6 feet of separation would not provide protection from aerosols that remain suspended in air or are carried by currents. Experimental data support the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 may be transmitted by aerosols even in the absence of aerosol-generating procedures. Investigators have demonstrated that speaking and coughing produce mixture of both droplets and aerosols in a range of sizes, that these secretions can travel together for up to 27 feet, that it is feasible for SARS-CoV-2 to remain suspended in the air and viable for hours, that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be recovered from air samples in hospitals, and that poor ventilation prolongs amount of time that aerosols remain airborne. 1 many of these same characteristics have previously been demonstrated for influenza and other common respiratory viruses. These data provide a useful theoretical framework for possible aerosol-base transmission for SARS-CoV-2, but what is less clear is the extent to which these characteristics lead to infections. Demonstrating that speaking and coughing can generate aerosols or that it is possible to recover viral RNA from air does not prove aerosol-base transmission; infection depends as well on route of exposure, size of inoculum, duration of exposure, and host defenses. Notwithstanding experimental data suggesting the possibility of aerosol-base transmission, data on infection rates and transmissions in populations during normal daily life are difficult to reconcile with long-range aerosol-base transmission. First, reproduction number for COVID-19 before measures were taken to mitigate its spread was estimated to be about 2. 5, meaning that each person with COVID-19 infected an average of 2 to 3 other people. This reproduction number is similar to influenza and quite different from that of viruses that are well known to spread via aerosols, such as measles, which has a reproduction number closer to 18. Considering that most people with COVID-19 are contagious for about 1 week, reproduction number of 2 to 3 is quite small given the large number of interactions, crowds, and personal contacts that most people have under normal circumstances within a 7-day period.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Progressing to clinical trial

Table2

DEVELOPER(S)VACCINE METHODEVIDENCESTATUS
Multiple organizations InternationalThe Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis consists of live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis .Lower rates of COVID-19-related deaths in countries with mandatory BCG vaccination prompted the launch of several clinical trials to test whether the immune response triggered by the vaccine may protect against SARS-CoV-2.Several Phase 3 and 4 trials are underway .
Multiple organizations InternationalThe measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine consists of live-attenuated strains of the three viruses.Epidemiological data have revealed that places where the MMR vaccine is given as standard medical care have lower COVID-19 death rates than areas where MMR vaccination is not standard. Additionally, sailors aboard the U . S . S . Roosevelt who tested positive for COVID-19 had mostly mild symptoms, which some researchers suspect may have been due to administration of the MMR vaccine to all US Navy recruits.A Phase 3 trial is underway in Egypt, led by researchers at Kasr El Aini Hospital. Separately, researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine are running an international Phase 3 trial of healthcare workers in the US, Canada, Europe, and Africa.
Immunovative Therapies, Mirror Biologics USAn off-the-shelf living immune cellThe affiliated companies are currently testing the formulation as a therapeutic vaccine for chemotherapy-refractory metastatic cancers .A Phase 1/2 trial for healthy older adults has been approved to begin in New York.
Canadian Cancer Trials Group, others Can adaHeat-killed Mycobacterium obuenseThe vaccine is intended to stimulate nonspecific innate immunity. The company is also testing the vaccine in clinical trials for cancer .A Phase 3 trial has been approved to begin in Canada .
Bandim Health Project Guinea-BissauOral polio vaccine, an attenuated strain of the poliovirusResearchers argue that the vaccine is safer and available in greater quantities than the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis, which is also being tested as a possible COVID-19 preventive.A Phase 4 trial has been approved to begin in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa.
Inmunotek, BioClever Mexi coA mixture of inactivated bacteriaThe vaccine is intended to stimulate nonspecific innate immunity.A Phase 3 trial for healthcare workers has been approved to begin in Mexico.
Pulmotect USAn inhaled combination of two synthetic Toll-like receptor agonistsThe vaccine was originally developed as a potential therapeutic for cancer and has undergone early stage clinical testing. In mice, it provided protection against a range of respiratory pathogens, including MERS and SARS.A Phase 2 trial for people with known SARS-CoV-2 exposure is underway in several US states.

Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching clinic, but scientists are racing to produce safe and effective Coronavirus Vaccine by next year. Researchers are testing 48 Vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and at least 88 PRECLINICAL Vaccines are under active investigation in animals. Work begins in January with deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 Genome. First Vaccine safety trials in humans start in March, and now 10 have reached the final stages of testing. Some of these trials will fail, and others may end without clear result. But few vaccines may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against viruses. Here is the status of all vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with the selection of promising vaccines still being tested in animals. While these Vaccines may potentially prevent Infection, they cannot cure disease. FOR an overview of treatments FOR COVID-19, see our Coronavirus Drug and Treatment Tracker.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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