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Developed The Polio Vaccine

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Polio Vaccine, preparation of poliovirus given to prevent Polio, infectious disease of the nervous system. The first Polio Vaccine, know as inactivated poliovirus Vaccine or Salk Vaccine, was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk. This vaccine contains kill Virus and is given by injection. Large - scale use of IPV began in February 1954, when it was administered to American schoolchildren. In following years, incidence of Polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to fewer than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, second type of Polio Vaccine, known as oral poliovirus Vaccine or Sabin Vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. Opv contains live attenuate Virus and is given orally. Vaccines, whether kill or live, may contain strains of all three poliovirus serotypesPV1, PV2, and PV3or of just one or two. For example, trial OPV contains live attenuate virus of all three serotypes and thus is effective against all three serotypes of virus. In contrast, monovalent OPV1 contains live attenuate virus of only PV1 and thus is effective only against serotype 1. In general, for both IPV and OPV, three doses of Vaccine are require, with a fourth given when children reach school age. Because PV2 dropped out of circulation in the 1990s in countries where disease was endemic, bivalent oral Vaccine, or bOPV, targeting PV1 and PV3 was develop. In the first decade of the 21st century, this vaccine was found to be MORE effective than either mOPV or tOPV in reducing the number of cases in Polio - endemic countries. For detailed information on Polio treatment and immunization, see Polio.

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Development of the Salk vaccine

A year after his nomination as Democratic vice presidential candidate, rising political star Franklin D. Roosevelt contracted polio while vacationing at his summer home on Campobello Island in 1921. The disease left legs of the 39 - year - old future President permanently paralyze. In 1938, five years after entering the White House, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later renamed the March of Dimes Foundation, which became the primary funding source for Salks vaccine trials. Employing poster children and enlisting the star power of celebrities from Mickey Rooney to Mickey Mouse, grassroots organization run by Roosevelt's former Wall Street law partner Basil OConnor was raising MORE than $20 million per year by late 1940s.

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Sabin's oral polio vaccine

While Salk was developing his inactivated Polio Vaccine, his professional rival, virologist Dr. Albert Sabin at University of Cincinnati, was working on Vaccine made with active, but weaken, virus. Sabin opposes Salk's vaccine design and considers inactivated virus vaccine to be dangerous. By 1963, Sabin had created an oral live - virus vaccine for all three types of poliovirus that was approved for use by the US government. Sabin's version was cheaper and easier to produce than Salk Vaccine, and it quickly supplanted Salk Vaccine in the US. In 1972, Sabin donated his vaccine strains to the World Health Organization, which greatly increased the vaccine's availability in low - income countries. Sabin's oral Polio Vaccine was critical for helping to decrease the number of Polio cases globally, but unlike Salk Vaccine which carries no risk of paralysis, OPV carries an extremely small risk of causing paralysis. Today, WHO estimates that about 1 in 2. 7 million doses of OPV result in paralytic Polio. Since 2000, Salk's inactivated Polio Vaccine is the only version administered in the US, in order to avoid any risk of Vaccine - induced Polio associated with OPV. Opv is still administered in many parts of the world, but WHO's Global Polio Eradication Initiative aims to cease administration of OPV altogether once wild Polio is completely eradicate. Cdc now recommends children receive four doses of IPV, one each at ages 2 months, 4 months, between 6 and 18 months, and between 4 and 6 years. Thanks to widespread use of Polio Vaccine, US has been Polio - free since 1979. Globally, cases of Polio due to wild poliovirus have decreased by 99% since 1988, according to WHO, from an estimated 350 000 cases per year to just 33 new cases in 2018. Find timeline of Polio Vaccine development from History of Vaccines, created by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Listen to Stanley Plotkin, researcher WHO works on the development of Polio Vaccine, discuss the merits of OPV and IPV, from History of Vaccines. Watch 1991 interview with Jonas Salk from American Academy of Achievement.

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Polio Spreads Across the Globe

A new polio outbreak in Sudan has been linked to an oral polio vaccine that uses a weakened form of the virus. News of the outbreak came a week after the World Health Organization announced that wild Polio had been eradicated in Africa. Who linked cases to a strain of virus that had been circulating in Chad last year and warned that the risk of spreading to other parts of the Horn of Africa was high. In a statement on new cases, WHO said two children in Sudan, one from South Darfur State and another from Gadarif State, close to the border with Ethiopia and Eritrea, were paralyse in March and April. Both have been recently vaccinated against Polio. Who say initial outbreak investigations show cases were linked to continuing Vaccine - derive outbreak in Chad that was first detected last year and is now spreading in Chad and Cameroon. While so - called Vaccine - derive Polio is a known risk, emergence of these cases so soon after announced eradication of wild Polio in Africa is a setback. At issue is the fact that oral Polio Vaccine - preferred in some places because of its ease of delivery and lack of need for sterile syringes - uses an attenuated or weakened version of Polio. When children receive oral vaccine, weakened viruses replicate in the intestine, encouraging production of antibodies, and can be present in excreta. In areas where there are high enough levels of immunity in the population, this usually does not present a problem, even if sanitation is poor. But in areas where there is both poor sanitation and lack of general immunisation, virus can survive and circulate for months, mutating over time until it poses the same risk of paralysis - causing disease as wild Polio. Use of oral Polio Vaccine was discontinued in the UK in 2004 and US in 2000, and UN agency advise that use of oral vaccine should be discontinued after Polio is judged to be eradicated because of risk of Vaccine - derive Outbreaks. Genetic sequencing of viruses involved in Sudan cases confirmed that they were linked to an outbreak in Chad. Who warned on Monday that the risk of further spread of Vaccine - derive Polio across Central Africa and the Horn Of Africa was high, noting large - scale population movements in the region. Amid the coronavirus pandemic, many major vaccination campaigns needed to stamp out Polio have been disrupted across Africa and elsewhere, leaving millions of children vulnerable to infection. In April, WHO and its partners reluctantly recommended a temporary halt to mass Polio immunisation campaigns, recognising the move could lead to a resurgence of disease. In May, they Report that 46 campaigns to vaccinate children against Polio had been suspended in 38 countries, mostly in Africa, because of the coronavirus pandemic.

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Jonas Salks Vaccine

Jonas Salk was born in New York City, his parents ' eldest son. His mother was a Russian Jewish immigrant and his father son of Jewish immigrants. Salk was encouraged throughout his youth to succeed academically. He graduated from high school at the age of 15 and then entered City College of New York. Although he originally intended to pursue law, he became interested in Medicine and altered his career path, graduating with a degree in science in 1933. At 19, Salk enrol at New York University School of Medicine. His intention was not to practice medicine, however; he wanted to be a medical researcher. Toward the end of his medical education, he began to work with Thomas Francis Jr., Who was to be his mentor for many years. Salk received his MD in 1939 and, after completing his internship at Mt. Sinai Hospital, accepted a National Research Council fellowship to work at the University of Michigan. There he rejoined Francis and spent six years researching influenzavirus and developing flu vaccine, work largely supported by the US Army. The vaccine that they ultimately developed in 1943 was the kill - virus vaccine: it contained formalin - kill strain of influenzavirus that could not cause disease but did induce antibodies able to ward off future viral attacks. Francis and Salk were among the pioneers of kill - virus vaccines. Up to that time, attenuated live viruses were used to produce vaccines.

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THE HUMAN SIDE OF NATURE

When the Human Immunodeficiency Virus was discovered in the 1980s, people immediately wondered where it had come from and how it had found its way into humans. One conjecture that arisen in the 1990s put blame for HIV on public health measure: Polio vaccine. In the late 1950s, several different groups of researchers were developing vaccines against Polio, which at time was still epidemic worldwide. One of these vaccines, developed by Hilary Koprowski, MD, was used in trials in Africa, after first being tested in the United States. Vaccine Virus was grown in tissue cultures taken from macaque monkeys before being administered to about a million people in Burundi, Rwanda, and what is now Democratic Republic of Congo. In 1992, Rolling Stone magazine published a story that discussed Koprowski's oral Polio vaccine as a possible source of HIV and, in turn, AIDS epidemic. Koprowski sued Rolling Stone and the writer of the article, and the magazine issued a clarification statement in December 1993, saying Rolling Stone's clarification notwithstanding, journalist Edward Hooper wrote a book called River: Journey to the Source of HIV and AIDS in 1999, based on conjecture about OPV / HIV link. Hooper argued that animal cells used to culture vaccine Virus were kidney cells from chimpanzees local to where the vaccine was used and that those chimpanzees had been infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. According to Hooper, vaccine made in such cell culture would lead to human infection with HIV. Although Hoopers ' claims were widely publicize, evidence does not support the idea of a link between OPV and HIV. First, leftover stocks of the Polio vaccine in question were examined by independent laboratories, and were confirmed to have been made using monkey cellsnot, chimpanzee cells, as Hooper had claim. Furthermore, none was contaminated with HIV or SIV. This data reinforces vaccine developers ' statements that only monkey cells, not chimpanzee cells, were used in producing the vaccine. Second, 2004 study published in Nature found that strain of SIV affecting chimpanzees in the area where Hooper claimed the vaccine had been prepared using chimpanzee cells was genetically distinct from HIV strains. This refuted the Hoopers ' claims from yet another angle: even if SIV - infected chimpanzee cells from that area had been used to make vaccine, they could not have been the source of HIV. Epidemiological studies also highlight serious problem with Hoopers ' claims of OPV / HIV link: HIV - 1 was likely introduced to humans prior to 1940, and in completely different part of Africa than the location of the Polio vaccine trial, probably via infected chimpanzees in Cameroon. Congo vaccine trials took place in late 1950sat least decade after HIV had begun spreading in humans, and probably longer, according to more recent estimates. Vaccine could not have been the source of a virus that had already been infecting humans for many years.

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A DIFFERENT PARADIGM

In 1947, Salk was appointed director of the Virus Research Laboratory at the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Medicine. At the time, established paradigm of vaccine development was to first isolate life but weaken micro - organism. This attenuated virus or bacteria would then be administered to patients in order to create low - grade, innocuous infection that would confer long - standing immunity. However, Salk had employed an alternative approach in his prior work on influenza Vaccine. He had used non - infectious kill viruses to induce protective immunity. Despite discouragement of his peers and detractors, he decided to take the same approach in his Polio Research. Salk had written a number of scientific and theoretical articles regarding Polio and the merits of killing Virus Vaccine. His publications eventually captured the attention of the National Foundation For Infantile Paralysis, charitable organisation first established by US President Franklin D Roosevelt to raise money for poliomyelitis Research. This Foundation, now widely known as the March Of Dimes, provides ample financial support for Salks Research and helps to jump - start its efforts towards vaccine goal.S


Polio Vaccine

Polio vaccine - related claims total approximately 460 of pre - 1988 case filings. Ipv is a kill virus vaccine and, if properly manufacture, is not associated with paralytic poliomyelitis. It is reasonable to expect that some people acquire natural poliomyelitis in temporal relationship to receipt of IPV, particularly if only one or two doses were give. The 1955 Cutter incident, in which an estimated 260 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis were attributed to residual live virus in the vaccine, is well document. 150 No similar instances of kill vaccine - related poliomyelitis were publicly identify, although there is evidence that at least one lot of Wyeth vaccine given during this same period had infective amounts of live viruses. 151 of 278 IPV claims, nearly all have been dismissed by court, with none being found to be secondary to Cutter vaccine administration. Only 13 claims are for vaccines administered since 1979, when the last indigenous case of wild poliovirus transmission occurred in the United States. 152 OPV claims were approached much differently because paralytic Polio is known to be a rare complication in vaccine recipients and in contacts and, therefore, is listed in VIT. More than half of claims allege injury of poliomyelitis. Naturally, it is difficult to know which cases were actually vaccine - related when Polio was present in the community. Of 308 claims filed alleging OPV - related injury, 158 were compensated and 150 were dismiss.

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PARALYSIS AND THE SABIN VACCINE

Shortly after mass polio vaccination began in the US, some subjects developed paralysis in limbs where vaccine had been administer. Preparations from Cutter Laboratories and, to a lesser extent, Wyeth Laboratories were implicated and Vaccine was recalled after 250 cases of paralytic illness had occur. There were also reports of paralysis and death in several children. Investigations show that improperly inactivated vaccine had released live viruses into more than 100 000 doses of vaccine. At around this time, Dr Albert Sabin and Dr Hilary Koprowski were working on attenuated live poliovirus Vaccine. In 1955, they presented their preliminary work at a meeting in Stockholm, Sweden, and conducted trials outside the US, such as in Mexico and the Soviet Union, because the US had committed itself to Salk Vaccine. In 1957, Dr Sabin developed a trial oral vaccine consisting of attenuated strains of all three types of poliovirus, which was then given to ten million children in the Soviet Union. For this work, Dr Sabin, who was originally from Polish Russia, was awarded the Soviet highest civilian honour, medal of Order of Friendship Among Peoples, even though he had become an American citizen during the height of the Cold War. Their oral vaccine came into commercial use in 1961 and quickly replaced Salks injected vaccine, which had suffered loss of public confidence as result of the Cutter - Wyeth debacle.

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PERSONAL LIFE AND LEGACY

At its peak in the 1940s and 1950s, Polio was killing or paralyzing more than half a million people worldwide each year, especially children and young adults. Lucky survived to walk on crutches. Others were so paralyzed they could no longer breathe on their own. Iron lungs, mechanical ventilators that sustain them, symbolize polio's reign of terror. In 1947, University of Pittsburgh recruited Jonas Salkan, expert in influenza whose flu vaccine is still in use, to develop a virus program at Pitt. For more than seven years, his team worked tirelessly to develop effective kill - Virus Vaccine. Efforts of Pitts Polio Research team culminate in the largest National control field trial in history. At trial successful conclusion, federal government approved the vaccine for the public on April 12 1955, action that Newsweek called a summit moment in history. In same year that Salk began work on Polio Vaccine, new University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health was established in response to the needs of industrial Pittsburgh. The first class of thirty - four students matriculate in 1950, studying in temporary quarters on the wing of Pittsburgh Municipal Hospitalthe, building in the same building as Salks laboratory. Once Salk's Vaccine was shown to be protective against Polio and cases in the USA plummet, iron lungs became historical relics. Just inside doors from Fifth Avenue, our iron lung is a generous gift from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Located in La Jolla, California, and widely considered one of the top Biological Research centers in the world, Institute was founded in 1960 by Jonas Salk. Iron lungs stand as symbol of countless lives saved by public health initiatives like vaccination programs. And vaccines are just beginning. Things like motor vehicle safety laws, tobacco use restrictions, family planning resources, and clean air and water standards keep people alive. Our students, alumni, and faculty are part of these life - saving initiatives each day.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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