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Type 1 Diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of insulin - producing islet cells of the pancreas. The resulting loss of insulin secretion leads to increased blood glucose levels and increased risk for severe high or low blood glucose as well as long - term complications of Diabetes. People with type 1 Diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar, given by daily injections or insulin pump. Some people with type 1 Diabetes undergo pancreas or islet transplantation, to replace insulin producing cells. However, risks associated with these procedures must be weighed carefully for each individual. Type 2 Diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. It is due to both reduce insulin secretion and increase insulin resistance. It is often associated with other metabolic problems, including weight gain, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and increased risk for cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack or stroke. T2dm often has no symptoms and may go undetected for years. Risk factors include family history of T2DM, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, Diabetes of pregnancy, and other risk factors. Anyone with one or more risk factors for T2DM should have their blood glucose checked periodically to avoid potential complications of undetected diabetes. Treatment of type 2 Diabetes includes lifestyle therapy and may also include oral medication and / or insulin in some people. In addition to controlling glucose, it is important to treat other associated conditions, including high blood pressure and cholesterol, to minimize the chance of complications. Diabetes in pregnancy is an elevation of blood sugar that occurs during pregnancy. This is most often related to increased insulin resistance associated with pregnancy and inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Testing for Diabetes in pregnancy is recommended between 24 - 28 weeks of gestation. It can often be treated with dietary modification and physical activity, but some people also require insulin. Blood sugar control is especially important during pregnancy to avoid potential complications for the baby, as well as the mother. Most diabetes of pregnancy resolved after delivery. However, women with Diabetes of pregnancy are at risk for development of type 2 Diabetes in future, so all women who develop Diabetes of pregnancy should have their blood sugar checked after delivery and every year afterward to avoid undetected Diabetes.
All types of endocrine glands are part of the system that generates and excretes hormones within the body. Hormones produced by these glands function as messengers, and they are carried through the blood stream to other organs throughout the body, where they help regulate bodily functions that range from growth to reproduction. Some of the major endocrine glands are located in the brain, including the pineal gland, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is seen as a switchboard of the endocrine system, connecting the nervous system to the endocrine system, and is responsible for providing hormones that cause other glands to start or stop producing hormones of their own. The pituitary gland, which is often referred to as master gland for its wide range of responsibilities, supplies the body with growth hormone,s thyroid stimulating hormone, and several other essential hormones. Other endocrine glands occur in the neck, including thyroid and parathyroid glands, which help control the basal metabolic rate of the body, stimulate bone construction, and regulate levels of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream. There are several additional endocrine glands that reside in the abdomen, with major glands including the pancreas and adrenal glands. The pancreas, which is located behind the stomach, regulates levels of sugars within the bloodstream through use of insulin and other hormones. Adrenal glands sit atop kidneys and produce adrenaline, as well as several steroid hormones. Although reproductive organs, including ovaries and testes, serve other functions, they can also be considered as endocrine glands because they produce hormones as well. When all of the body's endocrine glands are working well together, body can regulate basic functions, digest food properly, grow, and react appropriately to stress. However, there are many endocrine disorders in which glands are producing the right amount of hormones, there are enough hormone receptors available for them to function correctly, or organs are simply not responding to signals given by hormones. Tampa General Hospital has resources necessary to treat a wide variety of endocrine disorders, including Diabetes, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and many other conditions. In fact, TGH was named one of America's Best Hospitals for Diabetes & Endocrinology by US News & World Report for 2020 - 2021.
Experts single out continuous glucose monitors as being on the cutting edge for improving care because as monitors shrink and become easier to use, studies back their effectiveness. Their evolution has been similar to that of insulin pumps, which were, at first, too big and uncomfortable, says Stephen Ponder, MD, Pediatric endocrinologist at Texas & M University. The first pumps were challenging to wear and use. Some patients compare first CGM sensorsto harpoons, but sensors have become small wires with shallower penetration that no longer cause bruising. Cgms off er long - live sensors and batteries, safety alarms, and sophisticated software. A recent literature review by Endocrine Societyexpert panel confirmed that monitors improve controlof glycosylated hemoglobin levels while limiting the risk ofhypoglycemia. E panels clinical practice guidelines call for more widespread use of CGMs by children, adolescent,s and adult patients E monitors measure glucose levels in interstitialfluid and require regular calibration based on bloodprickmeasurements by glucose meter. Cgms are still notFDA - approved for use in treatment decisions, but patientsregularly use them successfully in off - label fashion for determining irinsulin doses, says Irl Hirsch, MD, professorof medicine at University ofWashington Medical Center in Seattle. Additional data they provide can beextremely helpful by enabling userto quickly spot and respond to upwardand downward trends. Although monitors bring tomind children as target population, adults stand to benefit a great deal. Long - term patients striving to maintain blood - sugar control risk of episodesof severe hypoglycemia. Hirsch says that in people who have had DIABETES for more than 40 years, frequency of hypoglycemic seizuresor comas is 12% per year. He described a 63 - year - old patientwho was having monthly hypoglycemic events requiringintervention by paramedics, but had had single incidentsinc he began wearing CGM two years ago. There are only a few CGMs currently in the USmarket. E Dexcom G4 Platinum and Medtronic Guardian Real - Time are both standalone CGMs. Emedtronic MiniMed Paradigm Real - timeRevel is a combinationCGM and insulin pump e Abbott NavigatorCGM was withdrawn from the US market but is still available in Europe and some other countries. The biggest drawback is, of course, cost, some 1 000 or more for the meter itself, along with the continued cost of consumables. Some insurance plans now cover them, but Medicare does not. Another difficulty is learning curve to use them properly. Ponder and Hirsch both say they often see patients who have bad experience or do not improve quickly and give up on sensors, often because there is no one in their physicians offices who can give them adequate guidance. Compounding that problem is that undercurrent reimbursement models, practices do not pay top rovide education and training needed for Diabetic patients to take advantage of technology that off ersbetter control of their conditions.
An Internist who concentrates on disorders of internal glands, such as thyroid and adrenal glands, This specialist also deals with disorders such as diabetes, metabolic and nutritional disorders, obesity, pituitary diseases, and menstrual and sexual problems. Endocrinology is a specialty of medicine that deals with problems, diseases and medical conditions of the endocrine system. A medical endocrinologist is a physician specializing in the complex task of diagnosing and treating hormonal disorders and other metabolic disorders. Because endocrinologists rely on laboratory tests to assist in determining disorders of their patients, many have backgrounds in biochemistry and research. In addition, endocrinologists usually have background training in one of a number of different medical fields, such as pediatrics, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology. All medical endocrinologists have MD or analogous medical degree and some also have a PhD or another advanced science degree.
There are many different types of endocrine disorders. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder diagnosed in US adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal gland releases too little of the hormone cortisol and sometimes, aldosterone. Symptoms include fatigue, stomach upset, dehydration, and skin changes. Addison's disease is a type of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's disease. Overproduction of pituitary gland hormone leads to overactive adrenal gland. A similar condition called Cushing's syndrome may occur in people, particularly children, who take high doses of corticosteroid medications. Gigantism and other growth hormone problems. If the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, child's bones and body parts may grow abnormally fast. If growth hormone levels are too low, child can stop growing in height. Hyperthyroidism. Thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, leading to weight loss, fast heart rate, sweating, and nervousness. The most common cause of overactive thyroid is an autoimmune disorder called Grave's disease.
Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders, characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Diabetes occurs if the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells in the body do not respond appropriately to insulin or both. Very high blood glucose levels can cause symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Prolonged high blood glucose can lead to complications, including eye, kidney and nerve damage, as well as foot infections or amputation. There are three major types of Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1, Type 2, and Diabetes of Pregnancy. There are also a number of less common causes.
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