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Diseases Caused By Air Pollution In Hindi

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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From smog hanging over cities to smoke inside home, air pollution poses major threat to health and climate. Ambient air pollution accounts for estimated 4. 2 million deaths per year due to stroke, disease, lung cancer, acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Around 91 percentage of world's population lives in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limit. While ambient air pollution affects developed and developing countries alike, low - and middle - income countries experience highest burden, with greatest toll in WHO Western Pacific and South - East Asia regions. Sources of air pollution are multiple and - specific. Major outdoor pollution include residential energy for cooking and heating, vehicles, power generation, agriculture / waste incineration, and industry. Policies and investments supporting policies that support sustainable land use, cleaner household energy and transport, energy - efficient housing, power generation, industry, and better municipal waste management can effectively reduce key sources of ambient air pollution. Air quality is closely linked to earths and ecosystems globally. Many drivers of air pollution are also sources of gas emissions. Policies to reduce air pollution, therefore, offer win - win strategy for both climate and health, lowering burden of disease attributable to air pollution, as well as contributing to near - and long - term mitigation of climate change. Exposure to smoke from cooking causes 3. 8 million premature deaths each year, mostly in low - middle - income countries. Burning fuels such as dung, wood and coal in inefficient stoves or open hearths produces variety of health - damaging pollutants, including particulate matter, methane, carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Burning kerosene in wick lamps also produces significant emissions of fine particles and other pollutants.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Air pollutants and their toxicities

Nitrogen oxides are important Ambient Air Pollutants which may increase risk of respiratory infections. They are mainly from motor engines and thus are traffic - related air pollutants. They are deep lung that can induce pulmonary edema if they are inhaled at high levels. They are generally less toxic than O 3, but NO 2 can pose toxicological problems. Exposures at 2. 0 - 5. 0 ppm has been shown to affect T - lymphocytes, particularly CD8 + cells and natural killer cells that play important role in host defenses against viruses. Although these levels may be high, epidemiologic studies demonstrate effects of NO 2 on respiratory infection rates in children. Coughing and wheezing are most common complications of nitrogen oxides toxicity, but eyes, nose or throat irritations, headache, dyspnea, chest pain, diaphoresis, fever, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema may also occur. In another report, it is suggested that level of nitrogen oxide is between 0. 2 and 0. 6 ppm is harmless for human population.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

History of pollution

Although environmental pollution can be caused by natural events such as forest fires and active volcanoes, use of word pollution generally implies that contaminants have anthropogenic source source created by human activities. Pollution has accompanied humankind ever since groups of people first congregated and remain for long time in any one place. Indeed, ancient human settlements are frequently recognized by their waste shell mounds and rubble for instance. Pollution was not serious problem as long as there was enough space available for each individual or group. However, with establishment of permanent settlements by great numbers of people, pollution has become problem, and it has remained one ever since. Cities of ancient times were often noxious fouled by human waste and debris. Beginning about 1000 ce, use of coal for fuel caused considerable air pollution, and conversion of coal to coke for iron smelting beginning in 17 century exacerbated problem. In Europe, from Middle Ages well into early modern era, unsanitary urban conditions favour outbreaks of population - decimating epidemics of disease, from plague to cholera and typhoid fever. Through 19th century, water and air pollution and accumulation of solid waste were largely problems of congested urban areas. But, with rapid spread of industrialization and growth of human population to unprecedented levels, pollution has become universal problem. By middle of 20th century, awareness of need to protect air, water, and land environments from pollution had developed among general public. In particular, publication in 1962 of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring focus attention on environmental damage caused by improper use of pesticides such as DDT and other persistent chemicals that accumulate in food chain and disrupt natural balance of ecosystems on wide scale. In response, major pieces of environmental legislation, such as Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act, were passed in many countries to control and mitigate environmental pollution.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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