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Disorders

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Productive activities, healthy relationships, ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity refers collectively to all diagnosable Mental Disorders health conditions involving significant changes in thinking, emotion and / or behavior. Distress and / or problems functioning in social, work or family activities. Mental health is the foundation for emotions, thinking, communication, learning, resilience and self - esteem. Mental health is also key to relationships, personal and emotional well - being and contributing to community or society. Many people who have mental illness do not want to talk about it. But mental illness is nothing to be ashamed of! It is a medical condition, just like heart disease or diabetes. And mental health conditions are treatable. We are continually expanding our understanding of how the human brain works, and treatments are available to help people successfully manage mental health conditions. Mental illness does not discriminate; it can affect anyone regardless of your age, gender, geography, income, social status, race / ethnicity, religion / spirituality, sexual orientation, background or other aspect of cultural identity. While mental illness can occur at any age, three - fourths of all mental illness begins by age 24. Mental illnesses take many forms. Some are mild and only interfere in limited ways with daily life, such as certain phobias. Other mental health conditions are so severe that person may need care in hospital. Mental health conditions are treatable and improvement is possible. Many people with mental health conditions return to full functioning. Some mental illnesses are preventable. It is not always clear when a problem with mood or thinking has become serious enough to be a mental health concern. Sometimes, for example, depressed mood is normal, such as when a person experiences the loss of a loved one. But if that depressing mood continues to cause distress or gets in the way of normal functioning, person may benefit from professional care. Family or friends may recognize changes or problems that person does see in themselves. Some mental illnesses can be related to or mimic medical condition. For example, depressive symptoms can be related to thyroid condition. Therefore, mental health diagnosis typically involves full evaluation including a physical exam. This may include blood work and / or neurological tests. People of diverse cultures and backgrounds may express mental health conditions differently. For example, some are more likely to come to health care professional with complaints of physical symptoms that are caused by mental health condition. Some cultures view and describe mental health conditions in different ways from most doctors in the US. The stigma around mental illness and treatment prevents many people from seeking needed treatment. Diagnosis of mental disorder is not the same as need for treatment. The need for treatment takes into consideration how severe symptoms are, how much symptoms cause distress and affect daily living, risks and benefits of available treatments and other factors. Mental health treatment is based upon an individualized plan developed collaboratively with mental health clinicians and individual.S It may include psychotherapy, medication or other treatments.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Childhood Mental Disorders

Ascertaining Global epidemiology of Mental Disorders is a difficult task, given the significant paucity of data for many geographical regions, as well as cultural variations in presentation and measurement. These issues are exacerbated when investigating Mental Disorders in children, particularly in LMICs where other health concerns, such as infectious diseases, are priority The issue of data paucity was highlighted in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Epidemiologically, childhood Mental Disorders were relatively consistent across 21 World regions defined by GBD 2010. However, these prevalence estimates were based on sparse data; some regions, such as Sub - Saharan Africa, have no data whatsoever for some disorders or no data for specific disorders in childhood. Although regional differences may exist, lack of data makes them difficult to ascertain. 12 - month Global prevalence of childhood Mental Disorders in 2010 is shown in table 8. 1. Adhd, conduct Disorder, and autism were more prevalent in males; females were more likely to suffer from anxiety disorders. Anxiety Disorders and ADHD were more common in adolescents compared with children. Most children and adolescents with Mental and developmental Disorders are in South Asia, reflecting the high population in this region and reduction in mortality of infants and young children. Populations of LMICs tend to have higher proportions of children and adolescents than those of high - income countries. For example, 40 percent of the population in least developed countries is younger than 15 years, compared with 17 percent in more developed regions. Furthermore, population aging is occurring more slowly in LMICs, with some low - income countries predicted to have the youngest populations by 2050, given their high fertility rates. These trends mean that childhood Mental and developmental Disorders will increase in significance in LMICs. Furthermore, continuing reductions in infant mortality caused by infectious diseases mean more children will reach adolescence where the prevalence of Mental Disorders increases and onset of adult Mental Disorders occurs. This will challenge already limited mental health services in these countries.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders are deeply ingrain, rigid ways of thinking and behaving that result in impaired relationships with others and often cause distress for individuals who experience them. Many mental health professionals formally recognize 10 disorders that fall into three clusters, although there is known to be overlap between categories. Cluster disorders are characterized by odd or eccentric patterns of thinking, such as extreme social detachment, distrust, or unusual beliefs. Paranoid personality disorder, which involves pervasive distrust and suspicion of others, Schizoid personality disorder, which involves detachment and limited emotion in social contexts, Schizotypal personality disorder, which features difficulty with close relationships along with abnormal thinking and behavior patterns. Cluster B disorders feature unstable emotional states and erratic behavior, which can involve aggression toward or manipulation of others. Antisocial personality disorder, which involves disregard for others and often impulsiveness and aggression. Borderline personality disorder, marked by instability in ones relationships, emotions, and sense of self, and impulsiveness. Histrionic personality disorder, which involves over - top expressiveness and attention - seeking Narcissistic personality disorder, often involves unusually strong desire for admiration, inflated self - image, and lack of empathy. Cluster C disorders involve anxious or fearful patterns of thinking and relating to others. Avoidant personality disorder, characterized by avoidance of social closeness and fear of what others think. Dependent personality disorder, which involves a tendency to become overly reliant on others and afraid to disrupt relationships. Obsessive - compulsive personality disorder, marked by rigid fixation on details and personally held standards multiple personality disorder, also known as multiple personality syndrome, is not a personality disorder, nor is it a diagnosis per se. It describes what is now called dissociative identity disorder. Do is a disorder in which person experience two or more different identities or states in which they show distinct, consistent patterns of thinking and relating. It also involves atypical gaps in both distant and recent memories. While tendencies that comprise personality disorder may never go away entirely, research indicates that person can show decreased symptoms over time. Therapy can also be helpful for certain conditions. A number of approaches have been used in the treatment of Borderline personality disorder, including Dialectical Behavior Therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy. In some cases, psychotropic drugssuch as antidepressants or antipsychotics may be used as part of treatment of personality disorder symptoms.


Treatments and Therapies

Families and caregivers of people with borderline personality disorder may also benefit from therapy. Having a relative or loved one with a disorder can be stressful, and family members or caregivers may unintentionally act in ways that can worsen their loved ones symptoms. Some borderline personality disorder therapies include family members, caregivers, or loved ones in treatment sessions. This type of therapy helps by: allowing relative or loved one to develop skills to better understand and support person with borderline personality disorder Focusing on needs of family members to help them understand obstacles and strategies for caring for someone with borderline personality disorder. Although more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of family therapy in borderline personality disorder, studies on other mental disorders suggest that including family members can help in a person's treatment.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Mental health is the state of successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with challenges. Mental health is essential to personal well - being, family and interpersonal relationships, and the ability to contribute to the community or society. Mental disorders are health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, and / or behavior that are associated with distress and / or impaired functioning. Mental disorders contribute to a host of problems that may include disability, pain, or death. Mental illness is a term that refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders.


Symptoms

Depending on age and type of mood disorder, person may have different symptoms of depression. The following are the most common symptoms of mood disorder: ongoing sad, anxious, or empty mood Feeling hopeless or helpless Having low self - esteem Feeling inadequate or worthless Excessive guilt Repeating thoughts of death or suicide, wishing to die, or attempting suicide, loss of interest in usual activities or activities that were once enjoy, including sex Relationship problems Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much Changes in appetite and / or weight decrease energy Trouble concentrating decrease in ability to make decisions Frequent physical complaints that dont get better with treatment Running away or threats of Running away from home Very sensitive to failure or rejection Irritability, hostility, or aggression in mood disorders, these feelings are more intense than what person may normally feel from time to time. Its also of concern if these feelings continue over time, or interfere with one's interest in family, friends, community, or work. Any person who expresses thoughts of suicide should get medical help right away. Symptoms of mood disorders may look like other conditions or mental health problems. Always talk with healthcare provider for diagnosis.


What are personality disorders?

People with these disorders often appear odd or peculiar. Eccentric personality disorders include: paranoid personality disorder. Paranoia is a hallmark of this disorder. People with paranoid personality disorder have constant mistrust and suspicion of others. They believe that others are trying to demean, harm, or threaten them. Schizoid personality disorder. People with this disorder are distant, detach, and indifferent to social relationships. They are generally loners who prefer solitary activities and rarely express strong emotion.S Schizotypal personality disorder. People with this disorder display unusual thinking and behavior, as well as appearance. People with schizotypal personality disorder might have odd beliefs and often are very superstitious.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Signs and Symptoms

The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions, including the following: central nervous system. This consists of the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system. This consists of all other neural elements, including peripheral nerves and autonomic nerves. In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the following: eyes, Ears Sensory organs of taste Sensory organs of smell Sensory receptors located in skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body's nervous system are vulnerable to various disorders. It can be damaged by following: trauma Infections Degeneration Structural defects Tumors Blood flow disruption Autoimmune Disorders vascular Disorders, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage and hematoma, and extradural hemorrhage Infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess Structural Disorders, such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell's palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord Tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain - Barre syndrome Functional Disorders, such as headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia Degeneration, such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, huntington chorea, and Alzheimer disease following are most common general Signs and symptoms of nervous system disorder. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include: persistent or sudden onset of headache, headache that changes or is different, Loss of feeling or tingling, Weakness or Loss of muscle strength, Loss of sight or double vision, Memory Loss, Impaired Mental ability, Lack of coordination, Muscle rigidity, Tremors and seizures, Back pain which radiates to feet, toes, or other parts of body Muscle wasting and slur speech New language impairment symptoms of nervous system disorder may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always see your healthcare provider for diagnosis. Healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders may have to spend a lot of time working with patients before making a probable diagnosis of a specific condition. Many times, this involves performing numerous tests to eliminate other conditions, so that probable diagnosis can be make. Neurology. The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology. Medical healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists. Some neurologists treat acute strokes and cerebral aneurysms using endovascular techniques. Neurological surgery. The branch of medicine that provides surgical intervention for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery, or neurological surgery. Surgeons who operate as treatment teams for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons. Neuroradiologists and interventional radiologists. Radiologists specialize in diagnosis of neurological conditions using imaging and in treatment of certain neurologic conditions such as cerebral aneurysms, acute strokes, and vertebral fractures, as well as biopsies of certain tumors. Rehabilitation for neurological Disorders. The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders is called physical medicine and rehabilitation. Healthcare providers who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Join a Study

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders, Pain, and Sleep Do You have jaw muscle Pain? Researchers at Johns Hopkins are looking for female volunteers with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Pain to Participate in a Research Study funded by the National Institutes of Health to investigate how sleep and unhelpful thoughts about TMJD impact pain sensitivity and symptoms related to TMJD. You may be eligible if you: are female between 18 - 60 years of age, have had jaw muscle pain for 3 months or more, have sleep difficulties. Studying include: dental evaluation for TMJD, completing interviews and questionnaires, 2 ambulatory Sleep studies that you can do in your own home, completing Sensory Testing procedures, 8 total Study visits over 3 months and 1 telephone follow - up 3 months after completing Study. Earn up to $650. 00. Please contact: Tafadzwa Amani at 410 - 550 - 8099. Principal Investigator: Jennifer Haythornthwaite, ph.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Why Is Mental Health Important?

The National Institute of Mental Health has mantra, No Health without Mental Health. However, due to the stigma that often surrounds Mental Health, millions of people worldwide do not receive help they need and often overlook this extremely prevalent health issue. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, in give year, one in five, or 18. 5% of American adults will experience mental Illness. Some of the most common and frequently reported mental illnesses include depression and bipolar disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, dementia, and eating disorders. Depression is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is one of the most significant contributors to the global burden of disease, greatly impacting individuals and their families mentally, physically, socially, and financially. Mental Illness affects everyone no matter their race, gender, culture, age, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. With Mental Illness being so prevalent both in the United States and worldwide, it is important to recognize early warning signs.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

A smorgasbord of disorders

Do your middle or high school students struggle with sensory challenges? Buffet of Sensory Interventions Solutions for Middle and High School Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders offers a smorgasbord of Sensory - base Interventions for use by educators, occupational therapists, and parents. This practical and well - Research tool is unique because it focuses on middle and high school students, whose sensory needs are often overlook. For this age group, author emphasizes the importance of fostering independence, self - advocacy and self - regulation as a way to for teens with Autism Spectrum disorder to take ownership of their sensory needs as they transition into adulthood. Explain Sensory basics Describes Sensory systems, discusses Sensory challenges experienced by those with ASD. Helps develop daily educational interventions through assessment of Sensory needs. Parents and educational team members working with teens with ASD will benefit from adding this resource to their library. Susan L. Culp, MS, OTR / L, is an occupational therapist specializing in pediatrics with over 14 years of experience in both school - base and home health settings. She has a BS in education from the University of Missouri -. Louis, as well as BS in occupational therapy and MS in special education from the University of Kansas. Susan works with children of all capabilities and ages from preschool to 21 years old in a school - base setting. She is especially interested in helping children with Sensory challenges, Autism Spectrum disorder, and developmental delays reach their full potential.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Controversial clusters

In the Victorian era, hysteria was a catch - all diagnosis for women in distress. Symptoms were vague and history sexist. Treatment for hysteria? Hysterical paroxysm, also know as orgasm. Physicians would massage their patients ' genitals either manually or with a vibrator, task they find tedious but surprisingly uncontroversial. More contentious was the practice of putting hysterical women on bed rest or demanding that they not work or socialize, treatment that often worsens anxiety or Depression. According to a 2002 editorial in the journal Spinal Cord, diagnosis of hysteria gradually petered out throughout the 20th century. By 1980, hysteria disappeared from DSM in favor of newer diagnoses like conversion and dissociative Disorders.


2.1. THE DISORDER

In 1994, Asperger's disorder, which is marked by normal intelligence and language abilities but poor social skills, made DSM - IV. When DSM - 5 is published in 2013, disorder may get boot. Reason? Research on Asperger's and high - functioning autism has failed to find a difference between the two diagnoses. Overlap between two disorders is rampant. If proposed changes are adopt, people with Asperger's will be reclassified as having high - functioning autism. But some Asperger's advocates disapprove. High - functioning autism label doesn't always fit people with Asperger's, says Dania Jekel, executive director of Asperger's Association of New England, which opposes change. People with Asperger's are going to be miss, Jekel say.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Multiple dimensions

Targets of genetic discovery research are typically distinct disorders. Genome - wide association studies have concentrated on increasing sample size and refining phenotypes of individual disorders, with the aim of collecting ever - larger numbers of homogeneous cases to compare with healthy control subject. There have been suggestions that targeting psychiatric spectra may be useful adjunct to discovery research, but in the past, response in the psychiatric genetics community has been lukewarm. Responding to suggestion that research about p factor may stimulate study of dimensions that cut across traditional disorders, one community member in the chatroom demur: So, let's keep studying schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and not allow ourselves to be RDoCd out of existence. Never mind that research on p factor and Research Domain Criteria have different scientific histories and share little in common; chatroom statement is revealing because it expresses reluctance to study general liabilities in the population rather than diagnosis - specific cases in clinic. Interestingly, it turns out that many disorders do share common genetic risks, as revealed by both biometric and molecular genetic studies, raising the possibility that p factor may be a reasonable target for genetic investigation after all. Historically, family, twin, and adoption studies have examined one disorder at a time, revealing that every psychiatric disorder is under significant genetic influence. These biometrical studies were then extended to test whether there are common genetic influences on different disorders. This work documents the fact that common genetic influences account for covariation between different internalizing disorders and between externalizing disorders, as well as between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Apparently, genetic factors are important not only in the etiology of particular disorders, but share genetic etiology of core psychopathological processes at higher - order construct level explain why disorders co - occur in population. Extending the logic of such inquiries further, most ambitious study to date uses National register data from over 3 million siblings of various genetic relatedness to test the hypothesis that depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, violent crime, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder share genetic influence. The results provide evidence that general genetic factors influence all forms of psychopathology. At the molecular level, it appears that genetic effects on psychiatric disorders are both polygenic and pleiotropic. Cross - disorder comparisons are producing confirming evidence that different disorders may share some of the same illness - associated genetic variation, which may be related to sharing global gene expression patterns across different disorders. In addition, there is evidence that genetic risk variants discovered for specific conditions have more general pleiotropic effects; for example, genetic risk variants discovered for ADHD appear to be shared by general liability toward childhood psychopathology. Identifying genes that are associated with more than one psychiatric disorder might help explain pathogenesis share among different psychiatric disorders.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

In the genes

Table

DiseaseType of InheritanceGene Responsible
Phenylketonuria (PKU)Autosomal recessivePhenylalanine hydroxylase ( PAH )
Cystic fibrosisAutosomal recessiveC ystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator ( CFTR )
Sickle-cell anemiaAutosomal recessiveBeta hemoglobin ( HBB )
Albinism, oculocutaneous, type IIAutosomal recessiveOculocutaneous albinism II ( OCA2 )
Huntington's diseaseAutosomal dominantHuntingtin ( HTT )
Myotonic dystrophy type 1Autosomal dominantDystrophia myotonica-protein kinase ( DMPK )
Hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant, type BAutosomal dominantLow-density lipoprotein receptor ( LDLR ); apolipoprotein B ( APOB )
Neurofibromatosis , type 1Autosomal dominantNeurofibromin 1 (NF1)
Polycystic kidney disease 1 and 2Autosomal dominantPolycystic kidney disease 1 ( PKD1 ) and polycystic kidney disease 2 ( PKD2 ), respectively
Hemophilia AX-linked recessiveCoagulation factor VIII ( F8 )
Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne typeX-linked recessiveDystrophin ( DMD )
Hypophosphatemic rickets , X-linked dominantX-linked dominantPhosphate-regulating endopeptidase homologue, X-linked ( PHEX )
Rett's syndromeX-linked dominantMethyl-CpG-binding protein 2 ( MECP2 )
Spermatogenic failure, nonobstructive, Y-linkedY-linkedUbiquitin-specific peptidase 9Y, Y-linked ( USP9Y )

A Genetic disorder is a disease caused in whole or in part by change in DNA sequence away from normal sequence. Genetic disorders can be caused by mutation in one gene, by mutations in multiple genes, by combination of gene mutations and environmental factors, or by damage to chromosomes. As we unlock secrets of the human genome, we are learning that nearly all diseases have genetic component. Some diseases are caused by mutations that are inherited from parents and are present in individuals at birth, like Sickle Cell Disease. Other diseases are caused by acquired mutations in genes or groups of genes that occur during a person's life. Such mutations are not inherited from parent,s but occur either randomly or due to some environmental exposure. These include many cancers, as well as some forms of neurofibromatosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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