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Dominant Performance Transmission

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The novel coronavirus outbreak, coronavirus disease 2019, which was declared pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11 2020, has infected over 4 million people and caused nearly 300 000 fatalities in over 188 countries. Intensive effort is ongoing worldwide to establish effective treatments and develop vaccines for disease. Novel coronavirus, named as severe acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2, belongs to the family of pathogen that is responsible for respiratory illnesses linked to the 2002-2003 outbreak. The Envelop virus contains a positive-sense single-strand RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry of 120 nm. There exist several plausible pathways for viruses to be transmitted from person to person. Human atomization of virus-bearing particles occurs from coughing / sneezing and even from normal breathing / talking by an infected person. These mechanisms of viral shedding produce large droplets and small aerosols, which are conventionally delineate at size of 5 m to characterize their distinct dispersion efficiencies and residence times in air as well as deposition pattern along the human respiratory tract. Virus Transmission occurs via direct or indirect contact and airborne routes. Large droplets readily settle out of the air to cause person / object contamination; in contrast, aerosols are efficiently disperse in the air. While transmission via direct or indirect contact occurs in short range, airborne transmission via aerosols can occur over extended distances and time. Inhale virus-bearing aerosols deposit directly along the human respiratory tract. Previous experimental and observational studies on interhuman transmission have indicated significant role of aerosols in transmission of many respiratory viruses, including influenza virus, SARS-CoV-1, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. For example, airborne coronavirus MERS-CoV exhibits strong capability of surviving, with about 64 % of microorganisms remaining infectious 60 min after atomization at 25 C and 79 % relative humidity. On the other hand, rapid virus decay occur, with only 5 % survival over 60-min procedure at 38 C and 24 % RH, indicative of inactivation. Recent experimental studies have examined the stability of SARS-CoV-2, showing that the virus remains infectious in aerosols for hours and on surfaces up to days. Several parameters likely influence microorganism survival and delivery in air, including temperature, humidity, microbial resistance to external physical and biological stresses, and solar ultraviolet radiation. Transmission and infectivity of airborne viruses are also dependent on the size and number concentration of inhaled aerosols, which regulate amount and pattern for respiratory deposition. With typical nasal breathing, inhalation of airborne viruses leads to direct and continuous deposition into the human respiratory tract. In particular, fine aerosols penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract and even reach other vital organs. In addition, viral shedding is dependent on stages of infection and varies between symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. Recent findings show that the highest viral load in the upper respiratory tract occurs at symptom onset, suggesting peak of infectiousness on or before symptom onset and substantial asymptomatic Transmission for SARS-CoV-2.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

2. Methods

Our engineers do all the hard work, designing and calibrating carefully match Connect & Cruise powertrain systems for optimal compatibility and performance, while also identifying complementing engine and transmission controllers, torque converters and supporting installation kits. With 84 Connect & Cruise combinations, Chevrolet Performance provides the ultimate powertrain solution without the need for third-party tuning, sourcing parts you need to help protect your ride. Calibrate controllers are designed for retrofit installations in older vehicles, for easier and quicker installation. The result is a premium package that offers the dependability of Connect & Cruise and the confidence of Chevrolet Performance. Parts and labor warranty when installed by GM Dealer or qualify installing independent Service Center or when sold over counter and repaired by GM Dealer or qualifying ISC. Parts only when consumer repair or installed in non-highway application. Coverage is limited to defects in material and / or workmanship of specific part only. Warranty valid when all required components are instal on same vehicle and purchased on one invoice. Must be purchased from the participating US Dealer or Chevrolet Performance authorize Reseller. Rebate offers are not available with other offers. Rebate form and details are available at Chevrolet. Com / Performance / offers. Rebate form must be postmark by 11 / 30 / 21. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery of the debit card. Offer valid 11 / 120 to 10 / 31 / 21. Transmission Control System: 19302410 19302405 or included with transmission unless specifically noted to contrary herein, vehicles equipped with Chevrolet Performance Parts may not meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and emissions regulations and should not be operate on public roads. Chevrolet Performance customers are responsible for ensuring their use of Chevrolet Performance complies with applicable Federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and ordinances. Many parts intended for racing or other off-highway use are not designed or tested for crashworthiness or to meet the safety needs of the motoring public, and may adversely affect the original intended performance or handling characteristics of a vehicle. These parts are designed and intended to be used with experts supervising their installation and use, to help assure proper and safe operation of the vehicle.


Results

Our finding of a compensatory increase in blue cone contacts in lor mutant suggests that H3 HCs dominant partner type, ultraviolet cones, influence connectivity with secondary partner type, blue cones. Is this regulation mediated by transmission from cones? To test this possibility, we generate transgenic fish in which tetanus toxin fuse to cyan fluorescent protein is expressed in ultraviolet, blue or both cone types, without changing their densities. TeNT perturbs exocytosis 26 and thus reduces synaptic transmission. Figure 8a-l shows an example of H3 HC and its connectivity pattern at 5. 5 dpf from each of TeNT transgenic lines. Reduction in transmission from ultraviolet, blue or both cone types do not affect dendritic field size of H3 HCs relative to controls. However, number of blue cones contacted by H3 HC significantly increased when only ultraviolet cone transmission was perturb. This results in a reduction in ultraviolet: blue synapse ratio and a larger percentage of blue cones within field being contact, similar to lor mutants. In contrast to lor mutants, H3 HCs maintain the same number of ultraviolet cone connections in sws1: TeNT retina as in control retina. Suppression of blue cone transmission alone does not alter the number of ultraviolet cones or blue cone contacts. Together, these manipulations of neurotransmission demonstrate that ultraviolet cone transmission regulates H3 HC connectivity with blue cones, but not with ultraviolet cones themselves, and that blue cone transmission is not required for normal circuit formation. Moreover, in the absence of drive from either of the preferred cone inputs, H3 HCs do not reach out to zpr-1immunopositive red or green cones, suggesting that partner choice is not dependent on neurotransmission from photoreceptors. However, when transmission from both ultraviolet and blue cones is suppress, H3 HCs do show reduced contact with both cone types. To ascertain whether the effects of ultraviolet cone transmission are light dependent, we design morpholino against ultraviolet opsin, rendering ultraviolet cones insensitive to ultraviolet light but allowing them to release neurotransmitter. Injection of Opn1sw1 morpholino into single-cell fertilized eggs abolishes all Opn1sws1 immunoreactivity but does not affect ultraviolet cone density. As in Tg fish, H3 HCs in Opn1sw1 morphant demonstrate an increase in blue cone contact number without changing ultraviolet cone connectivity, indicating that light-dependent transmission from ultraviolet cones normally modulates synapse number with blue cones.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

3. Results & discussion

The distribution of affected AS patients among three pedigrees and their family structure are shown in figs 1 and 2. In 25 AS patients of 3 families, 15 are male and 10 are female. Disease duration mean is 9. 82 years. Onset age mean is 22. 45 years, ranging from 9-31 years. In clinical manifestations, all patients have sacroiliac and spinal involvement. Among them, nine patients had peripheral joint involvement and 12 patients had enthesitis in three families, respectively. In family, three patients had hip involvement. None of the affected individuals had a history of uveitis. Complex segregation analysis was employed to investigate inheritance pattern within pedigrees. Parameter estimates for six different models of family C are shown in Table 1. The null hypothesis of no major gene effect was assessed by comparing a model containing multifactorial inheritance alone with that containing both Mendelian major gene and multifactorial inheritance. The model with both effects has three additional parameters, so the likelihood ratio statistic has three degrees of freedom. The Null hypothesis of no transmission of major gene effect was tested by comparing commingle model with a model in which all transmission probabilities were estimate. The Null hypothesis of Mendelian transmission was tested by comparing a mixed Mendelian model with a model where all transmission probabilities were estimate. The Null hypothesis of dominant Mendelian inheritance was tested by comparing model of mixed Mendelian model with mixed model. The Null hypothesis of recessive Mendelian inheritance was tested in a similar way. In family C, hypothesis of no major effect was reject, and the hypothesis of no transmission of major effect was also reject. AS expect, hypothesis of Mendelian transmission was not reject. Both dominant and recessive Mendelian inheritance models were not rejected with P = 0. 81 and 0. 19, respectively. These results clearly support the conjecture that the putative major gene was segregating into large and extended pedigree in the manner of autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance. In family and B, hypothesis of no major effect was not reject, but both hypothesiss of dominant and recessive Mendelian inheritance models were not rejected with P = 0. 44 and 0. 35, respectively. This discrepancy between the three tests might be due to the fact that two models for H01 are not hierarchical with each other and thus the test for H01 is less powerful, although such a test was extensively used in segregation analysis. Results of the later two tests clearly support the conjecture that the putative major gene was segregating in these two pedigrees, and maybe it is more likely to be segregating in the manner of autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance. All LOD scores were evaluated at recombinant fraction from 0. 0 to 0. 4 with penetrance from 0. 56 to complete penetrance.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

3.2. Transmission biases

Further analyses of whom observe whom determine whether chimpanzees display evidence indicative of model-base biases, by preferentially choosing to watch specific others. These models allow for correlation between successive manipulations, individual differences in probability of observing others, and being observe. Final models of option choice and observation were fit using MCMC methods allowing inclusion of random effects for both observer and observed individuals, thus, simultaneously accounting for sampling effects at level of individuals and behavior. For example, if one high-rank individual happens to produce many manipulations and is observed frequently, model allows for the fact that we have more information on individual than B but do not, as consequence, infer that being observed frequently is a property of high-ranked individuals in general. Little evidence was found of age or sex effects. We find strong evidence of preferential attendance by naive chimpanzees to individuals of higher rank, rather than those of the same rank as themselves. Intuitively, attendance bias suggests copying bias, and is indicative of direct social learning, or transmission biases. However, although understandable, previous studies have made such claims without assessing whether preferentially observed individuals are actually correspondingly influential in determining behavior of observers. Likely due to homogeneity of option choice within groups, we find no evidence that observations of individuals of different relative ranks had quantitatively different effects on option choice. However, as chimpanzees rarely acquire conflicting information from individuals of different rank, we cannot rule out such effect of model rank on social information use. Our results are, however, highly consistent with copying bias for several reasons. Firstly, as only task-naive individuals exhibit a preference for observing higher-rank chimpanzees, learning function would seem to underlie attendance bias. This corresponds to observation rates of wild chimpanzee nut-cracking doubling when novel, versus familiar, nuts are present. Moreover, attendance bias is choice, rather than a byproduct mediated by social dynamics. Although individuals were more likely to displace task manipulators of relatively low, versus high, rank, this does not artificially inflate our estimate of observation of relatively higher ranked manipulators; in model, individual's transition from observing to displacing another at task was not counted as ceasing task observation. To our knowledge, this is amongst the first evidence consistent with copy dominant individuals bias in non-human primates, though such effect has recently been reported in young children. Copying bias for dominant over subordinate individual was reported in the study of two captive chimpanzee groups, but age and skill-reputation were conflated with dominance and, unlike here, potential for sampling error was not accounted for. Consistent with our findings, Biro et al. Document preferential attendance to nut-cracking and leaf-use by older, or same age, wild chimpanzees, and age may correlate with dominance in such populations.


Study 1

Forty participants aged 17 to 43 years took part. All participants give their informed consent. The Vignettes were 19 to 62 words and contained 3 to 8 propositions determined through propositional analysis. See below for examples. Nigel returned to his bike after visiting his friends to find that it had flat Tyre. Tyre had been punctured by a small thorn. Now he would have to walk two miles home in pouring rain. Nigel was so angry at the puncture he kicked the wall. Nigel returned to his bike after visiting his friends to find that it had flat Tyre. Tyre had been deliberately slashed by someone. Now he would have to walk two miles home in pouring rain. Nigel was so angry at the puncture he kicked the wall. Results of pre-test were used to determine ten vignettes most appropriate for analysis, ie, those with fewest possible confounds between moral and non-moral versions. Participants in pre-test also classify vignettes according to most prominent emotion, and rat vignettes for emotional intensity, moral goodness, moral badness, survival information, social information, male stereotype consistency, and female stereotype consistency. Linear transmission chain design was used This design was used as it allows for examination of cumulative effects over generations, advantage over single generation design when considering recall and cultural transmission. As in previous research, ten chains comprised of four participants, or generations were used The first participant in each of ten chains receives all ten vignettes. Participants receive one of two sets of vignettes, with an equal mix of moral and non-moral vignettes. Half the participants received Set, A while half received Set B. Each Set contains the same vignettes but with opposite versions, ie, Set would have a moral version of Tyre vignette, while Set B would contain a non-moral version, and so on. The second participant in the chain receives all text generated by the first participant, and so on. Participants were presented with vignettes on a computer screen. After reading five vignettes, they were asked to recall each one with short prompt: eg, Please type in box provide, as accurately as you can remember, Tyre story. Participants were informed that products of their recall would be used as material for next participant in the chain. Recall Material was cod for presence of propositions found in the original version. Coding reliability was assessed by having an independent coder, blind to hypothesis, code 10 % of material. Independent coders and experimenters were highly consistent. In cases of disagreement, first coders decision stand. Sensitivity tests were conducted to assess coder reliability. To test H1 generalise linear mixed effects model was used to predict the proportion of original propositions correctly recall, with moral vs. Non-moral vignette version as fixed effect, with nested random effects of vignette in participant, participant in generation, and generation in vignette set.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Significance

Handedness is quite possibly the most studied human asymmetry; therefore much attention has been devoted to its assessment. Control of hands is Contralateral, such that the right hand is under left hemisphere control and the left hand is under right hemisphere control. This can be traced back to the work of Paul Broca, nineteenth century neurologist, who hypothesized association between neural Control for Language and individual Hand Preference. Clinical observations of Language Impairment caused by left hemisphere insult, in combination with knowledge of his patients ' right-Hand preferences, lead Broca to suggest that neural Control for Language mirrors individuals ' Hand Preference. In most cases, leave hemisphere is responsible for Language function and Manual Preference. In particular, language is lateralize in the left hemisphere in 87-96 % of the human population; However, not all people are right-Hand, as one might assume. Although most right handers do fall within this distinction, as do 60-73 % of left handers, right-hemisphere Control for Language or bilateral distribution across two hemispheres can be observed by a small minority of individuals. This division has been confirmed through functional transcranial sonography, non-invasive neural imaging technique that assesses the rate of cerebral blood flow during Language tasks. Other researchers have demonstrated similar results using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging. The association between human hand preference and language function remains a topic of debate. Considering the relationship between hand preference and language lateralization, it has been suggested that right hand dominance is a uniquely human trait. It is well known that 90 % of the human population is right-Hand, and this proportion has remained relatively consistent for approximately 5000 years. Handedness is typically described as hand one prefers to use for unimanual tasks. Two distinct components include direction and degree. Direction simply quantifies whether an individual is left or right-Hand. In comparison, degree identifies how strongly a person prefers one hand to the other. It is well-know that left handers generally display less functional asymmetry than right handers, therefore the degree to which they use their preferred hand is significantly less in comparison to right handers. Handedness is further divided into measures of preference and performance. Hand Preference identifies prefer Hand for completing Task, whereas performance differentiates between the abilities of the left and right hand on particular task. A relationship is commonly observed between these two constructs, such that performance abilities increase with the preferred hand. But, this is not always the case. Research has revealed that right handers display more activation in the right hemisphere when using left hand, than in the left hemisphere when using the right hand. It has been suggested that, in order for right handers to perform with their non-prefer, left hand, more effort is require. Human Hand Preference emerges very early in infants ' life, where genetics and environmental influences are believed to play key role in development.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Dominant Airborne Transmission

WASHINGTON Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now say coronavirus can be spread through airborne particles that can linger in the air for minutes or even hours even among people who are more than 6 feet apart. The CDC still says that SARS-COV-2, virus that causes COVID-19, is most frequently spread among people in close contact with one another, through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks. But in n new guidance published Monday on its website, agency also acknowledges that under certain circumstances, people have become infected by smaller particles that can linger in the air in enclosed spaces that are poorly ventilate. Sometimes infected person was breathing heavily, for example while singing or exercising, CDC say. In such cases, CDC say, theres evidence that the amount of smaller infectious droplets and particles that contagious person produce become concentrated enough to spread the virus to other people-even if they are more than 6 feet away. In some cases, CDC say, transmission occurs shortly after person with COVID-19 has left the room. Many experts who study airborne transmission of viruses have been warning that coronaviruss can spread through air for months. Last month, many experts cheered when CDC seemed to address the issue, posting an update that suggested that aerosols-tiny airborne particles expel from persons mouth when they speak, sing, sneeze or breathe, might be among the most common ways coronavirus is spreading. But the agency took down that guidance a few days later, saying it was a draft proposal that was posted to its website in error. CDCs ' latest guidance stops short of calling airborne transmission common. It is gratifying to see CDC acknowledge theres role for airborne transmission of this virus, said Donald Milton, aerobiologist at University of Maryland and coauthor of a letter published in the journal Science on Monday that calls for clearer public health guidance on how coronavirus spreads through air. However, distinction between CDC and Milton and his cosigners is how often airborne transmission happen. In a call with reporters Monday, Milton and his colleagues on Science letter say evidence suggests that airborne transmission is probably the dominant form of transmission-even in close-contact situations within 6 feet of an infected person. Airborne transmission happens by inhalation of viruses that are in the air, say Linsey Marr, professor of engineering at Virginia Tech and expert in aerosol Science. And this is happening even more frequently when people are close to each other. So how does this affect how we should protect ourselves in practical terms? Marr and other experts say people should wear masks whenever they are indoors with people outside of their household pod-even if they are standing more than 6 feet apart, or even in situations where a plexiglass barrier is in place.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

A Policy Perspective

Money Market Funds are important from a monetary policy perspective because they provide Bank-like services and they are active in Short-Term funding markets. This column examines how recent extreme monetary policies have affected their performance and behaviour. Extreme Monetary Policy put money market funds, which do not have access to ECBs deposit facilities, under pressure by depressing yields available on assets they typically hold, leaving them at a competitive disadvantage relative to banks. This could cause outflows of investment and unintended intermediation between banks and funds. What do money market Funds do when Monetary Policy is at its most accommodative and when unconventional measures push the rate of return on Short-Term liquid assets into negative territory? The answer to this question is of interest to policymakers WHO want to know whether their policies are having intended effects while avoiding negative unintended consequences. Bernanke and Reinhart, for example, refer to various Short-Term dislocations that can be avoided by targeting longer term yields before effective Lower Bound is reach. Interest in response of money Market Funds stems from the fact that these entities provide Bank-like services to investors but they do not have direct access to Central Bank deposit facilities or official liquidity operations. In recent detailed analysis of money market fund holdings and return performances, we provide evidence that should allay some of the fears that policymakers may have regarding fund behaviour in extreme circumstances, but we also highlight some of the unintended consequences of extreme policies. More than 40 % of euro area money Market Funds, by asset value, are located in Ireland. The fund population we use in our paper includes constant as well as variable net asset value funds in roughly equal proportions. CNAV group has as its prime objective maintenance of constant value of fund units / shares. From holders perspective, units in CNAV fund are equivalent to cash. CNAV Funds in the US suffered losses during the Global Crisis that triggered sponsor involvement. Sponsors try to preserve cash-like credentials of their funds and this has systemically destabilising consequences which bring about regulatory response that restrict the kind of assets that could be held by such funds, permit losses for holders, and prevent future sponsor involvement. This has turned out to be important preparation for recent negative rate policy circumstances. Notwithstanding progress made in isolating money market Funds from their sponsors, their behaviour at times of extreme Monetary Policy remains of importance to the functioning of the banking system and money markets. This is the main focus of our recent analysis. The majority of money market funds included in our study choose to invest in assets denominated in one of three different currencies. This diversity of investment behaviour provides a rare opportunity to compare effects of different Monetary Policy combinations on funds ' investment choices and performances without the inconvenience of differential regulation.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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