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Excess Mortality Usa

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Excess Mortality is a term used in Epidemiology and Public Health that refers to the number of Deaths from All Causes during a crisis above and beyond what we would expect to see under normal conditions. 1 in this case, were interested in how deaths during COVID - 19 pandemic compared to the average number of deaths over the same period in previous years. Excess Mortality is a more comprehensive measure of the total impact of pandemic on deaths than the confirmed COVID - 19 Death count alone. In addition to confirmed deaths, Excess Mortality capture COVID - 19 Deaths that were not correctly diagnosed and reported 2 as well as Deaths from other Causes that are attributable to overall crisis conditions. 3 Excess Mortality can be measured in several ways. The simplest way is to take the raw number of deaths observed in give period in 2020 - say Week 10, which ends on 8 March 4 - and subtract the average number of deaths in that week over previous years, for example, last five. While the raw number of deaths helps give the US a rough sense of scale, this measure has its limitations, including being less comparable across countries due to large differences in populations. The measure that is more comparable across countries is P - score, which calculates Excess Mortality As percentage difference between the number of weekly Deaths in 2020 and the average number of Deaths in the same week over the previous five years. For example, If country had a P - score of 100% in give week in 2020, that would mean the death count for that week was 100% higher than - that is, double - average death count in the same week over the previous five years. While P - score is a useful measure, it too has limitations. For example, five - year average death count might be a relatively crude measure of normal deaths because it does not account for trends in population size or mortality. For more in - depth discussion of the limitations and strengths of different Measures of Excess Mortality, see our article With John Muellbauer and Janine Aron. The chart here shows Excess Mortality during pandemic for all ages using P - score. 5 You can see that some countries - such as England & Wales 6 and Spain - suffer high levels of Excess Mortality, while others - such as Germany and Norway - experience much more modest increases in mortality. To see P - scores for other countries, click Add country on the chart. It is important to note that because P - scores in this chart combine all ages, they are impacted by differences in mortality risk by age and country age distributions. For example, countries with older populations - which have higher mortality risk, including From COVID - 19 - will tend to have higher All - age P - scores by default. When comparing countries, it is informative to look at P - scores for different age groups. The chart here shows P - scores broken down by two broad age groups: ages 15 - 64, which contain most of the working age population, and age 85 +, which has the highest mortality risk.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Figure Notes:

Woolf and colleagues estimate that more than 225 000 Excess deaths occurred in recent months; this represents a 20% increase over expected deaths, note Harvey V. Fineberg, MD, PhD, of Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, in accompanying Editorial in JAMA. Importantly, conditions such as COVID - 19 can contribute both directly and indirectly to Excess Mortality, he write. Although direct contribution to mortality rates by those infected is straightforward, indirect contribution may relate to circumstances or choices due to the COVID - 19 Pandemic: For example, patients WHO develop symptoms of stroke are too concerned about COVID - 19 to go to the emergency department, and potentially reversible condition become fatal. Fineberg notes that general indications of the death toll from COVID - 19 and excess deaths related to the Pandemic, as presented by Woolf et al, are sufficiently mortifying and motivating.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Technical Notes

Excess Mortality is the count of deaths from all causes relative to what would normally been expect. In pandemic, deaths rise sharply, but causes are often inaccurately record, particularly when reliable tests are not widely available. The death count attributed to COVID - 19 may thus be significantly undercounted. Excess Mortality Data overcome Two Problems in Reporting COVID - 19 - Related deaths. Miscounting from misdiagnosis or under - Reporting of COVID - 19 - Related deaths is avoid. Excess Mortality Data includes collateral damage from other health conditions, left untreated if the health system is overwhelmed by COVID - 19 cases, or by deliberate actions that prioritise patients with COVID - 19 over those with other symptoms. In pandemic, measures taken by governments and by individuals also influence death rates. For example, deaths from traffic accidents may decline but suicide rates may rise. Excess Mortality captures the net outcome of all these factors. Figure 1 illustrates how the degree of COVID - 19 recording relative to excess deaths has varied across some European countries. In Belgium, with a broad definition of what constitutes COVID - 19 Death, excess over 100 percent might suggest that most excess deaths are due to COVID - 19 and other deaths, such as those due to road accidents, may have decline. Excess Mortality Data can be used to draw lessons from cross - and within - country differences and help analyse social and economic consequences of pandemic and relax lockdown restrictions. For country comparisons, policy - makers should examine robust measures expressed relative to benchmarks of normal deaths. Normal death rates reflect persistent factors such as the age composition of the population, incidence of smoking and air pollution, prevalence of obesity, poverty and inequality, and normal quality of Health Service delivery. Estimating virus reproduction rate, R, is crucial for assessing the rate and nature of relaxation of lockdowns. 1 Excess Death figures could help to avoid measurement of biases inherent in other data typically used to estimate R in epidemiological models. 2 National Statistical agencies publish actual weekly deaths and averages of past normal deaths. For example, Office For National Statistics reports normal deaths for England and Wales as average of previous five year deaths. However, there are no published benchmarks for More Granular or disaggregated Data, such as sub - regions or cities. Using weekly historical data, researchers could calculate such benchmarks with some effort. Ratio or percentage of Excess deaths relative to normal deaths, P - score, is an easily understood measure of Excess Mortality, see Box 1. We argue that National Statistical offices should publish P - scores for States and sub - regions. In the US, National Centre For Health Statistics publishes data on excess deaths and variants on P - scores, defining excess deaths as deviations from normal deaths plus margin adjusting for uncertainty of data. 4 These data include counties and States, and are disaggregated by gender, age and ethnicity. Nchs thus set the International Standard For Statistical agencies.


Direct Deaths From COVID-19

Summarize current challenges and consequences in counting mortality during coronavirus disease 2019 Pandemic. 1 Direct, indirect, and excess mortality are define, with the latter being underreporting of both direct and indirect events. It is the authors ' opinion that one category of death is not addrest although it is likely significant contributor to what should arguably be defined as direct deaths. In epidemiology and during the Pandemic, disease severity metric, case fatality rate, has been widely report. Cfr is calculated as deaths among confirmed or probable cases. The definition of CFR used by the World Health Organization implies death should count towards numerator when there is no clear alternative cause and there is no period of complete recovery. 2 in addition to acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID - 19 has also been described as a disease of the circulatory system with systemic inflammation, coagulopathies, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. 3 Growing evidence links COVID - 19 to increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, venous thromboembolism, etc. Both during and after hospitalization. 3 this is not dissimilar to what we observe with typical pneumonia 4 - though COVID - 19 appears to generate much higher risks both pre - and post - discharge. The challenge is to attribute these and other events to COVID - 19. As Gerberding describes, 5 physicians are not well trained to attribute the cause of death and may not attribute heart attack or stroke to COVID - 19. More challenging is attributing these cases post - discharge. If COVID - 19 is to be characterized as both acute respiratory distress syndrome and inflammatory syndrome, then CFR definition implies that both must subside before COVID - 19 is no longer implicate. Otherwise, medical community should recognize direct sequelae resulting from pathological changes associated with COVID - 19 as direct deaths. The challenge remains then to operationalize what is case and how long of window post - discharge is amenable to CFR definition. While this may vary, practically it is a period where inflammation and other effects of COVID - 19 do not fully subside. Without strong evidence for this length of time, but growing evidence of long - term complications, fixed post - discharge intervals can be define, similar to how 30 - day readmissions are assess. Within this period, recognizing that full recovery from COVID - 19 has not occur, more accurate picture of direct deaths due to COVID - 19 clinical sequelae can be adequately capture. Kiang MV, Irizarry RA, Buckee CO, Balsari S. Every Body count: Measuring Mortality From COVID - 19 Pandemic. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020 / 09 / 11 2020. World Health Organization. Estimating Mortality From COVID - 19. 2020; https: / www. Who. Int / news - room / commentaries / details / estimating - Mortality - From - COVID - 19. Access September 11 2020. Zheng Y - Y, Ma Y - T, Zhang J - Y, Xie X. Covid - 19 and cardiovascular system. 2020; 17: 259 - 260. Musher DM, Abers MS, corral - Medina VF. Acute Infection and Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med. Jan 10 2019; 380: 171 - 176. Gerberding JL. Measuring Pandemic Impact: Vital Signs From Vital Statistics. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020 / 09 / 11 2020.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Citation

The unprecedented speed and scale of spread of the global COVID - 19 pandemic has forced policy - makers and clinicians to operate with limited evidence for relative success of different control measures. In the words of Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte, with 50% of knowledge we have to make 100% of decisions. 1 Understanding mortality differences will be a key factor in distinguishing the relative effectiveness of Prevention and Control measures between countries, 2 but as we discuss, comparisons are affected by differences in reporting and testing. Excess Mortality can overcome this inherent variation, but without appreciation of its constituent parts, its role in helping us understand why mortality differs between countries remains limited. Throughout the pandemic, league tables have tracked cases and deaths globally. Although these figures quantify the overall scale of disease within a country, they are limited as comparative measures by differences in factors such as population size and demographics. As of 31 July 2020, USA has the highest number of total COVID - 19 Deaths, but relative to population size, of countries with at least 100 COVID - 19 Deaths, USA ranks eighth, while Belgium has the highest COVID - 19 Mortality. 3 Demographic differences also add to complexity in drawing comparisons. Increasing age is strongly associated with COVID - 19 mortality, and population age distributions within countries may be very different, impacting on comparability of COVID - 19 statistics between countries. Although we can adjust or standardise for these factors, comparisons of COVID - 19 mortality remain limited unless we understand how definitions of death vary. The World Health Organization defines COVID - 19 Death as one where COVID - 19 is the underlying cause of Death, encompassing both confirmed and suspect cases. 4 Where COVID - 19 is a contributing factor, but not a cause leading directly to death, it is not count. However, World Health Organization guidance was introduced in April 2020, by which stage countries May already have introduced their own guidance. Consequently, there are significant differences in how COVID - 19 deaths are reported between countries. 5 Russian case definition For COVID - 19 Death, For example, relies solely on results from autopsy, unlike most European countries. 6 Death must have been due directly to COVID - 19, so it does not count if a patient was found to have COVID - 19 but it does not cause their death. 6 7 this will lead to significant underreporting, especially as Russia has one of the highest numbers of COVID - 19 cases worldwide and yet has a case fatality rate of only 1. 7% as of 31 July 2020. 3 Spains definition requires positive polymerase chain reaction or antibody test for COVID - 19, with only hospital deaths included in the death count despite significant number of deaths from COVID - 19 in community and care homes. 8 9 Belgium, by contrast, has one of the broadest definitions for COVID - 19 Death, including all suspected cases. Care home Deaths in Belgium account for around half of all Excess Deaths, but only 26% of Care home Deaths were confirmed COVID - 19, 10, leading to possible overcounting relative to other countries. 11 Criteria may also differ within country.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Projecting from the past

To calculate excess deaths requires comparison to what would have occurred if COVID - 19 had not exist. Obviously, it is not possible to observe what didnt happen, but it is possible to estimate it using historical data. Cdc does this using a statistical model based on previous three years of mortality data, incorporating seasonal trends as well as adjustments for data - reporting delays. So, looking at what happened over the past three years, CDC projects what might have been. By using statistical model, they are also able to calculate uncertainty in their estimates. That allows statisticians like me to assess whether the observed number of deaths looks unusual compared to what we expect to see. The number of excess deaths is difference between models projections and actual observations. Through September, that gives 279 700 deaths above what was expect. Cdc also calculates an upper threshold for the estimated number of deaths to help determine when the observed number of deaths is unquestionably high compared to historical trends. Even using that threshold as a very conservative standard means there were at least 224 173 excess deaths. Clearly visible in graph of this data is spike in deaths beginning in mid - March 2020 and continuing to present. You can also see another period of excess deaths from December 2017 to January 2018, attributable to the unusually virulent flu strain that season. The magnitude of excess deaths in 2020 makes clear that COVID - 19 is much worse than influenza, even when compared to bad flu years like 2017 - 18, when an estimated 61 000 people in the US died of illness. The large spike in deaths in April 2020 corresponds to the coronavirus outbreak in the Northeast, after which the number of excess deaths decreased regularly and substantially until July, when it started to increase again. That uptick in excess deaths is attributable to outbreaks in the South and West that occur over summer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The data tell the story

As first crude approximation, we turn to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which publish estimates of excess mortality during pandemic. According to agency calculations, between Feb. 1 and Aug. 8, there have been between 174 930 and 235 728 excess deaths across the country, for a midpoint value of 205 329 deaths. In comparison, through week 33 of this year, or Aug. 16, 204 634 excess deaths occurred in 24 European countries or parts of countries, according to estimates by EuroMOMO, group monitoring mortality trends in Europe. Two numbers which are about equal are meaningless on their own, but when adjusted for population, there are 665 excess deaths per million people for the covered European area, compared with 622 excess deaths per million in the US, using midpoint value. That works out to Europe having around 7% more excess deaths per capita than the US percentage, rising as high as 26% if the lower US value is used and roles reverse, with the US having a 7% higher excess mortality rate than Europe if the upper - end CDC estimate is use. Comparison is by no means perfect. The time range for calculations differ; two estimates are using the same methodology, and data does not capture all of Europe. As Muellbauer tells US, estimate favors the US because areas of Europe in EuroMOMO network tend to include those most affected by viruses and omit countries that werent hit as hard. Still, results suggest that Trump is off - base to claim Europe's excess mortality is 33% to 40% higher than in the Americas. The only plausible way to get close to such a number requires one to select the lower - bound of the CDC estimate, and Trump would still be exaggerating. For better approximation, we also compile data from the Human Mortality Database, which has been tracking weekly death counts for 29 countries, including most of Europe and the US as result of pandemic. At Muellbauers suggestion, we use a visualization tool to pull data for the number of excess deaths in 2020 for each country over the same time period, using the same reference years of 2015 - 2019 whenever possible. We chose to analyze deaths through June 21 because that was the latest available data for France and would make the fairest comparison for the US over Jan. 1 through June 21 period, We found the US had 183 570 excess deaths, while Europe had 242 739. Using sheer numbers, European raw excess mortality is 32% higher than the US, similar to Trumps ' downwardly revised claim of 33%. But if that is the origin of Trumps statement, it is distortion because it doesnt account for the larger population of Europe, or the fact that compared with the expected number of deaths, Europe's rate of excess mortality is in fact lower than that of the United States. Indeed, by this analysis, US mortality is 13. 3% higher than normal, versus just 10. 1% for Europe.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Early easing of lockdown

Sars - CoV - 2, virus which causes COVID - 19 Disease, is a zoonotic pathogen which will emerge in Wuhan in late 2019. At the time of writing, in early July 2020, it had already claimed the lives of over half a million people globally. In the USA, COVID - 19 deaths now exceed the number of US military deaths arising from all conflicts since the Second World War, while in the UK, four weeks to 24 April saw more Londoners lose their lives to COVID - 19 than during the deadliest four week period of the Blitz. This death toll is only an extremely saddening tip of the much larger iceberg of disruption that COVID - 19 has caused and continues to cause. Confirm cases across the world now exceed eleven million and the true infection rate is likely far higher. Each case imposes real cost on every infected individual. While symptoms may sound innocuous, including dry cough, fever, and tiredness, longer term this morbidity is likely to impose significant costs on sufferers ' health, including potentially permanent lung damage or fibrosis associated with impacts upon heart, kidneys and brain, all of which are likely to have negative consequences for future well - being and productivity. Moreover, alongside the vast disruption that the virus itself has caused directly, preventative measures have caused further disarray in the economy. At present, there are no known specific treatments or available vaccines to either cure or prevent COVID - 19 infections. Therefore, governments world - wide have relied upon preventative measures which aim to reduce the number of people exposed to viruses and lower effective reproductive number, ideally suppressing it below value of 1 at which point number of active cases decreases over time. While some of these measures impose relatively little personal or economic cost, failure of such measures to stem the rapid world - wide spread of virus has necessitated international stay at home lockdown requirements, entailing significant impacts across the global economy. The International Monetary Fund predicts a contraction in global GDP of three percent in 2020a, decline of 6. 4% relative to its October 2019 forecastand decrease which it describes as being much worse than during the 2008 - 2009 Financial crisis. Short term effects are even more extreme. For example, in the UK, GDP fell by 20. 4% in April 2020, while those claiming unemployment benefits rise nearly 70% to over 2 million, although even this is dwarfed by a 200% increase in US unemployment over the same period. 1 Globally, sovereign debt is also soaring: predicted to grow nearly 20% to 53 trillion in 2020 as administrations around the world race to protect cash - strapped companies from going out of business in order to prevent further unemployment. At human level, lives and livelihoods have been turned upside - down. Hence, true economic costs are more diverse and quite possibly more severe than that captured by financial metrics alone.


30 September

New global record for daily new coronavirus cases as WHO warns of rise in deaths in Europe A record single day increase in global coronavirus cases was recorded on Sunday with 307 930 new confirmed cases. The largest increases were in India, US and Brazil, according to the World Health Organization. He also warned that Europe can expect to see more deaths from covid - 19 as soon as next month. It is going to get tougher. In October, November, we are going to see more mortality, said Hans Kluge, WHO regional director for Europe, in an interview with AFP news agency today. Cases in Europe have increased sharply over the last few weeks, with case rates highest in Spain and France. There are 270. 7 cases per 100 000 people in Spain and 153. 9 per 100 000 people in France, according to latest 14 - day cumulative figures from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. In the UK there are 51. 1 case per 100 000 people. Laboratory - made antibodies will be given to about 2000 covid - 19 patients in UK hospitals as part of the UK RECOVERY trial, large - scale clinical trial to test existing drugs as therapies for covid - 19. In June, data from the RECOVERY trial provided first evidence that steroid drug called dexamethasone could save lives for those with severe covid - 19. In new trial of antibodies made specifically to combat coronavirus, first patients will be given experimental treatment in coming weeks. There are lots of good reasons for thinking it might well be effective - stopping viruses from reproducing, stopping viruses from causing damage, improving survival for patients, Martin Landray at University of Oxford, WHO is co - leading the RECOVERY trial, told the BBC. Monoclonal, or target, antibodies are already used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases, said Fiona Watt, executive chair of Medical Research Council in UK, in a statement. The new trial will tell the US whether antibodies that attack viruses can be effective treatment for covid - 19. An email seen by the BBC reveals that UK government chief Scientific advisor Patrick Vallance argued that UK coronavirus lockdown restrictions should be imposed earlier than they actually were, and in response, he was told off by other senior officials. The Vallance refers to advice given by the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies on 16 March, suggesting additional social - distancing measures should be implemented as soon as possible. The UK went into lockdown on 23 March, about two months after the first confirmed case, which some researchers blame for the UK's high number of coronavirus deaths. Israel has become the first country to announce a second nationwide lockdown to begin on Friday and last three weeks. It is an effort to contain second - wave surge of new cases, Israel prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced on Sunday. People will be required to stay within 500 metres of their homes, with the exception of travelling to workplaces. Schools will also be close.


28 August

No indication there is seasonality with coronavirus, say WHO There is no indication that coronavirus is seasonal and it could bounce back any time, World Health Organization leaders said at a press briefing today. Evidence suggests the coronavirus is unlike the flu, which tends to spike in autumn and winter. If you take pressure off viruses, viruses will bounce back. That is what we will say to countries in Europe - keep pressure on, say Mike Ryan, WHO executive director of emergencies program. Maria Van Kerkhove, technical lead of WHOs covid - 19 response, says that the majority of the world population remains susceptible to viruses and WHO director - general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus emphasise importance of countries taking targeted action to tackle local outbreaks through methods like localised lockdowns employed in Leicester, UK. Who says it has only received a fraction of the funding it needs for initiatives aimed at developing and distributing drugs, vaccines and other tools to help tackle the pandemic. While we were grateful to those that have made contributions, were only 10 per cent of the way to funding billions required to realise the promise of the ACT accelerator, Tedros said during a press briefing today. Greece has formally entered second wave of epidemic, Gkikas Magiorkinis, epidemiologist at Athens University and one of the scientists advising the Greek government, told journalists today. This comes after Greece recorded its highest number of daily new coronavirus cases since the pandemic begin, with 203 confirmed on Sunday. In France, it is now compulsory to wear a face mask outdoors in certain crowded areas within Paris. Health officials say the rate of positive coronavirus tests was 2. 4 per cent in the Paris area compared to an average of 1. 6 per cent of people test in the country as whole. Other cities, including Nice and Lille, have also introduced new rules making face masks mandatory in specific outdoor areas. It has been more than 100 days since New Zealand last detected a locally acquired coronavirus case. As of today, country has only 21 active infections, all of which are being managed in isolation facilities. Authorities are still testing thousands of people each day. We need to be prepared to quickly stamp out any future cases, said New Zealand Director - general of Health Ashley Bloomfield on Sunday. The worldwide death toll has passed 731 000. The number of confirmed cases is more than 19. 9 million, according to map and dashboard from Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Urgent priority

Authors acknowledge that their analysis has some limitations. These include its reliance on provisional mortality data from CDC, possible inaccuracies in death certificates, and assumptions that they had made in creating their model. Once the CDC has published more reliable, detailed figures, says Dr. Woolf, these will allow researchers to pinpoint causes of excess deaths and assess wider effects of the Pandemic on public health. Another paper published this week in JAMA suggests that the toll of excess deaths has been greater in the US than in any other comparable country with high COVID - 19 mortality rates. In addition, editorial in journal by Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg, president of Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, research institute in Palo Alto, CA, concludes:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Looking back to look forward

While the cause of death is certainly of great importance, process of assigning the correct cause of death during the COVID - 19 pandemic, especially in countries without automated systems to do job, can delay analysis and provide only incomplete picture of the extent of the pandemic. Weekly tallies of all deaths, when compared to historically expected levels, can more rapidly produce a picture of excess mortality. In Brazil, Colombia, and Peru countries in Bloomberg Philanthropies Data for Health Initiative systems for registering all deaths within a day or so of occurrence are digitized with high coverage, permitting the sort of analysis shown here of deaths in Manaus, Brazil. The sharp increase in total mortality in 2020 is starkly evident, illustrating the enormous impact of the pandemic on the citys death rate. Cumulatively, between March 16 and June 6, Manaus registered 3 549 excess deaths and a 153% increase in expected mortality. By contrast, only 1 462 confirmed COVID - 19 deaths were reported during this period likely undercount due to unavailability of testing. In New York City, data published earlier this year showed that between March and June, all - cause mortality increased by 700% above the baseline at the peak of the pandemic, resulting in 25 100 excess deaths. Health authorities in Bangladesh, Rwanda, and Colombia are leveraging existing community - base data collection systems to furnish weekly counts of mortality, either remotely via cell phone reporting or from data collectors in the field. This work has been underpinned by new guidance from several collaborating governmental, nongovernmental, and international organizations. In New Zealand, where it is possible to rapidly register death online, death notifications and medical certifications are being used to track mortality daily. Information is disseminated within hours, allowing the COVID - 19 response team to monitor death rates in near real - time.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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