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Explain The Functions Of The Nervous System

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells know as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, nervous system has two components: central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institutes of Health, central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system. Functionally, nervous system has two main subdivisions: somatic, or voluntary, component; and autonomic, or involuntary, component. The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body process, such as blood pressure and rate of breathing, that work without conscious effort, according to Merck Manuals. The somatic system consists of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Nervous System Physiology

The nervous system can be divided into two major regions: central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system is everything else. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral cavity of the vertebral column. It is a bit of an oversimplification to say that CNS is what is inside these two cavities and the peripheral nervous system is outside of them, but that is one way to start to think about it. In fact, there are some elements of the peripheral nervous system that are within cranial or vertebral cavities. Peripheral nervous system is so named because it is on peripherymeaning, beyond the brain and spinal cord. Depending on different aspects of the nervous system, dividing line between central and peripheral is not necessarily universal. Nervous tissue, present in both CNS and PNS, contains two basic types of cells: neurons and glial cells. The Glial cell is one of a variety of cells that provide the framework of tissue that supports neurons and their activities. Neuron is more functionally important of two, in terms of the communicative function of the nervous system. To describe the functional divisions of the nervous system, it is important to understand the structure of neuron.S Neurons are cells and therefore have soma, or cell body, but they also have extensions of cell; each extension is generally referred to as a process. There is one important process that every neuron has called axon, which is fiber that connects the neuron with its target. Another type of process that branches off from soma is dendrite. Dendrites are responsible for receiving most of the input from other neurons. Looking at nervous tissue, there are regions that predominantly contain cell bodies and regions that are largely composed of just axons. These two regions within nervous system structures are often referred to as gray matter or white matter. Figure 2 demonstrates the appearance of these regions in the brain and spinal cord. Colors ascribed to these regions are what would be seen in fresh, or unstained, nervous tissue. Gray matter is not necessarily gray. It can be pinkish because of blood content, or even slightly tan, depending on how long tissue has been preserve. But white matter is white because axons are insulated by a lipid - rich substance called myelin. Lipids can appear as white material, much like fat on raw piece of chicken or beef. Actually, gray matter may have that color ascribed to it because next to white matter, it is just darkerhence, gray. The distinction between gray matter and white matter is most often applied to central nervous tissue, which has large regions that can be seen with the unaided eye. When looking at peripheral structures, often a microscope is used and tissue is stained with artificial colors.


Functions of the Nervous System

The nervous system has 3 main functions: sensory, integration, and motor. Sensory. The sensory function of the nervous system involves collecting information from sensory receptors that monitor the bodyas internal and external conditions. These signals are then passed on to the central nervous system for further processing by afferent neurons. Integration. The process of integration is the processing of many sensory signals that are passed into CNS at any given time. These signals are evaluate, compare, used for decision making, discarded or committed to memory as deemed appropriate. Integration takes place in gray matter of the brain and spinal cord and is performed by interneurons. Many interneurons work together to form complex networks that provide this processing power. Motor. Once networks of interneurons in CNS evaluate sensory information and decide on action, they stimulate efferent neurons. Efferent neurons carry signals from gray matter of CNS through nerves of the peripheral nervous system to effector cells. Effector may be smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle tissue or glandular tissue. Effector then releases hormones or moves part of the body to respond to stimulus. Unfortunately, of course, our nervous system does always function as it should. Sometimes this is a result of diseases like Alzheimeras and Parkinsonas disease. Do you know that DNA testing can help you discover your genetic risk of acquiring certain health conditions that affect organs of our nervous system? Late - onset Alzheimeras, Parkinsonas disease, macular degeneration - visit our guide to DNA health testing to find out more.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Functions of the Nervous System

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive information and to generate response to give stimulus. Information and response could be simple, subtle or complex. For instance, when a hot object is touch, its temperature is conveyed quickly to the central nervous system and the response is immediate reflex of removing hand, through action of skeletal muscles. A few such incidents could also lead to formation of learning and long - term memory encoded as a series of neural connections. Alternatively, it could be the sensation of a cold drink on a hot day, where the body responds with a feeling of pleasure. This is expressed through neuronal activity in various parts of the body, depending on the individual, not relying on any obvious effector cell. On other end of the spectrum, stimulus could be indirect, such as the sound of rustling leaves in quiet forest, indicative of animals slithering. This could lead to a cascade of responses. The body might respond to this sound with an adrenalin rush, prompting flight response, and changing the metabolic state of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It could also retrieve memory and try to recollect the possibility of animal being a venomous snake, and the best possible route for escape. Much of this happens nearly instantaneously. Some parts of the nervous system can encode information from stimuli so intricately and deeply, that victims of traumatic events relive painful moments in their entirety, with a whole host of physiological responses, even with unrelated stimulus.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Description of the nervous system

The nervous system can be divided into two major regions: central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system is everything else. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral cavity of the vertebral column. It is a bit of an oversimplification to say that CNS is what is inside these two cavities and the peripheral nervous system is outside of them, but that is one way to start to think about it. In fact, there are some elements of the peripheral nervous system that are within cranial or vertebral cavities. Peripheral nervous system is so named because it is on peripherymeaning, beyond the brain and spinal cord. Depending on different aspects of the nervous system, dividing line between central and peripheral is not necessarily universal. Nervous tissue, present in both CNS and PNS, contains two basic types of cells: neurons and glial cells. The Glial Cell is one of a variety of cells that provide the framework of tissue that supports neurons and their activities. Neuron is more functionally important of two, in terms of the communicative function of the nervous system. In order to describe functional divisions of the nervous system, it is important to understand the structure of neuron.S Neurons are cells and therefore have soma, or cell body, but they also have extensions of cell; each extension is generally referred to as a process. There is one important process that every neuron has called axon, which is fiber that connects the neuron with its target. Another type of process that branches off from soma is dendrite. Dendrites are responsible for receiving most of the input from other neurons. Looking at nervous tissue, there are regions that predominantly contain cell bodies and regions that are largely composed of just axons. These two regions within nervous system structures are often referred to as gray matter or white matter. Figure 2 demonstrates the appearance of these regions in the brain and spinal cord. Colors ascribed to these regions are what would be seen in fresh, or unstained, nervous tissue. Gray matter is not necessarily gray. It can be pinkish because of blood content, or even slightly tan, depending on how long tissue has been preserve. But white matter is white because axons are insulated by a lipid - rich substance called myelin. Lipids can appear as white material, much like fat on raw piece of chicken or beef. Actually, gray matter may have that color ascribed to it because next to white matter, it is just darkerhence, gray. The distinction between gray matter and white matter is most often applied to central nervous tissue, which has large regions that can be seen with the unaided eye. When looking at peripheral structures, often a microscope is used and tissue is stained with artificial colors.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

A number of different medical conditions can affect the nervous system, including: Blood vessel disorders in the brain, including arteriovenous malformations and cerebral aneurysms Tumors, benign and malignant degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Disorders of pituitary gland Epilepsy Headaches, including migraines head injuries such as concussions and Brain trauma Movement Disorders, such as Tremors and Parkinson disease Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis Neuro - ophthalmologic diseases, which are vision problems that result from damage to optic Nerve or its connections to Brain Peripheral Nerve diseases, which affect nerves that carry information to and from Brain and Spinal cord Mental Disorders, such as schizophrenia Spine Disorders Infections, such as meningitis Stroke neurologists and other neuroscience specialists use special tests and imaging techniques to see how nerves and Brain are working. In addition to blood and urine tests, tests to diagnose nervous system diseases may include: compute tomography lumbar puncture to check for infection of spinal cord and brain, or to measure pressure of cerebro - Spinal fluid magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance angiography electroencephalography to look at brain activity Electromyography to test Nerve and Muscle function Electronystagmography to check for abnormal eye movements, which can be sign of Brain disorder evoke potentials, which look at how Brain respond to sounds, sight, and touch Magnetoencephalography myelogram of Spine to diagnose Nerve injury Nerve conduction velocity test Neurocognitive testing polysomnogram to see how Brain react during sleep Single photon emission compute tomography and positron emission tomography scan to look at Brain metabolic activity Biopsy of Brain, Nerve, skin, or Muscle to determine if there's problem with nervous system neuroradiology is branch of neuroscience medicine that focus on diagnosing and treating nervous system problems. Interventional neuroradiology involves inserting tiny, flexible tubes called catheters into blood vessels leading to the brain. This allows doctors to treat blood vessel disorders that can affect the nervous system, such as stroke. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of carotid or vertebral artery Endovascular embolization and coiling to treat cerebral aneurysms Intra - arterial therapy for Stroke Radiation oncology of Brain and Spine Needle biopsies, Spine and soft tissues Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty to treat vertebral fractures open or traditional neurosurgery may be needed in some cases to treat problems in Brain and surrounding structures. This is more invasive surgery that requires surgeon to make an opening, called craniotomy, in the skull. Microsurgery allows surgeons to work on very small structures in the brain using microscope and very small, precise instruments. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be needed for certain types of nervous system disorders. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high - power X - rays on small areas of the body, thereby avoiding damage to surrounding brain tissue.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

The nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. It is a body communication system that controls much of what your body does. It allows you to do things like walk, speak, swallow, breathe and learn, and control how your body reacts in an emergency. Your central nervous system, or CNS, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, your peripheral nervous system, which consists of nerves that connect your CNS to the rest of your body. Nerves are made up of cells called neurons. These carry messages from one part of the body to another. Different types of neurons do different things. For example, some carry messages from the brain to muscles so you can move. Others detect light and sound and carry information about this to the brain.


Overview

The Nervous system is a complex, highly specialized network. It organize, explains, and directs interactions between you and the world around you. The nervous system controls: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and feeling. Voluntary and involuntary functions, such as movement, balance, and coordination. Nervous systems also regulate actions of most other body systems, such as blood flow and blood pressure. Ability to think and reason. The nervous system allows you to be conscious and have thoughts, memories, and language. The nervous system is divided into brain and spinal cord and nerve cells that control voluntary and involuntary movements. Symptoms of nervous system problem depend on which area of the nervous system is involved and what is causing the problem. Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause gradual loss of function. Or they may occur suddenly and cause life - threatening problems. Symptoms may be mild or severe. Some serious conditions, diseases, and injuries that can cause nervous system problems include: blood supply problems. Injuries, especially injuries to the head and spinal cord. Problems that are present at birth. Mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, depression, or psychosis. Exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide, arsenic, or lead. Problems that cause gradual loss of function. Examples include: Parkinson's disease. Multiple sclerosis. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Alzheimer's disease. Huntington's disease. Peripheral neuropathies. Infections. These may occur in: brain. The Membrane surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Overuse of or withdrawal from prescription and non - prescription medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. Brain tumour. Organ system failure. Examples include: Respiratory failure. Heart failure. Liver failure. Kidney failure. Other conditions. Some examples include: Thyroid dysfunction. High blood sugar or low blood sugar. Electrolyte problems. Nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B1 or vitamin B12 deficiency. Guillain - Barre syndrome. Sudden nervous system problems can cause many different symptoms, depending on the area of nervous system involve. Strokes and transient ischemic attacks are common examples of acute problems. You may experience sudden onset of one or more symptoms, such as: numbness, tingling, weakness, or inability to move part or all of one side of your body. Dimness, blurring, double vision, or loss of vision in one or both eyes. Loss of speech, trouble talking, or trouble understanding speech. Sudden, severe headache. Dizziness, unsteadiness, or inability to stand or walk, especially if other symptoms are present. Confusion or change in level of consciousness or behaviour. Severe nausea or vomiting. Seizures can also cause sudden changes in consciousness, feeling,s emotion,s or thought.S Abnormal body movements, such as muscle twitching, may or may not be present. How often seizures occur and how severe they are depends on the cause of seizures and the area of the brain involve. For more information, see topic Seizures. Diabetes can cause problems with balance, either as a result of peripheral neuropathy or stroke. Vertigo and Dizziness are problems of balance and coordination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Study of the nervous system

The branch of medicine that studies and treats the nervous system is called Neurology, and doctors who practice in this field of medicine are called neurologists. Once they have completed medical training, neurologists complete additional training for their specialty and are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. There are also physiatrists, who are physicians who work to rehabilitate patients who have experienced disease or injury to their nervous systems that impact their ability to function, according to ABPN. Neurosurgeons perform surgeries involving the nervous system and are certified by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. You use your eyes to see, your ears to hear and your muscles to do heavy lifting. Well, sort of. In fact, most body parts are far more complicated than that, while some seem to have no business being inside there at all.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Nervous System Parts

The anatomy of the nervous system in humans consists of the brain and spinal cord, along with primary sense organs and all nerves associated with these organs. The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system. All other neuronal tissue is brought under the umbrella of the peripheral nervous system. Therefore, PNS includes neurons within sense organs, other sensory nerves, and all motor nerves that deliver messages to different parts of the body. Functionally, organs of the nervous system can be further divided into different parts. For instance, brain is situated within cranial cavity and weighs less than 1. 5 kgs. However, it is seat for many higher - order mental functions, such as planning, consciousness, perception, and language. It is broadly divided into cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla. Cerebrum is the largest part and is the section that is seen most obviously in external pictorial representations of the organ. It contains two hemispheres of nearly equal size and each hemisphere has four lobes. These lobes, called parietal, temporal, frontal and occipital, have distinct functions, being involved in impulse control, problem - solving, visual perception, hearing, language, and speech. Though hemispheres of the brain have some extent of plasticity, specific tasks remain localized to specific sections of the cerebral cortex. Neurons form the basic functional unit of the nervous system. They can be afferent or efferent neurons based on whether they carry information towards CNS or transmit signals from CNS. Some, called interneurons, are important to integrate information from different stimuli and to create unified response.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Nervous System Structure

Nervous systems can also be divided on the basis of their functions, but anatomical divisions and functional divisions are different. Cns and PNS both contribute to the same functions, but those functions can be attributed to different regions of the brain or to different ganglia in the periphery. The problem with trying to fit functional differences into anatomical divisions is that sometimes the same structure can be part of several functions. For example, optic nerve carries signals from the retina that are either used for conscious perception of visual stimuli, which take place in the cerebral cortex, or for reflexive responses of smooth muscle tissue that are processed through the hypothalamus. There are two ways to consider how the nervous system is divided functionally. First, basic functions of the nervous system are sensation, integration, and response. Secondly, control of the body can be somatic or autonomicdivisions that are largely defined by structures that are involved in response. There is also a region of the peripheral nervous system that is called the enteric nervous system that is responsible for a specific set of functions within the realm of autonomic control relating to gastrointestinal functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us and generating responses to that information. Nervous systems can be divided into regions that are responsible for sensation and for response. But there is a third function that needs to be include. Sensory input needs to be integrated with other sensations, as well as with memories, emotional state, or learning. Some regions of the nervous system are term integration or association areas. The process of integration combines sensory perceptions and higher cognitive functions such as memories, learning, and emotion to produce a response. The first major function of the nervous system is sensationreceiving, information about the environment to gain input about what is happening outside the body. Sensory functions of the nervous system register the presence of change from homeostasis or particular event in the environment, know as stimulus. The senses we think of most are the big five: taste, smell, touch, sight, and hearing. Stimuli for taste and smell are both chemical substances, touch is physical or mechanical stimuli that interact with skin, sight is light stimuli, and hearing is perception of sound, which is a physical stimulus similar to some aspects of touch. There are actually more senses than just those, but that list represents major senses. Those five are all senses that receive stimuli from the outside world, and of which there is conscious perception. Additional sensory stimuli might be from the internal environment, such as stretching of the organ wall or concentration of certain ions in blood. The nervous system produces response on the basis of stimuli perceived by sensory structures.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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