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Frequently Asked Influenza

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

It is not possible to say in advance exactly how well the flu vaccine will work this season. How well it works can vary by season, virus type / subtype, kind of vaccine, and age and other host factors of people being vaccinate. At least two factors play an important role in determining the likelihood that flu vaccines will protect people from flu illness: 1 characteristics of the person being vaccinated such as their age and health, and 2 similarity or match between flu viruses in the vaccine and those spreading in the community. During years when viruses in flu vaccine and circulating flu viruses are well match, it is possible to measure substantial benefits from flu vaccination in terms of preventing flu illness. However, even during years when vaccine match is good, benefits of flu vaccination will vary across the population, depending on host factors like health and age of the person being vaccinated and even potentially which flu vaccine was used. Recent studies by CDC researchers and other researchers suggest that flu vaccination usually reduces risk of influenza illness by 40% to 60% among overall population when vaccine viruses are like ones spreading in community. Will this season's flu vaccine be a good match for circulating viruses? It is not possible to predict with certainty if the flu vaccine will be a good match for circulating flu viruses. The flu vaccine is made to protect against flu viruses that research and surveillance indicate will likely be most common during the season. However, scientists must pick which flu viruses to include in flu vaccine many months in advance in order for flu vaccines to be produced and delivered on time. Also, flu viruses change constantly, called drift. They can change from one season to the next or they can even change within the course of one flu season. Another factor that can impact vaccine effectiveness, especially against influenza ah3n2 viruses, are changes that can occur in vaccine viruses as they are grow in eggs, which is the production method for most current flu vaccines. Because of these factors, there is always the possibility of less than optimal match between circulating flu viruses and viruses in flu vaccine. Over the course of the flu season, CDC studies samples of circulating flu viruses to evaluate how close match there is between viruses used to make flu vaccine and circulating flu viruses. One of ways that helps CDC evaluate match between flu vaccine viruses and circulating flu viruses is with lab process called genetic and antigenic characterization. Results of genetic and antigenic characterization testing are published weekly in CDCs FluView. Can flu vaccine provide protection even if the flu vaccine is not a good match? Yes, antibodies made in response to vaccination with one flu virus can sometimes provide protection against different but related flu viruses.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Whats new this flu season?

Flu Vaccines are Update to better match viruses expected to be circulating in the United States. The Apdm09 vaccine component was Update from / Michigan / 45 / 2015 pdm09 - like virus to / Brisbane / 02 / 2018 pdm09 - like virus. The vaccine component was Update from / Singapore / INFIMH - 16 - 0019 / 2016 - like virus to / Kansas / 14 / 2017 - like virus. Both B / Victoria and B / Yamagata virus components from the 2018 - 2019 flu vaccine remain the same for the 2019 - 2020 flu vaccine. All regular - dose flu shots will be Quadrivalent. All recommended vaccines will be Quadrivalent. All four of vaccine viruses used to produce cell - grown flu vaccine will have to be grown in cells, not eggs. In January 2019, US Food and Drug Administration approved change in dose volume for Fluzone Quadrivalent, Quadrivalent inactivate Influenza vaccine. The change in dose volume affects children from 6 through 35 months of age. Previously, children in this age group were recommended to receive 0. 25 milliliters of this vaccine per dose. Children 6 through 35 months of age May now receive either 0. 25 milliliters or 0. 5 milliliters per dose. There is no preference for one or other dose volume for this age group. All persons 36 months of age and older should receive 0. 5 milliliters per dose. In October 2018, FDA approved an expanded age indication for Afluria Quadrivalent, Quadrivalent inactivate Influenza vaccine. Afluria Quadrivalent is now licensed for children 6 months of age and older. Children 6 months through 35 months of age should receive 0. 25 milliliters for each dose. All persons 36 months of age and older should receive 0. 5 milliliters for each dose. Baloxavir Marboxil is a new flu single - dose Antiviral Drug approved on October 24, 2018 by FDA. Baloxavir is currently approved by FDA for treatment of acute uncomplicated Influenza within 2 days of illness onset in people 12 years and older who are otherwise healthy, or at high risk of developing Influenza - Related complications. More information is available here: Influenza Antiviral Drug Baloxavir Marboxil. For the 2019 - 2020 flu season, CDC is offering additional guidance on the timing of flu vaccination for both adults and children. Like last season, CDC and ACIP recommend that vaccination be offered by the end of October. For this season, CDC and ACIP provide additional information on what might be consider vaccinating too early. Vaccinating early - for example, in July or August - May leads to reduced protection against influenza later in season, particularly among older adults. Children 6 months through 8 years of age who need 2 doses should receive their first dose as soon as possible after the vaccine becomes available to allow second dose to be received by the end of October. For more information on 2019 - 2020 Influenza vaccine Recommendations: Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices United States, 2019 - 20 Influenza Season for 2019 - 2020 flu Season, providers may choose to administer any licensed, age - appropriate flu vaccine. Standard dose flu shots. Like all inactivated Influenza Vaccines, these are give into muscle.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Implications of Cell-Based Vaccines

Cdc recommends use of any licensed, age - appropriate Influenza Vaccine during the 2020 - 2021 Influenza Season, including inactivated Influenza Vaccine, recombinant Influenza Vaccine, or live attenuate Influenza Vaccine. No preference is expressed for any influenza vaccine over another. Both trivalent and Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines will be available. Trivalent Flu shot made using adjuvant, approved for people 65 years of age and older. Standard - Dose Quadrivalent Influenza shots that are manufactured using viruses grown in eggs. These include Afluria Quadrivalent, Fluarix Quadrivalent, FluLaval Quadrivalent, and Fluzone Quadrivalent. Different influenza shots are licensed for different age groups. Some are licenses for children as young as 6 months of age. Most Influenza shots are given in the arm muscle with a needle. One Quadrivalent Influenza shot can be given either with a needle or with a jet injector. Quadrivalent Cell - base Influenza shot containing virus grow in cell culture, which is licensed for people 4 years and older. This season, all four of vaccine viruses used in Flucelvax have been growing in cells, making the vaccine totally egg - free. Recombinant Quadrivalent Influenza shot, egg - free Vaccine, approved for people 18 years and older. Quadrivalent Flu shot using adjuvant, approved for people 65 years of age and older. Quadrivalent High - Dose Influenza Vaccine, license for people 65 years and older. There are many flu vaccine options to choose from, but the most important thing is for all people 6 months and older to get Flu Vaccine every year. If you have questions about which vaccine is best for you, talk to your doctor or other health care professional. More information on approved Flu Vaccines for 2020 - 2021 Flu Season, and age indications for each Vaccine are available in CDCs Table: US Influenza Vaccine Products for 2020 - 2021 Season. Different Influenza Vaccines are approved for use in different age groups. In addition, some vaccines are not recommended for certain groups of people. Factors that can determine persons suitability for vaccination, or vaccination with a particular vaccine, include persons age, health and any allergies to flu vaccine or its components. For more information, visit WHO Should and WHO Should not get Flu Vaccine. You should get Flu Vaccine before Flu Viruses begin spreading in your community, since it takes about two weeks after vaccination for antibodies to develop in the body and provide protection against Flu. Make plans to get vaccinated early in fall, before Flu Season begin. Cdc recommends that people get Flu Vaccine by the end of October. However, getting vaccinated early is likely to be associated with reduced protection against flu infection later in flu season, particularly among older adults. Vaccination should continue to be offered throughout the Flu Season, even into January or later. Children who need two doses of vaccine to be protected should start the vaccination process sooner, because two doses must be given at least four weeks apart. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness can vary.


Vaccine Effectiveness

Cell - base inactivated influenza vaccines have been shown to be modestly more effective than egg - base inactivated influenza vaccines. 2017 - 2018 real - world observational study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines prepared in embryonated chicken eggs compared with those prepared in mammalian cells. 39 study includes more than 13 million Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or oldernearly all vaccine recipients in the United States in this age groupwho had received inactivated influenza vaccines in cell - base quadrivalent form or four types of egg - base vaccines; quadrivalent, high - dose trivalent, adjuvanted trivalent, or standard dose trivalent. The primary data source was Medicare administrative files with patient details on enrollment, inpatient and outpatient care, physician office visits, and prescription drugs from 6 August 2017 to 4 August 2018. The primary outcome was influenza - related hospital encounters. Other outcomes include only inpatient stays, influenza - related office visits, and hospital outpatient visits. Results were adjusted for imbalances between covariates using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Poisson regression was used to evaluate prevention of influenza - related hospital encounters. During this H3N2 - dominate influenza season, IPTW - adjusted results show that for influenza - related hospital encounters cell - base quadrivalent vaccine was modestly but significantly more effective than egg - base quadrivalent vaccine, egg - base standard - dose trivalent, and egg - base adjuvanted trivalent, but not egg - base high - dose trivalent. For influenza - related office visits only, cell - cultured quadrivalent vaccine was significantly more effective than egg - base quadrivalent vaccine, egg - base adjuvanted trivalent, and egg - base high - dose trivalent, but not compared with egg - base standard - dose trivalent. 39 in the 2017 - 2018 influenza season, half of US service members who were immunized received cell - base vaccines. The study analyzed data from Defense Medical Surveillance System who had received either cell - base influenza vaccine or egg - base influenza vaccine between 1 August 2017 and 28 April 2018. Analysis uses two study designs. For the case test - negative design, which includes laboratory - confirmed influenza cases, adjusted RVE of cell - base influenza vaccines compared with egg - base influenza vaccines was 5%. The second study design was based on cohorts as defined by outcomes for influenza - like illnesses or diagnosed influenza. For all cohorts, 50% received cell - base influenza vaccine. Compared with egg - base influenza vaccines, adjusted RVE of cell - base influenza vaccines for ILI Medical encounters was 2%, for ILI hospitalization 16%, for influenza - specific Medical encounter 16%, and for influenza hospitalization 46%. These results show that the RVE of cell - base influenza vaccines was similar to or greater than that of egg - base influenza vaccines but only statistically significant for ILI and influenza - specific medical encounters. 40 Other outcomes are not statistically significant and therefore should be interpreted with caution. Kaiser Permanente Northern California study includes all members from the ages of 4 years of age to 64 years of age over the 2017 - 2018 influenza season. 31 study evaluated persons who received inactivated influenza vaccine that was either cell - base quadrivalent or egg - base, which was mostly trivalent. Influenza cases were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Flu Activity

While flu spreads every year, timing, severity, and length of season varies from one season to another. Flu viruses are constantly changing, so it is not unusual for new flu viruses to appear each year. More information about how flu viruses change is available. The United States experiences annual epidemics of seasonal flu. This time of year is called flu season. In the United States, flu viruses are most common during the fall and winter months. Flu activity often begins to increase in October and November. Most of time, flu activity peaks between December and February, and it can last as late as May. Cdc monitors certain key flu indicators. When these indicators rise and remain elevated for a number of consecutive weeks, flu season is said to have begin. Usually ILI increases first, followed by an increase in flu - associated hospitalizations, which is then followed by increases in flu - associated deaths. For most current flu surveillance information: Weekly US Influenza Surveillance Report. When will flu activity begin and when will it peak? The timing of flu is unpredictable and can vary in different parts of the country and from season to season. Seasonal flu viruses can be detected year - round; however, seasonal flu activity often begins as early as October and November and can continue to occur as late as May. Flu activity most commonly peaks in the United States between December and February.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Vaccine and Vaccination

The University of California is requiring all members of the UC community to receive Influenza Vaccine this fall to help protect our faculty, staff, students and learners during the combined COVID - 19 epidemic and flu season. Ucsf is finalizing plan to provide these vaccinations for our own internal community and will be providing further details in the next few weeks. In the meantime, below are some answers to initial questions regarding flu shot requirement. Also, please refer to the University of California's frequently asked questions: UC Office of President is requiring members of the UC community to be vaccinated for Influenza this year, but will accept exemptions for medical or religious reasons. See list of medical exemptions included in the UC executive order. Ucsf Occupational Health Services will be offering Flu shots free of charge for all employees at multiple Flu outreach Clinics through September and October, as well as in Occupational Health Clinics starting September 28. For the latest clinic schedules and other options, please visit Occupational Health Services Flu Vaccination webpage. You may also receive flu shot through your UCSF primary care provider or community Flu Vaccine provider, such as pharmacy. Please note that we cannot reimburse for outside Flu vaccines, but all UC Health plans cover Flu shots at no cost to member. Documentation from any outside provider can be submitted to. Students can receive their flu shots either through Student Health & Counseling Services or through Occupational Health Services Flu outreach Clinics. You may receive Flu Vaccination from a non - UCSF provider, such as a pharmacy, if that is more convenient, but please note that UCSF will not reimburse the cost of Flu shot from outside providers. All UC employee health plans cover Flu shots at no cost to member. Please see this Occupational Health list of additional options for UC employees for free Flu vaccines. Please submit documentation of your vaccination from any non - UCSF provider

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

If You Get Sick

This year's annual Flu shot will offer protection against three or four of influenza viruses expected to be in circulation this Flu season. High - Dose Flu vaccine as well as additional vaccines will also be available for adults aged 65 and older. Influenza is a respiratory infection that can cause serious complications, particularly in young children, older adults and people with certain medical conditions. Getting the Influenza vaccine, though not 100% effective, is the best way to prevent the misery of flu and its complications. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends annual flu vaccination for everyone aged 6 months or older. Here are answers to common questions about flu shots:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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