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General Functions Of The Nervous System

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells know as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, nervous system has two components: central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institutes of Health, central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system. Functionally, nervous system has two main subdivisions: somatic, or voluntary, component; and autonomic, or involuntary, component. The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body process, such as blood pressure and rate of breathing, that work without conscious effort, according to Merck Manuals. The somatic system consists of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Organization of the Nervous System

Key facts about the nervous system

DefinitionA network of neurons that sends, receives and modulates neural impulses between different body parts.
DivisionsCentral nervous system Peripheral nervous system
Central nervous systemBrain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous systemSpinal and cranial nerves. Functional divisions: - Somatic nervous system - Autonomic nervous system; sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric divisions

The nervous system is a network of neurons whose main feature is to generate, modulate and transmit information between all different parts of the human body. This property enables many important functions of the nervous system, such as regulation of vital body functions, sensation and body movements. Ultimately, nervous system structures preside over everything that makes us human; our consciousness, cognition, behaviour and memories. The central nervous system is the integration and command center of the body. The Peripheral nervous system represents conduit between CNS and body. It is further subdivided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Understanding the nervous system requires knowledge of its various parts, so in this article you will learn about nervous system breakdown and all its various divisions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Functions of the Nervous System

Animals interact with their environment. So, it's only logical that in order to take advantage of any benefits and avoid possible dangers, they need way to be able to monitor their environment and then respond in an appropriate manner. In a nutshell, this is job of the nervous system and it can be broken down into three main functions. First, nervous system collects sensory input from the body and external environment. Second, nervous system then processes and interprets sensory input. And finally, third main function of the nervous system is to respond appropriately to sensory input. Let's take our friend Timmy as an example. Timmy likes to play in his backyard, and one of his favorite things to do in the backyard is to catch butterflies. Timmy's eyes scan the backyard. Actually, what his eyes are really doing is taking light input and converting it into electrical signals that are sent to the brain. Timmy's eyes are sensory organs or organs which are devoted to gathering sensory input, and sending it to the brain. The brain then interprets these signals and converts them into visual images, which is how Timmy sees a butterfly landing on a nearby flower. Not only does Timmy's brain give him a visual image, but it also categorizes what Timmy sees, so he immediately think, There's butterfly landing on a flower.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

The Nervous system is a complex, highly specialized network. It organize, explains, and directs interactions between you and the world around you. The nervous system controls: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and feeling. Voluntary and involuntary functions, such as movement, balance, and coordination. Nervous systems also regulate actions of most other body systems, such as blood flow and blood pressure. Ability to think and reason. The nervous system allows you to be conscious and have thoughts, memories, and language. The nervous system is divided into brain and spinal cord and nerve cells that control voluntary and involuntary movements. Symptoms of nervous system problem depend on which area of the nervous system is involved and what is causing the problem. Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause gradual loss of function. Or they may occur suddenly and cause life - threatening problems. Symptoms may be mild or severe. Some serious conditions, diseases, and injuries that can cause nervous system problems include: blood supply problems. Injuries, especially injuries to the head and spinal cord. Problems that are present at birth. Mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, depression, or psychosis. Exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide, arsenic, or lead. Problems that cause gradual loss of function. Examples include: Parkinson's disease. Multiple sclerosis. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Alzheimer's disease. Huntington's disease. Peripheral neuropathies. Infections. These may occur in: brain. The Membrane surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Overuse of or withdrawal from prescription and nonprescription medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. Brain tumor. Organ system failure. Examples include: Respiratory failure. Heart failure. Liver failure. Kidney failure. Other Conditions. Some examples include: Thyroid dysfunction. High blood sugar or low blood sugar. Electrolyte problems. Nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B1 or vitamin B12 deficiency. Guillain - Barre Syndrome. Sudden nervous system problems can cause many different symptoms, depending on the area of nervous system involve. Strokes and transient ischemic attacks are common examples of acute problems. You may experience sudden onset of one or more symptoms, such as: numbness, tingling, weakness, or inability to move part or all of one side of your body. Dimness, blurring, double vision, or loss of vision in one or both eyes. Loss of speech, trouble talking, or trouble understanding speech. Sudden, severe headache. Dizziness, unsteadiness, or inability to stand or walk, especially if other symptoms are present. Confusion or change in level of consciousness or behavior. Severe nausea or vomiting. Seizures can also cause sudden changes in consciousness, feeling,s emotion,s or thought.S Abnormal body movements, such as muscle twitching, may or may not be present. How often seizures occur and how severe they are depends on the cause of seizures and the area of the brain involve. For more information, see topic Seizures. Diabetes can cause problems with balance, either as a result of peripheral neuropathy or stroke. Vertigo and Dizziness are problems of balance and coordination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves that branch off from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body. The nervous system transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body, including internal organs. In this way, nervous systems activities control ability to move, breathe, see, think, and more. 1 basic unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, or neuron. The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons. Neuron has a cell body, which includes cell nucleus, and special extensions called axons and dendrites. Bundles of axons, called nerves, are found throughout the body. Axons and dendrites allow neurons to communicate, even across long distances. Different types of neurons control or perform different activities. For instance, motor neurons transmit messages from the brain to muscles to generate movement. Sensory neurons detect light, sound, odor, taste, pressure, and heat and send messages about those things to the brain. Other parts of the nervous system control involuntary processes. These include keeping a regular heartbeat, releasing hormones like adrenaline, opening pupils in response to light, and regulating the digestive system. When a neuron sends a message to another neuron, it sends electrical signal down length of its axon. At the end of the axon, electrical signal changes to chemical signal. Axon then releases chemical signals with chemical messengers called neurotransmitters into synapse space between the end of the axon and the tip of dendrite from another neuron. Neurotransmitters move signal through synapse to neighboring dendrite,s which convert chemical signal back into electrical signal. Electrical signals then travel through neurons and go through the same conversion process as they move to neighboring neurons. Nervous systems also include non - neuron cells, called glia. Glia performs many important functions that keep the nervous system working properly. For example, glia: helps support and hold neurons in place, Protect neurons, Create insulation called myelin, which helps move nerve impulses, Repair neurons and helps restore neuron function Trim out dead neurons, Regulate neurotransmitters, brain is made up of many networks of communicating neurons and glia. These networks allow different parts of the brain to talk to each other and work together to control body functions, emotions, thinking, behavior, and other activities.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Autonomic vs. Somatic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is an involuntary part of the peripheral nervous system. Further, divided into sympathetic, parasympathetic systems, it is comprised exclusively of visceral motor fibers. Nerves from both these divisions innervate all involuntary structures of the body; balance functioning of these two systems play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis, meaning that SANS and PANS do not oppose each other but rather, they complement each other. They do so by potentiating activity of different organs under various circumstances;. For example, PSNS will stimulate higher intestine activity after food intake, while SANS will stimulate the heart to increase output during exercise. Autonomic nerves synapse within autonomic ganglia before reaching their target organ, thus all of them have presynaptic and postsynaptic parts. Presynaptic fibers originate from CNS and end by synapsing with neurons of peripheral autonomic ganglia. Postsynaptic fibers are axons of ganglion neurons, extending from ganglion to peripheral tissues. In sympathetic nerves, presynaptic fibers are short as ganglia are located very close to the spinal cord, while postsynaptic fiber are much longer in order to reach the target organ. In parasympathetic nerves its opposite; presynaptic fiber is longer than postsynaptic. The autonomic nervous system seems to be the only thing that can act without your free will. Learn about how it does that here.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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