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Get A Brain Tumor

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape close them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. A Brain Tumor, know as an intracranial Tumor, is an abnormal mass of tissue in which cells grow and multiply uncontrollably, seemingly unchecked by mechanisms that control normal cells. More than 150 different brain tumors have been document, but two main groups of brain tumors are termed primary and metastatic. Primary brain tumors include tumors that originate from tissues of the brain or the brain's immediate surroundings. Primary tumors are categorized as glial or non - glial and benign or malignant. Metastatic Brain tumors include tumors that arise elsewhere in the body and migrate to the brain, usually through the bloodstream. Metastatic tumors are considered cancer and are malignant. Metastatic tumors to brain affect nearly one in four patients with cancer, or an estimated 150 000 people a year. Up to 40 percent of people with lung cancer will develop metastatic brain tumors. In the past, outcomes for patients diagnosed with these tumors were very poor, with typical survival rates of just several weeks. More sophisticated diagnostic tools, in addition to innovative surgical and radiation approaches, have helped survival rates expand up to years; and also allowed for improved quality of life for patients following diagnosis. Chordomas are benign, slow - growing tumors that are most prevalent in people ages 50 to 60. Their most common locations are the base of the skull and lower portion of the spine. Although these tumors are benign, they may invade adjacent bone and put pressure on nearby neural tissue. These are rare tumors, contributing to only 0. 2 percent of all primary brain tumors. Craniopharyngiomas are typically benign, but are difficult tumors to remove because of their location near critical structures deep in the brain. They usually arise from a portion of the pituitary gland, so nearly all patients will require some hormone replacement therapy. Gangliocytomas, gangliomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors that include neoplastic nerve cells that are relatively well - differentiate, occurring primarily in young adults. Glomus jugulare tumors are most frequently benign and typically are located just under the skull base, at top of the jugular vein. They are the most common form of glomus Tumor. However, glomus tumors, in general, contribute to only 0. 6 percent of neoplasms in the head and neck. Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumors, comprising 10 to 15 percent of all brain neoplasms, although a very small percentage are malignant. These tumors originate from meninges, membrane - like structures that surround the brain and spinal cord. Pineocytomas are generally benign lesions that arise from pineal cells, occurring predominantly in adults. They are most often well - define, noninvasive, homogeneous and slow - growing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system. Cancer can begin in CNS or, more commonly, it can spread there. Primary Brain tumors are tumors that form from cells within the brain. Not all primary brain tumors are the same. Primary brain tumors can be divided into malignant or benign tumors: benign primary brain tumors are not cancerous. They grow slowly, and tend to be more amenable to surgical or other treatments. However, benign brain tumors can still damage normal brain tissue and cause serious problems. Malignant brain tumors are more aggressive by definition. They grow more quickly and invade local structures more aggressively. When cancer develops elsewhere in the body and spreads to the brain, it is called a secondary Brain Tumor, or Brain metastasis. These tumorscancerous are, tumors that develop elsewhere in the body and spread to the brainare. More common than primary brain tumors, which begin in brain cells. Cancer of the lung, colon, kidney and breast commonly metastasize the brain. Primary brain tumors are classified by type of cell or tissue tumor affected as well as location and grade of tumor. Brain cancer cells may travel short distances within the brain but generally do not spread beyond the brain. The chance of developing a malignant brain or spinal cord tumor is less than 1 percent. Men are at a slightly increased risk, about one in 143while, women have a one in 185 chance of getting this cancer type, although women are at greater risk for certain types of brain tumors. Next topic: What are risk factors for brain cancer?


What are the symptoms of brain cancer?

Your treatment choices depend on the type of brain cancer you have, test results, and stage of cancer. The goal of treatment may be to cure you, control cancer or help ease problems caused by cancer. Talk with your healthcare team about your treatment choices, goals of treatment, and what risks and side effects may be. Types of treatment for cancer are either local or systemic. Local treatments remove, destroy, or control cancer cells in one area. Surgery and radiation are local treatments. Systemic treatment is used to destroy or control cancer cells that may have travelled around your body. When taken by pill or injection, Chemotherapy is systemic treatment. You may have just one treatment or a combination of treatments. Different types of brain tumor treatments have different goals. Types of treatment include: surgery, radiation therapy, Chemotherapy target therapy, other medicines to help relieve symptoms caused by the tumor or its treatment. Talk with your healthcare providers about your treatment options. Make a list of questions. Think about the benefits and possible side effects of each option. Talk about your concerns with your healthcare provider before making a decision.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms

Symptoms of Brain Tumors depend on location and size of tumor. Some tumors cause direct damage by invading brain tissue and some tumors cause pressure on the surrounding brain. Youll have noticeable symptoms when a growing tumor is putting pressure on your brain tissue. Headaches are common symptom of brain tumor. You may experience headaches that: are worse in the morning when waking up occur while youre sleeping. Are made worse by coughing, sneezing, or exercise. Vomiting blurs vision or double Vision Confusion Seizures, Weakness of limbs or part of face, change in mental functioning, clumsiness, Memory loss Confusion Difficulty writing or reading Changes in ability to hear, taste, or smell Decreased alertness, which may include drowsiness and loss of consciousness Difficulty swallowing dizziness or vertigo eye Problems, such as drooping eyelids and unequal pupils uncontrollable movements hand tremors loss of Balance loss of bladder or bowel control Numbness or tingling on one side of body trouble speaking or understanding what others are saying Changes in Mood, Personality, emotions, and behavior Difficulty walking Muscle Weakness in face, arm, or leg


Seizures

A Seizure is an episode caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Common features of seizures include: sudden onset Loss of consciousness and body tone, followed by twitching and relaxing muscle contractions Loss of control of bodily functions Short periods of no breathing; skin may turn dusky blue for a short duration after the seizure passes, person may feel sleepy or confuse, have headache or sore muscles, or experience brief weakness or numbness. There are many different types of seizures, depending on which area of the brain has abnormal electrical signals. Seizures can be common in people with brain tumors. In some cases, seizure is the first clue that an individual has a brain tumor.


Depression

Clinical, or major, depression goes far beyond case of blues. Major depression is persistent and can interfere with every aspect of daily life. Symptoms may include prolonged feelings of sadness that are often disproportionate to the situation, loss of interest or pleasure in things that used to be enjoyable, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, insomnia, decreased energy, and even thoughts of suicide. Depression is common among both brain tumor patients and their loved ones. Estimates suggest that more than 1 in 4 people with brain tumor suffer from major depressive disorder. Although depression is a common reaction to brain tumor diagnosis, there are options available to help you feel better.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

In most people with primary brain tumors, cause of the tumor is not clear. But doctors have identified some factors that may increase your risk of brain tumor. Exposure to radiation. People who have been exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation have an increased risk of brain tumor. Examples of ionizing radiation include radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs. Family history of brain tumors. A small portion of brain tumors occur in people with family history of brain tumors or family history of genetic syndromes that increase the risk of brain tumors.


Family history

Turcot syndrome describes people who have many colon polyps and an increased risk of colorectal cancer, as well as increased risk for certain types of brain tumors. But this syndrome is actually made up of two different hereditary conditions: when linked with familial adenomatous polyposis, there is a mutation in the APC gene. In people with this gene mutation, brain tumors are typically medulloblastomas. When linked with Lynch syndrome, mutation is in one of the mismatch repair genes, such as MLH1 or PMS2. In people with one of these gene mutations, brain tumors are usually gliomas.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Inherited gene changes

Their research has revealed 13 new genetic errors associated with increased risk of developing glioma - the most common form of Brain Cancer. One of the genetic changes increases risk by as much as a third and others by at least 15 per cent each. That means new information could be used to pick out some people at substantially increased risk of developing disease. Scientists at the Institute of Cancer Research, London, along with colleagues in Europe and US, lead international studies of more than 30 000 people with and without glioma. Their aim was to find sequence changes in DNA among these people passed on from their parents that increase risk of disease. Gliomas account for around 40 per cent of all brain tumours,. There is currently no reliable way of detecting disease early and current treatments are not particularly effective. New research reveals a wealth of new information about what causes people to gliomas, and could in future allow doctors to monitor those most at risk, diagnose disease earlier, and lead to discovery of badly needed new drugs. The study is published in the journal Nature Genetics, and was Fund by the National Institutes for Health in US, with additional support from UK charities - Cancer Research UK, Wellcome and DJ Fielding Medical Research Trust. Researchers carried out two new Genome - wide studies and combined results with six previous studies in meta - analysis - involving in total 12 496 cases of glioma and 18 190 people without. The size of the study means it was able to detect 13 previously undiscovered genetic changes that increase the risk of glioma. These were found to affect a variety of cell functions, including nerve cell division, DNA repair, cell cycle control, protein production and inflammation. Scientists at the Institute of Cancer Research and their colleagues found that different sets of genes influence person's risk of developing two subtypes of glioma - glioblastoma and non - glioblastoma. For example, one of the DNA changes influencing activity of gene HEATR3 increases the risk of glioblastoma - a particularly aggressive type of glioma with average survival of only 10 - 15 months after diagnosis - by 18 per cent. But it has a much smaller effect on the risk of developing non - glioblastoma. As well as identifying new genetic changes, team generated even stronger evidence for roles of DNA errors in genes they previously identified as being associated with glioma and other cancers - including p53, EGFR, and genes TERT and RTEL1 which function to protect ends of chromosomes. The study doubled the total number of genetic changes associated with risk of glioma - taking it up to 26. Study co - leader Professor Richard Houlston, Professor of Molecular and Population Genetics at Institute of Cancer Research, London, say: it's been exciting to have been involved in such a gigantic study including cases of Brain Cancer from all over the world.


GENETIC RISK FACTORS FOR BRAIN CANCER

Although very little is known about genetic risk factors for brain cancer, few factors have been identified thus far. Brain tumors are associated with several familial cancer predisposition syndromes. These include Li - Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis and Turcot's syndrome. In these syndromes, individuals inherit germline mutation in tumor suppressor gene. Tumors initiate when the remaining copy of the tumor suppressor is mutated or silence, giving rise to cells with growth advantage. Because tumorigenesis requires accumulation of multiple mutations in cells, these individuals have increased tumor risk because all cells carry initial mutation. Li - Fraumeni syndrome is caused by mutations in cell checkpoint genes TP53 and CHEK2. Turcot's syndrome is caused by mutations in genes involved in DNA repair. It is likely that in Li - Fraumeni syndrome and Turcot's syndrome risk for brain tumors is increased by an increased rate of DNA mutation leading to uncontrolled growth. Neurofibromatosis is caused by mutations in NF1 or NF2 and tuberous sclerosis is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. Nf1, NF2, TSC1 and TSC2 are all involved in regulation of growth promoting signal transduction pathways in cell.S It is therefore likely that in neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, risk for brain tumors is increased because brain cells are prim for excessive growth and then develop additional mutations allowing cancer to form. In addition to known familial cancer predisposition syndromes, it has also been observed that brain tumors can cluster within families. Familial clustering can be because of both genetic and environmental factors, as families often share common environmental exposures in addition to common genes. Modeling of the inheritance pattern of familial glioma suggests that at least in some cohorts, genetic factors play a role in susceptibility. Segregation analysis of 297 families in Sweden suggests that recessive genes may contribute to familial glioma, although multifactorial model was not exclude. However, homozygosity mapping in study of seven glioma families in Sweden does not identify any common homozygous alleles. Segregation analysis of 639 families in the United States and Canada found evidence for a multifactorial Mendelian model, and suggests that familial glioma is affected by multiple low penetrance genes. In contrast, study of 396 families in Iceland found no evidence for increased risk of gliomas in families, although the authors cite several limitations to study, including small sample size. Although evidence for genetic risk component in brain tumors has been demonstrate, efforts to identify underlying genes have had little success. A study of seven families in Sweden found a weak linkage to chromosome 1q23. In a study of 15 families in Finland, linkage for susceptibility to glioma was found on four chromosomes, 1q25. 1 6q27 8p21. 3 and 15q26. 2, with chromosome 15 showing the most significant linkage. Because the link region on chromosome 15 covers 40 cM, it was not possible to identify genes in this study.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Managing caregiving responsibilities

Learn as much as you can about your loved ones ' diagnosis, treatment options, and chance of recovery. It is also important to ask about medical, financial, and coping resources available to you and your loved one. As disease and its treatment changes, so will your role. It is critical to: Get to know your loved one's health care team. Request meeting with a team to get clear, accurate information about your loved ones illness and treatment. Also, learn what role each provider on the team plays. Ask for help from family and friends. Identify tasks that need to be done. Then organize a network of people who can help you with tasks. Some people create email lists or web page. You may also use one of many websites available to make this process easier. Learn more about sharing responsibilities. Learn how to provide day - to - day and medical care. Ask your loved ones health care team for information on the best ways to provide daily living care. This may include bathing, dressing, and giving meals. Also, ask how to provide medical care, such as giving injections or wound care. Consider professional caregivers. If possible, it may be helpful to hire medical professionals to handle medical responsibilities you are not comfortable doing. You can also hire non - medical home care aids to help with everyday caregiving tasks, such as grooming and cooking. Find out if your loved ones health insurance pays for these services. Learn more about other caregiving options. Explore community resources. Many communities have a wide range of resources for caregivers, including case management, legal aid, financial assistance, and counseling. Your loved ones health care team can provide referrals. Stay organize. Use resources to organize person's medical information, track medical bills and health insurance claims, track treatments, manage medications, monitor side effects, and plan doctors appointments. Free Cancer. Net mobile apps can also help. Learn more about how to manage common caregiving tasks and providing care at home.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Planning ahead

In many cases, treatment for brain tumors comes with side effects. Not everyone experiences the same Side Effects, so you should keep notes about how you feel. Work closely with your physicians and nurses to find the best ways to help you feel better during treatment and beyond. The location of brain tumor plus surgical and other methods used to remove and treat tumor will influence the type of symptoms and side effects that occur. Symptoms and Side Effects also vary according to persons overall health and how well they handle treatment. Headaches Seizures Anemia Fatigue download full chapter on Managing Common Side Effects from Frankly Speaking


Before treatment

Radiation therapy uses high - energy beams, such as X - rays or protons, to kill tumor cells. Radiation therapy can come from a machine outside your body, or, in very rare cases, radiation can be placed inside your body close to your brain tumor. External beam radiation can focus just on the area of your brain where the tumor is locate, or it can be applied to your entire brain. Whole - brain radiation is most often used to treat cancer that has spread to the brain from some other part of the body and forms multiple tumors in the brain. A newer form of radiation therapy using proton beams is being studied for use in people with brain tumors. For tumors that are very close to sensitive areas of the brain, proton therapy may reduce the risk of side effects associated with radiation. But proton therapy hasn't proven to be more effective than standard radiation therapy with X - rays. Side effects of radiation therapy depend on the type and dose of radiation you receive. Common side effects during or immediately following radiation include fatigue, headaches, memory loss and scalp irritation.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Caring for yourself

Youre probably going through a wealth of emotions while caring for your love one - anxiety, anger, frustration, fear. On top of this, many people get trapped in a cycle of resentment and guilt. Even though you love them and want to care for them, it's normal to feel resentment towards the person youre care for. This can be for many reasons, including: feeling that your life is no longer your own, not wanting your whole life to be about illness. Feeling like you aren't appreciated for the care you provide, having to give up employment or education opportunities, losing your support networks and giving up social activities. It's common for carers to then feel guilty for feeling resentful or that they should be doing more or doing better at caring. If you can, talk to the person youre care for about this - they may also welcome the opportunity to talk about their own feelings. If you aren't able to talk to them, you might want to talk to friends or family about how you are re feeling. Your GP or healthcare team are other potential sources of support or you could contact our support team. It doesn't necessarily matter who you talk to, what's important is not bottling up your emotions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Caregiving during the final days

It is estimated that more than 359 000 people were living with Diagnosis of primary Brain and central nervous system tumor in the United States in 2000. 1 Approximately 20 500 new cases of Brain and other nervous system cancers and 12 740 deaths are expected in 2007. 2 Cognitive impairment, seizures, paralysis, and permanent neurological damage are potential results of either disease or treatment, and these have effects on those living with tumors as well as unpaid caregivers. 3 add To these burdens is knowledge that, for most brain tumors, likelihood of long - term survival is poor: 5 - year relative survival rate following diagnosis of primary malignant Brain and central nervous system tumor is 28. 1% for males and 30. 5% for females. 4 Providing health information is not without challenges: patients and families can require accurate, up - to - date information on any of more than 125 subtypes of brain and central nervous system tumors and their symptoms, aggressiveness, treatment, and potential outcomes. Some of the challenges faced by family caregivers are documented in literature. Caregivers report high levels of stress and poor physical and emotional health, as well as career sacrifices, monetary losses, and workplace discrimination. 5 in the setting of brain tumor, family caregivers face special challenges posed by neurocognitive and neurobehavioral effects. 6 Brain tumor patients make up a unique diagnostic and treatment group. Diagnosis is catastrophic, often made after sudden symptom onset such as seizure or significant change in cognition. Following sentinel event, ongoing limitations in physical and cognitive function and quality of life are prevalent and bring additional coping challenges for family caregivers. 7 - 9 Needs of brain tumor patients differ from those of other cancer patients and often are unmet by existing resources. Fox and Lantz 7 conduct quality - of - life studies using individual and support group interviews. Their findings were organized around the following conceptual themes: stigma of mind - body illness, invasive disease of self, Brain tumor as family disease, dealing with the medical system, and quality of life. Leavitt et al. 8 analyzed themes from Brain tumor support groups meetings to understand experiences, needs, and supportive mechanisms of these patients. They also report themes that include changes in family life and managing medical advice. The long haul theme captures unexpected problems and complications, quality of life, need for resources, provider burnout, and balancing hope with realistic expectations. Information seeking emerges as a distinct theme. Sherwood et al. 10 builds on earlier theories of stress and coping. To describe the conceptual model of providing care for someone with a primary malignant brain tumor. Their model suggests an ongoing feedback loop as family caregivers appraise care demands and resources, and they describe factors that affect caregiver stress response. Research on information needs and chronic illnesses suggests that almost all cancer patients want to be fully informed about various aspects of their disease and treatment and, in increasing numbers, are assuming a proactive role in their own care.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Treating brain tumours

Over the past decade, improvements in fractionated and stereotactic radiotherapy are bringing new hope to patients with brain tumors, both in terms of survival and quality of life. A number of experimental drugs and therapies are also showing promise in Clinical Trials, including: angiogenesis inhibitors are drugs that interfere with growth of blood vessels in tumor, thus starving the tumor of nutrients and oxygen it needs to grow. Treatment with these drugs is also called anti - angiogenetic therapy. Immunotherapy is an experimental treatment that promotes immune response against particular tumor antigens. There are many different types of immunotherapy of which number are now approved for use while many are still being delivered in controlled setting of clinical trial. New classes of biological agents target various aspects of tumor cell signaling or metabolism. Enhance drug delivery methods are being evaluated in Clinical Trials. Emerging re - irradiation treatment protocols for recurrent brain tumors are now available. Radiofrequency Tumor treating fields have recently been approved for treatment of one type of Brain Tumor - glioblastoma. Fields are administered to patient through electrodes that are placed on the patient's scalp. Fields are powered by radiofrequency generator and batteries that are contained in backpack. While this treatment may be of value, it does require commitment to wearing treatment apparatus, which may be a significant lifestyle modification. For information and resources about Clinical Trials and to learn about current Clinical Trials being conduct, see: RadiologyInfo's Clinical Trials page. Clinical Trials - from National Cancer Institute Web site


Your treatment plan

If a brain tumor is located in a place that makes it accessible for operation, your surgeon will work to remove as much of the brain tumor as possible. In some cases, tumors are small and easy to separate from surrounding brain tissue, which makes complete surgical removal possible. In other cases, tumors can't be separate from surrounding tissue or they are located near sensitive areas in your brain, making surgery risky. In these situations, your doctor remove as much of the tumor as is safe. Even removing a portion of the brain tumor may help reduce your signs and symptoms. Surgery to remove brain tumor carries risks, such as infection and bleeding. Other risks may depend on the part of your brain where your tumor is locate. For instance, surgery on tumor near nerves that connect to your eyes may carry risk of vision loss. Mayo Clinic neurosurgeons are experts in awake brain surgery. The procedure, offered at very few medical centers in the country, is used to help certain people who have been told they have an inoperable brain tumor. Surgical teams are able to remove tumors safely with minimized risk of serious complications. At Mayo Clinic, neurosurgeons are also experts in minimally invasive techniques. People who undergo brain tumor surgery with these advanced approaches often experience reduced hospital stays, shorter recovery times and lower expected mortality rate. Many people who undergo brain tumor surgery at Mayo Clinic leave hospital in one or two days. Neurosurgeons are able to do these precise and complicated surgeries because they work with specialists in brain imaging and use advanced surgical navigation and mapping equipment. They are able to visualize exactly where the tumor is and the surgical path to it.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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