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Health effect

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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General | Latest Info

Ambient is major cause of death and disease globally. Health effects range from increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits, to increased risk premature death. Estimate 4. 2 million premature deaths globally are to ambient air pollution, mainly from heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease, Lung Cancer, and acute respiratory infections in children. 29 of all and disease from Lung Cancer. 17 of deaths and disease from acute lower respiratory infection. 24 of deaths from stroke. 25 of deaths and disease from ischaemic heart Disease. 43 of all deaths and disease chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease. Pollutants with strongest evidence for public health concern, include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide sulphur dioxide. Health risks associated with particulate matter less than 10 and 2. 5 microns in diameter are good document. Pm is capable of penetrating deep into lung passageways and entering bloodstream causing cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory impacts. In 2013, it was classified as cause of Lung Cancer by International Agency for Research on Cancer. It is also most widely used indicator to assess health effects from exposure to environmental air pollution. In children and adults, both short - and long - term exposure to ambient air can lead to reduced lung function, respiratory infections and aggravated asthma. Maternal exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight, pre - term birth and small gestational age births. Emerging evidence also suggests ambient air pollution may affect diabetes neurological development in children. Considering precise death and disability tolls from many of conditions mentioned are not currently quantified in current estimates, with growing evidence, burden of disease from ambient air pollution is expected to greatly increase. Even though all populations are affected by air pollution, burden of - health is inequitable within and across countries. Most of disease burden is bear by low - and middle - income countries, as well as poor and marginalized populations WHO tend to live near busy roads and industrial sites characterized by high levels of ambient air pollution. Nearly 90 of 4. 2 million premature deaths due to ambient air pollution occur in low - and middle - income countries, with greatest burden in WHO Western Pacific and South - East Asia regions. Other susceptible groups include with pre - existing lung or heart disease, as well as elderly people and children. In children with developing lungs, air pollution exposure can cause both short - and long - term deficits in function, as well as long - term reductions in lung growth rate. Improving air quality is, therefore, among measures with greatest potential impact on health equity. Large health benefits would occur for lower income groups, as well as children and elderly, WHO bear brunt of exposure to ambient air pollution or are most susceptible. Pollutants not only severely impact health, but also earth's climate and ecosystems globally.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk

Exposure to low - levels of radiation does not cause immediate health but can cause small increase in Risk Risk probability of injury, disease or death from exposure to hazard. Radiation Risk may refer to all excess caused by radiation exposure or only excess fatal cancers. Risk may be as percent, fraction, or decimal value. For example, 1 excess risk of cancer incidence is same as 1 in hundred risk or risk of 0. 01. Of Cancer over lifetime. There are studies that keep track of groups of people WHO have been exposed to radiation, including atomic bomb survivors and industry workers. These studies show that radiation exposure increases chance of getting cancer, and risk increases as dose increases: higher dose, greater risk. Conversely, cancer risk from radiation exposure declines as dose lower dose, lower risk. Radiation doses are expressed in millisieverts sievert international unit used to measure effective dose. US Unit Is Rem. Or remember rem US unit measure effective dose. International unit is sieverts. Sievert international unit is to measure effective dose. US Unit Is Rem. Dose can be from one - time radiation exposure, or from accumulated exposures over time. About 99 percent of individuals would not get Cancer as result of one - time uniform whole - body exposure of 100 millisieverts or lower. 1 At this dose, it would be extremely difficult to identify excess in cancers caused by radiation when about 40 percent of men and women in US will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetime. Risks that are for individuals could still result in unacceptable numbers of additional cancers in large population over time. For example, in population of one million people, average one - percent increase in lifetime cancer risk for individuals could result in 10 000 additional cancers. Epa sets regulatory limits and recommends emergency response guidelines well below 100 millisieverts to protect US population, including sensitive groups such as children, from increased cancer risks from accumulated radiation dose over lifetime. Learn more about Cancer Risk in US At National Cancer Institute. Learn more about how EPA estimates Cancer Risk in, EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for US Population, also know as Blue Book.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sensitive Populations

Climate Change is already causing and is expected to continue to cause range of health impacts that vary across different population groups in United States. Vulnerability Of Any Given Group Is Function Of Its Sensitivity To Climate Change Related Health Risks, Its Exposure To Those Risks, And Its Capacity For Responding To Or Coping With Climate Variability And Change. Vulnerable groups of people, described here as populations of concern, include those with low income, some communities of color, immigrant groups, Indigenous peoples, children and pregnant women, older adults, vulnerable occupational persons with disabilities, and persons with preexisting or chronic medical conditions. Planners and public health officials, politicians and physicians, scientists and social service providers are tasked with understanding and responding to Health Impacts of Climate Change. Collectively, their characterization of vulnerability should consider how populations of concern experience disproportionate, multiple, and complex risks to health and well - being in response to Climate Change. Some groups face number of stressors related to both climate and non - climate factors. For example, people living in impoverished urban or isolated areas, floodplains, coastlines, and other at - risk locations are more vulnerable not only to extreme weather and persistent climate change but also to social and economic stressors. Many of these stressors can simultaneously or consecutively. Over time, this accumulation of multiple, complex stressors is expected to become more evident 1 As Climate Impacts interact with stressors associated with existing mental and health conditions and with other socioeconomic and demographic factors. Some populations of concern demonstrate relatively greater to Health Impacts Of Climate Change. Definitions of following key concepts are important to understand how some people or communities are disproportionately affected by Climate - Related Health Risks. Definitions are adapted from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and National Research Council. 2 3. Vulnerability is tendency or predisposition to be adversely affected by Climate - Related Health Effects, and encompasses three elements: exposure, sensitivity or susceptibility to harm, and capacity to adapt to or to cope with change. Exposure is contact between person and one or more biological, chemical, or physical stressors, including stressors affected by Climate Change. Contact may occur in single instance or repeatedly over time, and may occur in one location or over wider geographic area. Sensitivity is degree to which people or communities are affect, either adversely or beneficially, by climate variability and change. Adaptive capacity is ability of communities, institutions, or people to adjust to potential hazards, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequences. Related Term, Resilience, Is Ability To Prepare And Plan For, Absorb, Recover From, And More Successfully Adapt To Adverse Events. People and with strong adaptive capacity have greater resilience. There is potential for consequences to develop where something of value is at stake and where outcome is uncertain.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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