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High Insulin Levels Mean

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. These cells are scattered throughout the pancreas in small clusters known as islets of Langerhans. Insulin produced is released into the blood stream and travels throughout the body. Insulin is an essential hormone that has many actions within the body. Most actions of insulin are direct to metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Insulin also regulates the functions of the body's cells, including their growth. Insulin is critical for the body's use of glucose as energy. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. That is, normal response to the amount of insulin is reduce. As a result, higher levels of insulin are needed in order for insulin to have its proper effects, and the pancreas compensates by trying to produce more insulin. This resistance occurs in response to the body's own insulin or when insulin is administered by injection. With insulin resistance, pancreas produces more and more insulin until the pancreas can no longer produce sufficient insulin for the body's demands, and then blood sugar rises. Insulin resistance is a risk factor for development of Diabetes and heart disease. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a type of Diabetes that occurs later in life or with obesity at any age. Insulin resistance precedes development of type 2 Diabetes, sometimes by years. In individuals who will ultimately develop type 2 Diabetes, research shows that blood glucose and insulin levels are normal for many years, until at some point in time, insulin resistance develop. High insulin levels are often associated with central Obesity, cholesterol abnormalities, and / or high blood pressure. When these disease processes occur together, it is called metabolic syndrome. One action of insulin is to cause the body's cells to remove and use glucose from blood. This is one way by which insulin controls the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin has this effect on cells by binding to insulin receptors on the surface of cells. You can think of it as insulin knocking on doors of muscle and fat cells. Cells hear knock, open up, and let glucose in to be used. With insulin resistance, muscles don't hear knock. So the pancreas is notified it needs to make more insulin, which increases the level of insulin in the blood and causes louder knock. Resistance of cells continues to increase over time. As long as the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, blood glucose levels remain normal. When the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin, blood glucose levels begin to rise. Initially, this happens after meals - when glucose levels are at their highest and more insulin is needed eventually while fasting too. When blood sugar rises abnormally above certain levels, type 2 Diabetes is present.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Is Insulin Resistance?

When you have insulin resistance, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. For a while, this will work and your blood sugar levels will stay normal. Over time, though, your pancreas wo be able to keep up. If you do make changes in the way you eat and exercise, your blood sugar levels will rise until you have prediabetes. Your doctor will look for these blood test results: fasting plasma glucose test: 100 - 125 oral glucose tolerance test: 140 - 199 after second test a1c results of 5. 7% to 6. 4% If you are able to manage prediabetes, you will be diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes when your test levels reach: fasting plasma glucose test: 126 or higher oral glucose tolerance test: 200 or higher after second test a1c results of 6. 5% or above

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

The background ROLE of Hyperinsulinemia as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor is controversial. We study whether Hyperinsulinemia is independently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods Fasting serum Insulin level and other Cardiovascular Risk factors were determined in 1521 men in eastern Finland aged 42 to 60 years with neither Cardiovascular Disease nor Diabetes at baseline. Forty - five Cardiovascular deaths, 110 acute coronary events, 48 strokes, and 163 any cardiovascular events occur during average follow - up of 9. 5 years. A total of 163 cardiovascular events occurred during an average follow - up of 9. 5 years. Results in Cox regression analysis adjusting for age and examination years, Fasting serum Insulin level as continuous variable was directly associated with risk of Cardiovascular death, acute coronary events, and Stroke. Men with Insulin levels of 52 to 66 pmol / L, 67 to 89 pmol / L, and 90 pmol / L or more had 1. 4 - fold, 1. 4 - fold, and 2. 5 - fold Cardiovascular mortality, respectively, compared with men with Insulin levels of less than 52 pmol / L. Adjustment for serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and obesity reduced excess Cardiovascular mortality in the highest Insulin quartile by 7%, 33%, and 67%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of acute coronary events and stroke between Insulin quartiles. Conclusions Hyperinsulinemia had modest association with increased Cardiovascular mortality in middle - aged men. This relationship was largely explained by obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia had even weaker associations with the risk of acute coronary events and stroke. The role of Hyperinsulinemia as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor is controversial. 1 2 Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with increased incidence of coronary Heart Disease and with increased CHD or Cardiovascular Disease mortality in 3 older prospective population - base studies. 3 - 5 in these studies, 3 - 8 However, predictive value of Hyperinsulinemia diminishes with extended follow - up. Two recent Prospective population - base studies have also suggested that the association between Hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of CHD may be independent. 9 10 However, most studies in the 1990s have not reconfirm that Hyperinsulinemia is an independent of the Risk Factor for CVD. 11 - 22 Few studies are available concerning the Association between Hyperinsulinemia and Risk of Stroke. Hyperinsulinemia was not independently associated with Risk of Stroke in extended follow - up of Helsinki Policemen Study. 23 Neither does Hyperinsulinemia predict stroke incidence in nondiabetic subjects without previous stroke in study of elderly men and women in Kuopio, Finland. 24 Furthermore, few study groups have reported relationship of Hyperinsulinemia with all major CVD events, eg, CVD or CHD death, acute coronary events, and Stroke. 3 6 23 Insulin resistance or compensatory Hyperinsulinemia has been associated in cross - sectional studies with a number of CVD risk factors, including low levels of High - density lipoprotein Cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and obesity or central fat distribution. This cluster of risk factors has been most frequently referred to as Insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Collection and Panels

Results seen:

Disorderfasting insulin levelfasting glucose level
NoneNormalNormal
Insulin resistanceHighNormal or somewhat elevated
Not enough insulin produced by the beta cells (as seen in diabetes, pancreatitis, for example)LowHigh
Hypoglycemia due to excess insulin (may be seen in insulinomas, Cushing syndrome, excess administration of exogenous insulin, etc.)Normal or highLow

Insulin Resistance is a condition in which cells in your body don't respond as well to hormone Insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is important for transportation, use and storage of glucose, body's usual main source of energy. Insulin regulates transport of glucose into skeletal muscles, fat tissue and liver, where glucose is needed for energy production. Normally, after a meal, carbohydrates that you eat are broken down into glucose and other simple sugars that are absorbed by the intestine. This causes blood glucose levels to rise and stimulates the pancreas to release Insulin into the bloodstream. The amount of Insulin released corresponds to the size and content of the meal. Insulin helps transport glucose into the body's cells, where it is used for energy. As glucose moves into cells and is break down, blood glucose level drops and the pancreas responds by decreasing release of Insulin. Insulin works together with glucagon, another pancreatic hormone, to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. If your body's cells are less sensitive to Insulin, then less glucose is transported from blood into cells. Blood glucose levels remain high but your cells starve. Your pancreas compensates by producing more Insulin to try to move more glucose into cells. In most cases, your pancreas is able to keep pace with the need for extra Insulin for many years. Most people with Insulin Resistance DO not develop Diabetes. In some cases, pancreas eventually can't keep up with demand and blood glucose continues to rise, causing type 2 Diabetes. The cause of Insulin Resistance is not fully understood. Experts think that major contributing factors are being overweight, especially having excess belly fat, and not getting enough exercise. Conditions are also thought to be due partly to genetic factors and ethnicity. Insulin Resistance is a main feature of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome is described as a set of features that link excess fat around the waist and Insulin Resistance to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as other problems, such as stroke. Obesity also increases the risk of various cancers. Elevate blood glucose elevates triglyceride level Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol High blood pressure note that not everyone with Metabolic Syndrome will necessarily have all four of these features. Over time and left untreated, Insulin Resistance can lead to other serious conditions. Harmful effects of Insulin Resistance result from: consequences of Elevated blood Insulin itself inadequate effects of Insulin despite increase in blood Insulin levels elevate blood Insulin levels over time can have harmful effects, such as: hardening of arteries. Studies have shown a strong association between atherosclerosis and elevated Insulin, but it is unclear whether elevated Insulin itself causes atherosclerosis.


Results

Patient characteristics at baseline by glycemic category are shown in Table 2. A total of 1 687 patients were enrol, mean age was 53 years, and 704 were male. Base on fasting glucose and HbA1c levels, 415 patients had glycemic control consistent with prediabetes and 343 with diabetes. These data reflect high - risk cohort with almost half meeting current criteria for metabolic syndrome, which was also present in the normoglycemic group of patients. On average, study population was obese, with almost one third and one half of patients previously diagnosed with T2DM and / or hypertension, respectively. Those in glycemic categories corresponding to prediabetes or diabetes were more likely to be obese, older males with elevated blood pressure and taking multiple pharmacotherapies. To note, 32% of patients classified as normoglycemic were receiving anti - diabetic treatment at the time of initial biomarker testing; presumably, these individuals had medical history of hyperglycemia or metabolic syndrome. Patients classified as diabetic had significantly higher heart rate and stronger family history of both diabetes and heart disease. One in six patients has been diagnosed with coronary artery disease. More than 60% of patients were taking lipid - lowering medication, while nearly 50% had been prescribed anti - hypertensive and anti - inflammatory drugs. Mean biomarker values for patients within each glycemic category are shown in Table 3. Significant linear trends indicating worsening abnormalities were observed for each biomarker in age - and gender - adjusted models across glycemic categories. Importantly, significant biomarker abnormalities were identified in the high normal glycemic group compared to the normal group, including leptin, adiponectin, linoleoyl - GPC, IRi score, HOMA - IR, insulin, and proinsulin. There were 766 patients classified with one or more biomarkers of IR or beta cell dysfunction in high range that were not classified as at risk by glucose or HbA1c. Conversely, 21 patients were classified as prediabetic / diabetic on the basis of fasting glucose or HbA1c that had normal levels of IR and beta cell biomarkers. Two methods were in agreement for the remaining 900 patients. In order to investigate possible effects of multiple testing, random binomial and Poisson distributions were compared to observed distribution of positive tests, and Kolmogorov - Smirnov statistical test was conducted to determine that random distributions were significantly different than observed distribution. The proportion of patients identified with biomarker abnormalities specific to either insulin resistance or beta cell function is shown in Table 4 group by traditional glycemic category and current anti - diabetic medication status. In overall cohort, 1 424 had at least one feature of insulin resistance and 967 had at least one feature of beta cell dysfunction in comprehensive testing, while 1 078 had at least two features of insulin resistance and 562 had at least two features of beta cell dysfunction. Importantly, of those that were classified as normoglycemic according to traditional criteria and not taking anti - diabetic medications, 77. 2% show evidence of insulin resistance and 36. 4% had beta cell dysfunction on the basis of comprehensive testing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What should your numbers be?

Results seen:

Disorderfasting insulin levelfasting glucose level
NoneNormalNormal
Insulin resistanceHighNormal or somewhat elevated
Not enough insulin produced by the beta cells (as seen in diabetes, pancreatitis, for example)LowHigh
Hypoglycemia due to excess insulin (may be seen in insulinomas, Cushing syndrome, excess administration of exogenous insulin, etc.)Normal or highLow

Insulin resistance increases your risk for progressing to Diabetes. You could be insulin resistant for years without knowing it. This condition typically doesnt trigger any noticeable symptoms. So, it is important your doctor regularly checks your blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association estimates that up to 50 percent of people with insulin resistance and prediabetes will develop type 2 Diabetes if they do make lifestyle changes. Being overweight, having high triglycerides and elevated blood pressure, some people with insulin resistance may also develop skin condition known as acanthosis nigricans. It appears as dark, velvety patches often on the backs of the neck, groin, and armpits. Some experts believe buildup of insulin within skin cells may cause acanthosis nigricans. There is no cure for this condition. But if another condition causes it, treatment may help natural skin color to return.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How to lower insulin level

Prolong use of external insulin or its high levels in blood can have certain side effects on different body parts as discussed below. Hypoglycemia - this is a major side effect of high insulin levels in your blood. It occurs in nearly 16% of Type 1 diabetic patients and 10% of Type 2 diabetic patients. Severe Hypoglycemia can result in sweating, tachycardia, confusion, seizures, coma, and even death in extreme cases. Therefore, regular glucose monitoring is recommended for diabetic patients receiving Insulin therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions - It occur only in 1% of people taking either biosynthetic human Insulin or pork Insulin. Reactions include local erythema, heat, swelling or nodule formation. Desensitization kits are available for patients with true allergy to Insulin. Cardiovascular consequences - Insulin can cause hypertension by stimulating the nervous system to retain sodium. It may also induce imbalance in blood fats. Insulin may also increase the heart rate if Hypoglycemia has not occur. Weight gain - sudden restoration of control over blood glucose levels in diabetic patients treated with Insulin causes weight gain. This is due to increased use of glucose or calories. Metabolic side effects - People treated for diabetic ketoacidosis may have low levels of phosphates, potassium, and magnesium in their blood. Kidney functioning - Hypoglycemia caused by Hyperinsulinemia can lead to a decrease in blood flow to kidneys and thus reduce filtration rate. It also increases excretion of urinary albumin. These changes are reversible if Hypoglycemia can be manage. Blood flow - Hyperinsulinemia can decrease blood volume and increase its viscosity. This can predispose patients to low peripheral perfusion. Gastrointestinal disturbances - Rarely Hyperinsulinemia can lead to gastrointestinal distress which can be resolved by lowering the Insulin dose. Visual disturbances - blur vision can also occur, which is self - limit. Lung - Both lung structure and function are affected by high levels of Insulin. This is of concern, especially in Indians who are found to have the lowest lung function globally.


What is Insulin Resistance?

Fat stored in organs and in the abdomen is called visceral fat and this typically increases insulin resistance. In particular, this central concentration of fat can prove challenging for the liver. Livers naturally want to get rid of excess fat reserves. It does this by loading excess fat into small transport boats. These boats move fatty acids through the bloodstream to muscle cells. But if the body is already struggling to accept nutrients due to insulin resistance, those transport boats end up dumping them back into the bloodstream, accumulating on arterial walls. This leads to inflammation and clogging of arteries.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

1. Follow a Low-Carb Diet

People with type 1 Diabetes are at increased risk for a number of health issues, including heart disease, kidney disease, loss of vision, nerve damage and amputations. 7 importantly, these risks are linked to having high blood glucose levels, not simply having diabetes. The American Diabetes Association has set the following blood sugar targets for people with Diabetes who are otherwise healthy: fasting blood Glucose: 80 - 130 mg / dL 2 - hour postprandial blood Glucose: less than 180 mg / dL HbA1c: less than 7%. These numbers are quite a bit higher than what is considered healthy values for people without Diabetes. Healthy people typically have fasting blood glucose levels below 100 mg / dL and rarely experience blood glucose above 140 mg / dL after eating. 8 additionally, normal HbA1c is considered 5. 7% or less. However, DCCT trial, which followed more than 1 400 people with type 1 Diabetes for nine years, demonstrated that maintaining an HbA1c level of 7% or less was associated with low risk of Diabetes complications. 9, but achieving very tight diabetes control in the DCCT trial was linked to increased risk of hypoglycemic episodes. Clearly, reasoning behind ADAs more lax targets for blood sugar and HbA1c is to avoid dangerous laws. However, this assumes that the only way to reduce blood glucose is by giving more Insulin. Yet if you are eating a Low - carb diet to manage your Diabetes, you will need less insulin, and these concerns about hypoglycemia may not apply. In fact, research suggests that low - carb approach may potentially reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.


Diagnosing insulin resistance

One of the earliest symptoms of Insulin resistance is expanding waistline as the body stores fat in your abdomen. Even people with healthy body mass index numbers between 20 and 25, can have fat collected in their abdomens if they are becoming Insulin resistant. This situation is sometimes called TOFI thin on the outside, fat on the inside. Fat is literally wrapping itself around the liver, heart, kidneys, pancreas and other organs. That is why the size of your waist in relation to your height will tell you a great deal about your Insulin sensitivity. Greater abdominal circumference in relation to height is related to increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality even in people of normal weight. 39 While this isnt perfect test, it is very easy to do, Do not require your doctor to order it, and it can give you a good starting point to see if you have Insulin resistance.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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