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Hipparcos

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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Hipparcos

Mission typeAstrometric observatory
OperatorESA
COSPAR ID1989-062B
SATCAT no.20169
Websitesci .esa .int /hipparcos /
Mission duration4 years, 1 week
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerAlenia Spazio Matra Marconi Space
Launch mass1,140 kg (2,510 lb)
Dry mass635 kg (1,400 lb)
Payload mass210 kg (460 lb)
Power295 watts
Start of mission
Launch date23:25:53, 8 August 1989 (UTC) ( 1989-08-08T23:25:53Z )
RocketAriane 4 44LP (V-33/405)
Launch siteKourou ELA-2
ContractorArianespace
End of mission
Disposaldecommissioned
Deactivated15 August 1993 ( 1993-08-15 )
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeGeostationary transfer orbit
Semi-major axis24,519 km (15,235 mi)
Eccentricity0.720
Perigee altitude500.3 km (310.9 mi)
Apogee altitude35,797.5 km (22,243.5 mi)
Inclination6.84 degrees
Period636.9 minutes
RAAN72.93 degrees
Argument of perigee161.89 degrees
Mean anomaly250.97 degrees
Mean motion2.26 rev/day
Epoch16 June 2015, 13:45:39 UTC
Revolution no.17830
Main telescope
TypeSchmidt telescope
Diameter29 cm (11 in)
Focal length1.4 m (4.6 ft)
Wavelengthsvisible light
Transponders
BandS Band
Bandwidth2-23kbit/s

ESA's HIPPARCOS was first Space Mission dedicated to measuring positions, distances, motions, brightness and colors of stars-for astrometry, as experts call it. Launch in August 1989 by Ariane-4 rocket, HIPPARCOS was pioneering Space experiment dedicated to precise measurement of positions, parallaxes and proper motions of stars. Intended Goal Was To Measure Five Astrometric Parameters Of Some 120 000 Primary Program Stars To Precision Of Some 2 To 4 Milliarcsec, Over Planned Mission Lifetime Of 2. 5 years, and astrometric and two-color photometric properties of some 400 additional stars to somewhat lower astrometric Precision. Having achieved mission goals, operations in March 1993. NASA provided some critical support to mission. In December 2013, ESA launched successor Mission to HIPPARCOS called Gaia. Predict impacts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter identify stars that will pass close to Sun establish distances of stars possessing planets discover that Milky Way is changing shape identify group of stars that invaded our Galaxy when it was young altered cosmic distance scale, making Universe bigger and younger confirm Einstein's prediction of effect of gravity on starlight

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Background

Triumph of Hipparcos. Astronomy: 60. Brief introduction. Dambeck, T. Gaias to Milky Way. Sky & Telescope: 36-39. Introduction to Mission to Measure distances and positions Stars with unprecedented accuracy. Hirshfeld,. Absolute Magnitude of Stars. Sky & Telescope: 35. Good review of how we luminosity, with charts. Hirshfeld,. Race to Measure Cosmos. Sky & Telescope: 38. On Parallax. Trefil, J. Puzzling Out Parallax. Astronomy: 46. On concept and history of Parallax. Turon, C. Measuring Universe. Sky & Telescope: 28. On Hipparcos Mission its results. Zimmerman, R. Polaris: Code-Blue Star. Astronomy: 45. On famous cepheid and how it is changing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Principles

Principles of astrometric measurements. Fill circles and solid lines show three objects from one field of view, and open circles and dash lines show three objects from distinct sky region superimposed by virtue of large basic angle. Left: object positions one reference epoch. Middle: their space motions over about four years, with arbitrary proper motion vectors and scale factors; triangles show their positions at fix epoch near end of interval. Right: total positional changes including additional apparent motions due to annual parallax, four loops corresponding to four Earth orbits around sun. Parallax-induced motions are in phase for all stars in same region of sky, so that relative measurements within one field can only provide relative parallaxes. Although relative between stars change continuously over measurement period, they are described by just five numerical parameters per star. Path on sky of one of Hipparcos Catalogue objects, over period of three years. Each straight line indicates observed position of star at particular epoch: because measurement is one-dimensional, precise location along this position line is undetermined by observation. Curve is model path fit to all measurements. Inferred Position At Each Epoch Is Indicated By Dot, And Residual By Short Line Joining Dot To Corresponding Position Line. Amplitude Of Oscillatory Motion Gives Star's Parallax, With Linear Component Representing Star's Proper Motion.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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