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History of rail transport in China

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Long Term planning and standardization of design are among the countrys key success factors BEIJING, July 8 2019 China has put into operation over 25 000 kilometers of dedicated High-Speed Railway lines since 2008, far more than the total High-Speed lines operating in the rest of the world. What type of planning, business models, and approaches to construction enable this rapid growth? In an era when many railways face declining ridership, what pricing and services make High-Speed Rail attractive to this large number of passengers and maintain financial and economic viability? The new World Bank study seeks to answer these and other questions. China has built the largest High-Speed Rail network in the world. Impacts go well beyond the railway sector and include change patterns of urban development, increases in tourism, and promotion of regional economic growth. Large numbers of people are now able to travel more easily and reliably than ever before, and the network has laid the groundwork for future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, said Martin Raiser, World Bank Country Director for China. The World Bank has financed some 2 600 km of High-Speed Rail in China to date. Building on analysis and experience gained through this work and relevant Chinese studies, China's High-Speed Rail Development summarizes key lessons and practices for other countries that may be considering High-Speed Rail investments. The key enabling factor identified by the study is development of a comprehensive Long-Term Plan to provide a clear framework for development of the system. The China Medium-and Long-Term Railway Plan looks up to 15 years ahead and is complemented by a series of Five-Year Plans. In China, high-speed rail service is competitive with road and air transport for distances of up to about 1200 km. Fares are competitive with bus and airfares and are about one-fourth base fares in other countries. This has allowed High-Speed Rail to attract more than 1. 7 billion passengers a year from all income groups. Countries with smaller populations will need to choose routes carefully and balance wider economic and social benefits of improved connectivity against financial viability concerns. The key factor keeping costs down is standardization of designs and procedures. The construction cost of the Chinese High-Speed Rail network, at an average of 17 million to 21 million per km, is about two-thirds of the cost in other countries. The study also looks into the economic benefits of HSR services. The rate of return of China network as of 2015 is estimated at 8 percent, well above the opportunity cost of capital in China and most other countries for major Long-Term infrastructure investments. Benefits include shortened travel times, improved safety and facilitation of labor mobility, and tourism. High-Speed networks also reduce operating costs, accidents, highway congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions as some air and auto travelers switch to rail.

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Qing dynasty

Russia was particularly keen, In 1860, Vladivostok had been taken from China, and this warm water base in the Pacific would only be viable if it had a railway link through Siberia all way to Moscow. In March 1890, future Tsar Nicholas II visited Vladivostok and pushed through building of the Trans-Siberian Railway's Eastern section based on plans of Sergei Witte. Although Russia could build a section along the North of Heilongjiang river, the more direct route was through Qing control Manchuria. Li Hongzhang go, in secret, to Moscow and pockets 3 million rouble bribes to seal ignominious deal. After the Sino-Japanese War, Japan took control of Liaoning, but France, Germany and Russia mounted a determined Triple Intervention in 1895 to eject Japan from Liaoning, and Russia was the main beneficiary. The Trans-Siberian Railway opened in 1904 and prove faster and cheaper conduit for goods into China than by sea. Russians built the Chinese Eastern Railway from 1897-1903 together with an important 440 miles branch line from Harbin to Dalian. Harbin remained a Russian-dominated Railway hub until the Sino-Soviet split in 1952.

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Republic of China

After founding the Republic of China on January 1 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen agreed to cede provisional presidency to Yuan Shikai in exchange for the latter's assistance in securing abdication of Qing court. Sun believes that the national railway network was key to the modernization of China. He sought and received from Yuan Shikai, portfolio of Railway development for the New Republic. From 1928 to 1937, Republican government in Nanjing built 3 600 km of Railway inside the Great Wall. Manchuria, located beyond the Wall, had 900 km of railways built from 1928 until 1931, when the region was captured by Japan.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Railways

Railway construction began in China in 1876. Because railways can conveniently carry large volume of goods over long distances, they are of special importance in China's transportation system. All trunk railways in China are under the administration of the Ministry of Railways. The Central government operates a major Rail Network in the Northeast built on base constructed by Russians and Japanese during decades before 1949 and an additional large system inside the Great Wall. The Framework for Railways inside Wall consists of several North-South and East-west lines. Apart from those operated by the Central government, there is also a network of small, state-own local railways that link mines, factories, farms, and forest areas. Construction of these smaller railways is encouraged by the Central government, and technical assistance is provided by the state Railway system when it is thought that smaller railways can stimulate regional economic development. Coal has long been the principal Railway cargo. Rather, uneven distribution of coalfields in China makes it necessary to transport coal over long distances, especially between North and South. An increase in production of petroleum and natural gas has made it necessary for construction of both pipelines and additional railways. Since the late 1950s there has been change in railway-construction policy. Prior to that time, most attention was paid to the needs of the eastern half of China, where most of the coal network is find; but since then, more emphasis has been given to extending the rail system into western provinces and improving the original railway system, including such measures as building bridges, laying double tracks, and using continuous weld Rail. In addition, certain important rail links have been electrify. Since 1960, hundreds of thousands of workers have been mobilized to construct major lines in the northwest and southwest. In the 1970s, new lines were extended into previously unopened parts of the country. In the 1980s, new regions in the northwest were linked to the national market and opened up for development. The best example was the line built from Lanzhou in Gansu province westward into the oil fields of Qaidam Basin. These projects, which were coordinated at national level, contrast to pattern prevailing before World War II, when foreign-financed railroads were built in different places without any attempt to coordinate or standardize transport and communications system. Even greater effort has been made since 1990 to speed up new railway construction and improve the existing Network. Major new line runs southward from Beijing to Kowloon via Fuyang and Nanchang and eases strain on other North-South trunk lines. The main East-west trunk line from Lianyungang on the East coast to Lanzhou now extends northwestward through Urumqi to the Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border, linking China to Central Asia and Russia. The third line, constructed southeastward from Kunming in Yunnan to the port of Beihai in Guangxi, greatly improves southwestern China's access to the sea, As do new line that connects Lhasa in Tibet with Qinghai province.

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Record figures

Although Britain was the birthplace of railways, in recent decades it has lagged behind in their development. Nevertheless, it still holds World Speed records for both steam and diesel traction, but its electrification ratio is not as high as that in many other countries. Even at the beginning of the 20th Century, speeds of over 160 km / h were reached by steam trains, the 1930s saw developments in streamlining which enabled locomotive Mallard to reach 203 km / h on 3 July 1938, record which stands to this day. The Fifties and sixties were periods of contraction of our railways, as competition with cars intensify. Steam traction was phased out rather rapidly: by 1967 it had ceased and many different types of diesel trains were introduce. Some electrification of main routes, notably the route from London to Manchester, took place in the sixties, which reduced journey time and increased patronage. A bold attempt was made to design and operate tilting Train to cope with curves on sinuous routes to Scotland. The so-call Advanced Passenger Train incorporates many features novel to the railway industry, through efforts of aeronautical and other non-Railway Engineers injected into British Rails research laboratories in Derby. There were many: power tilt system had lagging response, novel hydrokinetic brakes had to deal with stopping distances within the existing block signalling system, construction was in lightweight aluminium and carriages were articulate. In 1975, speed of 245. 1 km / h was achieved on an unmodified conventional track, but the project was dogged by difficulties. Sound, but perhaps in hindsight, too advanced concept, Train was finally abandoned in 1987. However, expertise generated by project fees into the design of what has arguably been the UKs most successful train ever, InterCity 125 High Speed Train. This train, based on diesel power cars at each end hauling various combinations of conventional coaches, was introduced into service in 1976. The modern appeal of its clean aerodynamic lines is bolstered by publicity campaign. This is the age of the train, rapidly establishing its popularity in the eyes of the travelling public. In November 1987, it achieved what is still a world speed record for diesel traction when it touched 238 km / h. Even today, this train form backbone of several major InterCity routes in the UK, and is regarded by many, authors include, as still the best train on the UK network. Further spin-off from the Advanced Passenger Train project was InterCity 225, electric version of HST, introduced in 1990. Although designed to travel at 225 km / h, speed in service has been limited to 200 km / h because of lack of in-cab signalling. Nevertheless, in test run it achieved a speed of 261. 7 km / h. Train is still used on so-call East Coast Main Line north from Kings Cross in London to Doncaster, York, Newcastle and Edinburgh.

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Medical supplies

China's Rail Freight shipments to Europe are at record levels as demand surges for Chinese-origin gooods to backdrop of COVID-19. July saw 1 232 cargo trains travel from Chinese cities to European destinations-most ever in a single month and an increase of 68 % on the same month a year ago, according to South China Morning Post, which quotes latest figures from China State Railway Group. In addition, trains are getting longer as 113 000 standard cargo containers were shipped last month, year-on-year increase of 73 %. In the first seven months of 2020, freight services between Chinese cities and destinations along Eurasia trade routes tallied 6 354 trips, increase of 41 % from a year earlier, Railway Group say. The Surge in Railway Transport shows not only that China has restart its vast manufacturing apparatus after bringing coronavirus under control at home, but that the nation has also developed reliable transport route to send its manufactured products to clients abroad-sign of resilience in China's export sector, newspaper note. In July, China Post trade surplus of US 62. 33 billion, with exports surging 7. 2 % as imports fell 1. 4 % despite coronavirus having hit global demand, analysts have pointed to strong shipments of medical supplies and work-from-home equipment as the driving factor behind the surge in exports. Yiwu, export hub in East China Zhejiang Province, sent 33 452 containers to central Asian and European countries by train in the first seven months of 2020, tripling the amount of transport during January-July 2020. In the first seven-months of this year, city of Chengdu, in Sichuan Province, dispatched about 1 200 trains on China-Europe Railway-year-on-year increase of 58. 6 %. Freight service along Belt and Road trade routes was once regarded as ornamental in terms of China trade flows, and many Chinese exporters were even found to have shipped empty containers on the Railway Route to claim Government subsidies. However, coronavirus, which has ground many flights and made cross-border truck transport more difficult, has seen many exporters turn to Railway Transport, newspaper highlight. Even Guangzhou, southern China's manufacturing hub with easy access to maritime ports, is stepping up northbound Railway Transport. The City launched a new railway freight service to Russia earlier this month. Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said last month that freight trains had Transport 27 000 tonnes of medical supplies from China to European countries, increase of 41 % year on year, newspaper add.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Corona measures

BEIJING Chinese authorities on Thursday morning closed off Wuhan City of more than 11 million people and epicenter of Pneumonia-like virus that has spread halfway around the world by canceling planes and trains leaving city, and suspending buses, subways and ferries within it. The announcement, shared on Chinese state media just hours before it was to take effect, was a significant escalation from just a day before, when authorities had urged people not to travel to or from Central Chinese City but had stopped short of shutting down transportation. The new virus, which first emerged at the end of December, has killed at least 17 people and sickened more than 570, including in Taiwan, Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the United States. It has raised the specter of a repeat of the SARS epidemic, which broke out in China in 2002 and 2003 and spread rapidly while officials obscured the seriousness of the crisis. That virus eventually killed more than 800 people worldwide. In recent days, governments around the world have introduced special screening measures at ports of entry, and the World Health Organization is weighing a declaration of International Emergency. Chinese authorities say that measures in Wuhan were needed to effectively cut off transmission of virus, resolutely curb the spread of epidemic, and ensure the safety and health of people. They said they would later announce the end date for restrictions. News spread quickly. On Sina Weibo, Twitter-like Chinese social media site, hashtag WuhanLockdown was the top trending topic, with more than 1. 6 million views. Chinese users leave comments on government announcements expressing support for the lockdown and concern for residents of the city. Go Wuhan, several post. Others wonder how sick residents would get from their homes to hospitals without public transportation. Some WHO say they live in Wuhan ask what would happen to them. WHO will think of the lives of those of us WHO are healthy in Wuhan? We are also afraid, write one user, WHO describes herself as a designer living in Wuhan. Even before the city was close, we protected ourselves and hid at home. Now we are lamb WHO will still be slaughter, and we can only leave our fates to heavens. Extreme measures during outbreaks have been imposed elsewhere before. During the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, Sierra Leone ordered everyone in the nation to stay home for three days as authorities go door-to-door checking for new cases, retrieving dead bodies and trying to stop the disease from spreading further. In Monrovia, capital of Liberia, sprawling neighborhood with tens of thousands of people was put under strict quarantine by the government and guarded by police officers in riot gear, setting off violent clashes with penned-in residents. During the 2003 SARS outbreak, anyone in China WHO displayed symptoms of the disease was hospitalize, and students were examined daily.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

A very brief history

The current state of China's high speed railway network began in the early 1990s under strong leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who coined what is currently known as the high speed rail dream after his visit to Japan in 1978, where he was profoundly impressed by the Japan Shinkansen system. In the 1990s, China was facing a surge in capacity demands from accelerated usual-urban migration as China experienced substantial economic growth, which encouraged the Party to invest in expanding and increasing the speed of its transport network for greater efficiency. Thus, in December 1990, Ministry of Railways submitted to the National Peoples Congress a proposal to build a high speed railway between Beijing and Shanghai. For more information on China's high speed rail history: https: / www. Topchinatravel. Com / China-high-speed-train / China-high-speed-for those interested in detailed academic research on China high speed rail development: https: / ebha. Org / public / C7: paper_file: 79

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Speed Up Campaigns

The China Railway Speed Up Campaigns was a series of initiatives undertaken by MOR from 1997 to 2007 to increase the speed of train travel in China by improving the countrys railways. The campaign was implemented in six rounds and increased the national average speed of passenger trains in China from 43km / h to 70km / h. Focus was on modernising and increasing service speed and passenger capacity on existing lines through double-tracking, electrification, improvements in grade, reduction in turn curvature and installation of continuous weld Rail. Through 5 rounds of Speed ups between 1997 and 2004, passenger rail on 7 700km of existing tracks was upgraded to a speed of 160km / h. In addition to modernisation of tracks and increasing passenger capacity, development of China Railway High Speed was also part of this extensive project. During the 6 Speed Up Campaign, 52 High Speed Rail train-sets were put into operation. By late 2007, 158 CRH train-sets and 514 train numbers were in operation. Despite setting speed records on test tracks, China's early domestically produced High-Speed trains were insufficiently reliable for commercial operations. Beijing turn to advanced technology companies abroad but make it clear that China High Speed Rail expansion cannot only benefit foreign economies, it should be mutually exclusive. This was to be done through technology transfer to Chinese companies, which will allow domestic enterprises to master core technology. While foreign partners provide technical training and services, domestic enterprises must ultimately be able to function without partnership in the long run. Railway enterprises in China were able to choose their foreign partners without restriction, but foreign companies must pre-bid and sign technology transfer agreements with domestic manufacturers, so that domestic companies could comprehensively and systemically learn advanced foreign technology. In June 2004, MOR solicited bid to make 200 High-Speed rain sets that can run 200km / h. Siemens, Alstom, Bombardier, Kawasaki all submitted bids. Looking at the pictures below, one can clearly tell similarities in design between foreign High Speed trains to the early Chinese High Speed Railway. Insert pictures of comparison of similar designs here is link: https: / en. Wikipedia. Org / wiki / High-speed_rail_in_China Early_planning Chinese train-makers, after receiving transfer foreign Technology, have been able to achieve a considerable degree of self-sufficiency in making the next generation of High-Speed trains by developing indigenous capability to produce key parts and improving upon foreign designs. In particular, Fuxing and Hexie Hao trains.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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