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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Drug addiction is a complex disorder that can involve virtually every aspect of an individual's functioningin family, at work and school, and in the community. Because of addiction's complexity and pervasive consequences, drug addiction treatment typically must involve many components. Some of those components focus directly on an individual's drug use; others, like employment training, focus on restoring addicted individual to productive membership in family and society, enabling him or her to experience rewards associated with abstinence. Treatment for drug abuse and addiction is delivered in many different settings using a variety of behavioral and pharmacological approaches. In the United States, more than 14 500 specialized Drug Treatment facilities provide counseling, behavioral therapy, medication, case management, and other types of services to persons with substance use disorders. Along with specialized Drug Treatment facilities, drug abuse and addiction are treated in physicians' offices and mental health clinics by a variety of providers, including counselors, physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, and social workers. Treatment is delivered in outpatient, inpatient, and residential settings. Although specific treatment approaches are often associated with particular treatment settings, variety of therapeutic interventions or services can be included in any give setting. Because drug abuse and addiction are major public health problems, large portion of Drug Treatment is funded by local, State, and Federal governments. Private and employer-subsidize health plans also may provide coverage for treatment of addiction and its medical consequences. Unfortunately, manage Care has resulted in shorter average stays, while historical lack of or insufficient coverage for substance abuse Treatment has curtailed a number of operational programs. The recent passage of parity for insurance coverage of mental health and substance abuse problems will hopefully improve this state of affairs. Health Care Reform also stands to increase demand for Drug Abuse Treatment services and presents an opportunity to study how innovations in service delivery, Organization, and financing can improve access to and use of them.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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Table

SectionPortfolios
Investigational Therapeutics IAngiogenesis (VEGFR2; Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase); cell cycle/p53 (CDK, mdm2); cell death (Bcl2, BCL-XL); DNA repair and DNA damage response (PARP, BER, WEE1, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK, RNR); radiopharmaceuticals and radiosensitizers; stem cell signaling pathways (Hedgehog, Notch)
Investigational Therapeutics IIPI3 kinase/AKT/mTOR inhibitors; protein homeostasis inhibitors; cell cycle agents; microtubule inhibitors; MET and ALK inhibitors; epigenetic therapies
Investigational Therapeutics IIIImmunotherapies including checkpoint inhibitors, T-cell stimulators, cytokines, vaccines, Imids, oncolytic virus, T-cell engaging bispecific antibodies; antibodies and antibody drug conjugates; signal transduction pathway inhibitors targeting Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk, Her-2, EGFR, IGF-1R

Clinical Research is Medical Research involving People. There are two types, observational studies and Clinical Trials. Observational studies observe people in normal settings. Researchers gather information, group volunteers according to broad characteristics, and compare changes over time. For example, researchers may collect data through medical exams, tests, or questionnaires about groups of older adults over time to learn more about the effects of different lifestyles on cognitive health. These studies may help identify new possibilities For Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials are research studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. They are the primary way that researchers find out if new treatment, like a new drug or diet or medical device is safe and effective in people. Often, Clinical Trial is used to learn if new treatment is more effective and / or has less harmful side effects than standard treatment. Other Clinical Trials test ways to find disease early, sometimes before there are symptoms. Still others test ways to prevent health problem. A Clinical Trial may also look at how to make life better for people living with life-threatening disease or chronic health problem. Clinical Trials sometimes study the role of caregivers or support groups. Before the US Food and Drug Administration approved Clinical Trial to begin, Scientists performed laboratory tests and studies on animals to test potential therapy safety and efficacy. If these studies show favorable results, FDA give approval for intervention to be tested in humans.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) Therapy

Cancer patients have naturally occurring T cells that are often capable of targeting their cancer cells. These T cells are some of the most powerful immune cells in our body, and come in several types. Killer T cells, especially, are capable of recognizing and eliminating Cancer cells in a very precise way. The existence of these T cells alone, however, isnt always enough to guarantee that they will be able to carry out their mission to eliminate Tumors. One potential roadblock is that these T cells must first become activated before they can effectively kill cancer cells, and then they must be able to maintain that activity for a sufficiently long time to sustain effective anti-tumor response. Another is that these T cells might not exist in sufficient numbers. One form of adoptive cell therapy that attempts to address these issues is called tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy. This approach harvests naturally occurring T cells that have already infiltrated patients Tumors, and then activate and expand them. Then, large numbers of these activate T cells are re-infuse into patients, where they can then seek out and destroy Tumors.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Engineered TCR Therapy

Adoptive T-Cell therapy Using Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has demonstrated long-lasting antitumor activity in select Patients with advanced melanoma. Cancer vaccines have been used for many decades and have shown some promise but overall relatively modest clinical activity across cancers. Technological advances in genome sequencing capabilities and T-Cell engineering have had substantial impact on both Adoptive Cell therapy and the cancer vaccine field. The ability to identify neoantigensa class of Tumor antigens that is truly Tumor specific and encode by Tumor mutations through rapid and relatively inexpensive next-generation sequencinghas already demonstrated the critical importance of these antigens as targets of antitumor-specific T-Cell Responses in the context of Immune checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Therapeutically Targeting these antigens With either Adoptive T-Cell therapy or vaccine approaches has demonstrated early promise in clinics in Patients with advanced Solid tumors. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, which are engineered by fusing antigen-specific, single-chain antibody with signaling molecules of T-Cell receptor / CD3 complex, creating an antibody-like structure on T cells that recognize antigens independently of major histocompatibility complex molecules, have demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in patients with advanced B-Cell malignancies, leading to several approvals by US Food and Drug Administration. Immune checkpoint inhibition Using monoclonal antibodies has led to a revolution in treatment of cancers but is limited to tumors that exhibit endogenous populations of Tumor-specific T cells at sufficient frequencies that can be reinvigorated to recognize cognate targets and mediate Tumor killing. However, for tumors in which extant population of Tumor-reactive T cells is absent or failing to function, Adoptive cellular therapy or Cancer vaccines can augment the population of antitumor effector cells. We review novel strategies encompassing these approaches, including Adoptive T-Cell therapy and Cancer vaccines Targeting neoantigens, CAR T-Cell therapy, and endogenous T-Cell therapy. Expression of Tumor antigens that can be recognized and attacked by hosts ' adaptive Immune response is fundamental to effective Cancer Immunotherapy. Identification of these antigens has been pursued for decades but has been largely limited to native antigens, such as overexpressed or Tumor differentiation antigens. However, truly Tumor-specific antigens as targets of Immune intervention have been elusive until recently, with the exception of oncogenic viral antigens such as HPV associated with cervical Cancer. The availability of massive parallel sequencing has enabled identification of Tumor neoantigens, which are generated by somatic mutations in cancer cells. Because neoantigens are expressed exclusively by tumor cells that harbor respective coding mutations and because mutations are universal feature of Cancer cells, neoantigens are highly desirable antigens for Immune interventions across the spectrum of solid and hematologic malignancies.


Introduction

Twenty-two thousand women are diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer annually in the United States. Current standard of care include cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy. Over 70 % of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed with advanced disease relapse, and more than half die within 5 years of diagnosis, which has changed little in the last 20 years. Substantial evidence suggests that HGSOC is an immunogenic tumor. Tumor antigen-reactive T cells and antibodies are detectable in patient's blood and ascites, and tumor infiltrates of cytotoxic CD8 + T cells correlate with favorable outcomes. Activation of antitumor immune responses, through vaccination, IL2 administration, checkpoint blockade, or infusion of ex vivo-expand tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has produced only modest responses in ovarian cancer patients. Thus, endogenous T cells can have antitumor activity, but therapeutic efficacy is constrained by limited immunogenic epitopes, generally low-avidity T-cell responses from patient repertoires to most of targetable tumor-associate Ags, and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that typify HGSOC tumors. Engineering T cells to express high-affinity T-cell receptors targeting ovarian cancer Ags has the potential to create responses with desired specificity, function, and avidity, regardless of endogenous T-cell repertoire, and to address efficacy-reducing inhibitory pathways. Targeting proteins overexpressed by tumors has in some settings controlled tumor growth with little or no toxicity to healthy tissues. Studies have identified mesothelin as a promising tumor Ag in ovarian cancer: it is overexpressed in > 75 % of HGSOC tumors, contributes to malignant and invasive phenotype, and has limited expression in healthy cells. T cells expressing engineered Chimeric antigen receptors have shown great success against hematologic malignancies. CARs usually consist of antibody single-chain variable fragment, As recognition structure, fuse to T-cell signaling molecule. MSLN-specific CAR-T cells are being tested in ovarian cancer. However, CAR construct recognizes MSLN protein rather than peptide: major histocompatibility complex, such that CAR-T cells may target normal tissues expressing membrane MSLN even with limited MHC expression and bind MSLN protein shed from tumor cells, reducing therapeutic activity. In contrast, TCRs recognize peptides present on MHC molecules, and tumor cells can present MSLN peptides, despite MSLN protein shedding. Thus, MSLN-specific TCR-T cells represent an adoptive immunotherapy alternative for targeting ovarian cancer. The Transplantable ID8 murine ovarian cancer cell line was transduce to highly express vascular endothelial growth factor to mimic elevated expression observe in many patients. The ID8 VEGF murine model recapitulates human advance-stage HGSOC, with aggressive growth, dissemination throughout peritoneal cavity, and development of hemorrhagic ascites. However, it is not clear to what extent ID8 VEGF tumors mimic the suppressive immune microenvironment of human disease. Our study aims to determine if ID8 VEGF can appropriately model human HGSOC for testing cellular immunotherapy and to identify obstacles to efficacy addressable by modulation of immune system and TME in future iterative studies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

CAR T Cell Therapy

CAR T-Cell Therapy, immunotherapy, is a novel Therapy that programs patients ' immune system to recognize and fight Cancer. The immune system is responsible for ridding the body of abnormal cells that are foreign or infect. T-lymphocytes are a type of cell responsible for killing abnormal cells. During the CAR T-Cell treatment process, T-Cells are drawn from patient's blood and genetically modified to recognize patients ' cancer cells when reinfused. First, patients ' white blood cells are collected through a process called apheresis. Then, T-Cells are isolated from other blood cells. T-Cells are then modified in a special facility to program them to recognize Cancer Cells, what can be thought of as fighter T-Cells. Lastly, new fighter T-Cells are reinfused into patients to target and kill Cancer. Sarah Cannon Blood Cancer Network programs across the United States offer both Research and FDA-approved CAR T-Cell Therapy options and have been actively involved in CAR T-Cell clinical trials for years. In fact, Sarah Cannon was one of the first non-University Research centers to offer this Therapy, continuing our mission to treat patients with promising new agents close to home.


CAR T-Cell Therapy Clinical Trials:

CAR T-Cell Therapy is an emerging form of cancer immunotherapy, which involves supercharging patients ' T Cells to recognize and attack cancer cells. CAR T-Cell Therapy is a type of cellular therapy. During clinical trials of CAR T-Cell Therapy, 70 to 90 percent of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia go into remission after this treatment. And 40 to 50 percent of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma experience complete remission. While it is too early to say these patients are cure, results are encouraging for individuals with hard-to-treat or relapse leukemia or lymphoma. Learn more about how CAR T-Cell Therapy work.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Side Effects

A growing number of people with cancer have benefited in recent years from immunotherapytreatments that strengthen the ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer. Some patients have had dramatic and lasting responses to these new treatments, which include immune checkpoint inhibitors and CAR T-cell therapies. In rare cases, patients with advanced cancers have had their tumors disappear completely following treatment with immunotherapy. But immunotherapy drugs, like all medicines, can cause side effects, including rare complications that, for some patients, may be life threatening. Side effects related to immunotherapy drugs occur frequently and can affect almost any organ in the body, says Sarah Dubbs, MD, emergency Medicine Physician at University of Maryland School of Medicine who has written about side effects of cancer immunotherapy. Most side effects are mild to moderate in severity and respond to treatments such as steroids, Dr. Dubbs continue. Doctors caring for patients who are receiving immunotherapy must be vigilant, however, because some patients may develop serious health problems, she add. As immunotherapy has become more widely used treatment for cancer, researchers have gained insights into side effects associated with these treatments, including some complications not previously linked to other cancer treatments. Building on that work, researchers are now trying to better understand how and why these side effects occur in certain patients and develop strategies for managing them. Drugs that stimulate the immune system to attack tumor cells can, in some patients, cause the immune system to recognize some of bodys healthy tissues as foreign and attack them. Some patients receiving immunotherapy develop inflammation of the inner lining of colon, lungs, or heart muscle, among other side effects associated with an overly active immune system. Understanding more about causes of immunotherapy-related side effects and being able to identify patients most at risk for them could help doctors to select immunotherapy drugs for patients in future, notes Dr. Dubbs. To advance research in this area, investigators have been documenting complications associated with immunotherapy drugs, studying biological mechanisms, modifying immunotherapy drugs to reduce their side effects, and increasing awareness of potential side effects among clinicians and patients. For example, side effects of immunotherapy drugs and new ways to manage them were discussed at a recent scientific meeting on emergency Medicine for treating Patients with Cancer, hosted by University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. As emergency room doctors, we are the first line of care, and we need to educate ourselves about new technologies in Medicine and be ready to care for our patients, Dr. Dubbs say. When we get Patients medical history, we ask what immunotherapy treatment theyre on and it is important to be specific, she continue. With different types of chemotherapy, it was not as important to know exactly which type, because drugs behave similarly in the body. But with immunotherapy drugs it matters, because there are different adverse events associated with different medications, and treatment may vary depending upon which immunotherapy drug patient has receive, Dr. Dubbs add.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Effects of CP Transfusion.

Author contributions: ZC, X. Zhang, and X. Yang design Research; SM, Yong Hu, CP, MY, ZW, JY, XG, DW, L. Li, JZ, XW, B. Li, WC, YP, Yeqin Hu, L. Lin, SH, Z. Zhou, LZ, YW, Z. Zhang, K. Deng, ZX, QG, WZ, X. Zheng, YL, HY, DZ, DY, J. Hou, and ZS perform Research; J. Huang, X. Yu, YX, XL, SC, and ZC analyze data; and K. Duan, B. Liu, CL, HZ, TY, JQ, MZ, LC, and ZC write paper. Since December 2019, pneumonia associated with severe acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2, named as coronavirus Disease 2019 by the World Health Organization, emerged in Wuhan, China. The epidemic spread rapidly worldwide within 3 mo and was characterized as a pandemic by WHO on March 11 2020. As of March 12 2020, total of 80 980 confirmed cases and 3 173 deaths had been reported in China. Meanwhile, total of 44 377 confirmed cases and 1 446 deaths were reported in another 108 countries or regions. Currently, there are no approved specific antiviral agents targeting novel viruses while some drugs are still under investigation, including remdesivir and lopinavir / ritonavir. Although remdesivir was reported to possess potential antiviral effect in one COVID-19 patient from the United States, randomized controlled Trials of this Drug are ongoing to determine its safety and efficacy. Moreover, corticosteroid treatment for COVID-19 lung injury remains controversial, due to delayed clearance of viral infection and complications. Since effective vaccine and specific antiviral medicines are unavailable, it is urgent need to look for alternative strategy for COVID-19 treatment, especially among severe patients. Convalescent Plasma therapy, classic adaptive immunotherapy, has been applied to prevention and treatment of many infectious diseases for more than one century. Over the past two decades, CP therapy has been successfully used in the treatment of SARS, MERS, and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic with satisfactory efficacy and safety. Meta-Analysis from 32 studies of SARS coronavirus infection and severe influenza shows a statistically significant reduction in pooled odds of mortality following CP therapy, compared with placebo or no therapy. However, CP therapy was unable to significantly improve survival in Ebola virus Disease, probably due to absence of data of neutralizing antibody titration for stratified Analysis. Since virological and clinical characteristics share similarity among SARS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and COVID-19, CP therapy might be a promising treatment option for COVID-19 rescue. Patients WHO have recovered from COVID-19 with high neutralizing antibody titer may be valuable donor source of CP. Nevertheless, potential clinical benefit and risk of Convalescent Blood products in COVID-19 remains uncertain. Hence, we performed this pilot study in three participating hospitals to explore the feasibility of CP treatment in 10 severe COVID-19 patients. Chest CTs of two patients. Chest CT of patient 9 obtained on February 9 before CP Transfusion showed ground-glass opacity with uneven density involving multilobal segments of both lungs. The heart shadow outline was not clear.


Discussion

CPT has a very long history of use in the treatment of infectious disease. Its use has been well documented during outbreaks of many diseases in various periods, including Spanish Influenza infections from 1915 to 1917, 11 severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2003, 12 pandemic 2009 Influenza, 13 avian Influenza, 14 several hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola, 15 and other viral infections. In addition, studies show convalescent plasma antibodies that can limit virus reproduction in acute phase of infection and help clear virus, which is beneficial to rapid recovery of disease. 16 previous reviews have stated that CPT may be considered for critically sick COVID19 patients based on earlier reported studies. 17 18 in this systematic review of CPT to COVID19 patients, we identify and critically evaluate five studies that describe about 27 patients. All studies reported good outcomes after CPT performance, But all were considered to have risk of bias owing to a combination of nonrandomized evaluations, confounding, predictor description and poor methodological conduct for participant selection, dosage of CPT, and duration of therapy. This heterogeneity does not permit us to perform metaanalysis. However, important strength of this study is comprehensive search of published clinical study data abstraction. Our review is the first to summarize all such literature in humans with COVID19.


Introduction

The recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has demonstrated the fragility of our health systems in tackling emergency situations relating to the spread of new infectious agents that require rapid development of effective care strategies. Unfortunately, there are several potentially pandemic viruses, such as flaviviruses, chikungunya virus, influenza viruses, Ebola virus, and respiratory betacoronaviruses, which could put us in situations very similar to the situation with the current pandemic and which require development of specific intervention protocols. While vaccination strategy is undoubtedly a viable goal, development of vaccine requires a time frame not compatible with emergency situation. It is also a prophylactic approach that has no use in therapeutic setting. On the other hand, use of antivirals is valuable for therapeutic setting. For the limited number of antiviral agents currently available, unless provided free of charge to developing countries, financial cost is an issue. Additionally, manufacturing is hard to scale up in short time frames. In situations in which new pathogen is able to induce immune response with production of neutralizing antibodies, passive transfusion of convalescent blood products, in particular, convalescent plasma, has proven to be a winning and logistically feasible therapeutic strategy. CBPs can be manufactured by collecting whole blood or apheresis plasma from convalescent donor. This approach has been used since 1900, and previous experiences have been reported elsewhere. The main accepted mechanism of action for CBP therapy is clearance of viremia, which typically happens 10 to 14 days after infection. So CBP has been typically administered after appearance of early symptoms to maximize efficacy. Convalescent whole blood, in addition to antibodies, provides control of hemorrhagic events, as in Ebola virus disease, if transfusion occurs within 24 h to maintain viable platelets and clotting factors. Nevertheless, CP best fits settings where only antibodies are require. In this review, we have described current technologies for CP collection, manufacturing, pathogen inactivation, and banking of CP. Then we have summarized the historical settings of CBP application, with specific focus on applications for COVID-19 and other future pandemics. Several articles included in this review are available as preprints which have not yet passed peer review, as indicated in the reference section.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Discussion

Writing prescription to treat mental health disorder is easy, but it may not always be the safest or most effective route for patients, according to some recent studies and a growing chorus of voice concern about the rapid rise in prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. Today, patients often receive psychotropic medications without being evaluated by mental health professional, according to a study last year by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Many Americans visit their primary-care physicians and may walk away with a prescription for antidepressants or other drugs without being aware of other evidence-base treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy that might work better for them without risk of side effects. I would say at least half the folks who are being treated with antidepressants aren't benefiting from active pharmacological effects of drugs themselves, but from the Placebo effect, says Steven Hollon, PhD, psychology professor at Vanderbilt University who has conducted extensive research on the effectiveness of antidepressants. If people knew more, I think they would be a little less likely to go down the medication path than the psychosocial treatment path. Use of psychotropic drugs by adult Americans increased 22 percent from 2001 to 2010, with one in five adults now taking at least one psychotropic medication, according to industry data. In 2010, Americans spent more than 16 billion on antipsychotics, 11 billion on antidepressants and 7 billion on drugs to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The rapid growth of all three classes of drugs has alarmed some mental health professionals, who are concerned about use of powerful antipsychotic drugs by elderly nursing home residents and prescription of stimulants to children who may have been misdiagnosed with ADHD. Psychotropic drugs are valuable tools in treating many mental health disorders, but inappropriate prescribing can cause serious harm. To help address those concerns, APA is developing Clinical treatment guidelines that will help educate physicians, health insurers and the public about the best treatments available for common mental health disorders. APA also supports an integrated approach to Health-care delivery in which primary-care and mental health providers work together to determine the best treatment plan for each patient.


Treatment

To treat ischemic stroke, doctors must quickly restore blood flow to your brain. This may be do with: emergency IV medication. Therapy with drugs that can break up clots has to be given within 4. 5 hours from when symptoms first start if give intravenously. The sooner these drugs are give, better. Quick treatment not only improves your chances of survival but also may reduce complications. IV injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, also called alteplase, is the gold standard treatment for ischemic stroke. Injection of tPA is usually given through a vein in the arm with first three hours. Sometimes, tPA can be up to 4. 5 hours after the stroke, symptoms start. This drug restores blood flow by dissolving blood clot causing your stroke. By quickly removing the cause of stroke, it may help people recover more fully from stroke. Your doctor will consider certain risks, such as potential bleeding in the brain, to determine if tPA is appropriate for you. Emergency endovascular procedures. Doctors sometimes treat ischemic strokes directly inside block blood vessel. Endovascular therapy has been shown to significantly improve outcomes and reduce long-term disability after ischemic stroke. These procedures must be performed as soon as possible: Medications delivered directly to the brain. Doctors insert a long, thin tube through the artery in your groin and thread it to your brain to deliver tPA directly where stroke is happening. The time window for this treatment is somewhat longer than for injected tPA, but there is still a limit. Removing clot with stent retriever. Doctors can use a device attached to a catheter to directly remove clot from blocking blood vessels in your brain. This procedure is particularly beneficial for people with large clots that can't be completely dissolved with tPA. This procedure is often performed in combination with injected tPA. The time window when these procedures can be considered has been expanding due to newer imaging technology. Doctors may order perfusion imaging tests to help determine how likely it is that someone can benefit from endovascular therapy. To decrease your risk of having another stroke or transient ischemic attack, your doctor may recommend procedure to open up artery that's narrowed by plaque. Options vary depending on your situation, but include: carotid endarterectomy. Carotid arteries are blood vessels that run along each side of your neck, supplying your brain with blood. This surgery removes plaque blocking carotid artery, and may reduce your risk of ischemic stroke. Carotid endarterectomy also involves risks, especially for people with heart disease or other medical conditions. Angioplasty and stents. In angioplasty, surgeon threads a catheter to your carotid arteries through artery in your groin. The balloon is then inflated to expand narrowed artery. Then a stent can be inserted to support opened artery.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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