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Insulin Resistance Signs

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Insulin resistance means that cells of the body have become resistant to action of hormone insulin. Insulin, secreted by the pancreas, is critical for the body's use of Glucose for energy. When cells of the body do not respond appropriately to insulin, glucose from the bloodstream cannot be taken up by cells and used for fuel. Consequently, pancreas tries to compensate by producing even more insulin. When the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, blood glucose levels rise. Insulin resistance is a risk factor for development of Diabetes and its associated complications. Insulin resistance is a step in the development of type 2 Diabetes and often occurs years before a person develops Diabetes. Insulin resistance has been referred to as prediabetes. Insulin resistance typically does not produce any specific symptoms and is diagnosed by blood test. Some symptoms and signs are described below that are often seen in people with condition due to associated medical conditions. Causes of insulin resistance Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the cause of insulin resistance. Taking certain medications can also contribute to insulin resistance. Further, following conditions have also been linked to risk of developing insulin resistance: Excess Weight Inactivity, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity Pregnancy Severe illness Other insulin resistance symptoms and signs Acanthosis Nigricans central Obesity elevates Blood Cholesterol, elevates Blood Glucose elevates Blood Triglyceride Levels High Blood Pressure Overweight or Obesity Skin Tags

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. These cells are scattered throughout the pancreas in small clusters known as islets of Langerhans. Insulin produced is released into the blood stream and travels throughout the body. Insulin is an essential hormone that has many actions within the body. Most actions of insulin are direct to metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Insulin also regulates the functions of the body's cells, including their growth. Insulin is critical for the body's use of glucose as energy. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. That is, normal response to the amount of insulin is reduce. As a result, higher levels of insulin are needed in order for insulin to have its proper effects, and the pancreas compensates by trying to produce more insulin. This resistance occurs in response to the body's own insulin or when insulin is administered by injection. With insulin resistance, pancreas produces more and more insulin until the pancreas can no longer produce sufficient insulin for the body's demands, and then blood sugar rises. Insulin resistance is a risk factor for development of Diabetes and heart disease. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a type of Diabetes that occurs later in life or with obesity at any age. Insulin resistance precedes development of type 2 Diabetes, sometimes by years. In individuals who will ultimately develop type 2 Diabetes, research shows that blood glucose and insulin levels are normal for many years, until at some point in time, insulin resistance develop. High insulin levels are often associated with central obesity, cholesterol abnormalities, and / or high blood pressure. When these disease processes occur together, it is called metabolic syndrome. One action of insulin is to cause the body's cells to remove and use glucose from blood. This is one way by which insulin controls the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin has this effect on cells by binding to insulin receptors on the surface of cells. You can think of it as insulin knocking on doors of muscle and fat cells. Cells hear knock, open up, and let glucose in to be used. With insulin resistance, muscles don't hear knock. So the pancreas is notified it needs to make more insulin, which increases the level of insulin in the blood and causes louder knock. Resistance of cells continues to increase over time. As long as the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, blood glucose levels remain normal. When the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin, blood glucose levels begin to rise. Initially, this happens after meals - when glucose levels are at their highest and more insulin is needed eventually while fasting too. When blood sugar rises abnormally above certain levels, type 2 Diabetes is present.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Fasting blood glucose test

Table

ResultA1C
Normalless than 5.7%
Prediabetes5.7% to 6.4%
Diabetes6.5% or higher

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells do not use insulin properly. Insulin helps cells use blood glucose for energy. Insulin resistance increases the risk of developing pre - Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Pre - Diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for diagnosis of Diabetes. Causes of insulin resistance and pre - Diabetes include genetic factors, excess weight, and lack of physical activity. Being physically active, making wise food choices, and reaching and maintaining a HEALTHY weight can help prevent or reverse insulin resistance and pre - Diabetes. Diabetes Prevention Program study confirm that people at risk for developing Type 2 Diabetes can prevent or delay the onset of Diabetes by losing 5 to 7 percent of their body weight through regular physical activity and diet low in fat and calories.


What is insulin resistance?

Scientists have identified specific genes that make people more likely to develop insulin resistance and Diabetes. Excess weight and lack of physical activity also contribute to insulin resistance. Many people with insulin resistance and high blood glucose have other conditions that increase the risk of developing type 2 Diabetes and damage to heart and blood vessels, also called cardiovascular disease. These conditions include having excess weight around the waist, high blood pressure, and abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Having several of these problems is called metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, formerly called syndrome X.


What is pre-diabetes?

Physical activity and weight loss help the body respond better to insulin. By losing weight and being more physically active, people with insulin resistance or pre - Diabetes may avoid developing type 2 Diabetes. The Diabetes Prevention Program and other large studies have shown that people with pre - Diabetes can often prevent or delay diabetes if they lose a modest amount of weight by cutting fat and calorie intake and increasing physical activity example, walking 30 minutes a day 5 days a week. Losing just 5 to 7 percent of body weight prevents or delays Diabetes by nearly 60 percent. In DPP, people aged 60 or older who make lifestyle changes lower their chances of developing Diabetes by 70 percent. Many participants in the lifestyle intervention group returned to normal blood glucose levels and lowed their risk of developing heart disease and other problems associated with diabetes. Dpp also shows that diabetes drug metformin reduces the risk of developing Diabetes by 31 percent. People with insulin resistance or pre - Diabetes can help their body use insulin normally by being physically active, making wise food choices, and reaching and maintaining a healthy weight. Physical activity helps muscle cells use blood glucose for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Table2

ResultFasting Plasma Glucose (FPG)
Normalless than 100 mg/dl
Prediabetes100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl
Diabetes126 mg/dl or higher

Table3

ResultOral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
Normalless than 140 mg/dl
Prediabetes140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl
Diabetes200 mg/dl or higher
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

When you should get tested

Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells in your body don't respond as well to hormone insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is important for transportation, use and storage of glucose, body's usual main source of energy. Insulin regulates transport of glucose into skeletal muscles, fat tissue and liver, where glucose is needed for energy production. Normally, after a meal, carbohydrates that you eat are broken down into glucose and other simple sugars that are absorbed by the intestine. This causes blood glucose levels to rise and stimulates the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. The amount of insulin released corresponds to the size and content of the meal. Insulin helps transport glucose into the body's cells, where it is used for energy. As glucose moves into cells and is break down, blood glucose level drops and the pancreas responds by decreasing release of insulin. Insulin works together with glucagon, another pancreatic hormone, to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. If your body's cells are less sensitive to insulin, then less glucose is transported from blood into cells. Blood glucose levels remain high but your cells starve. Your pancreas compensates by producing more insulin to try to move more glucose into cells. In most cases, your pancreas is able to keep pace with the need for extra insulin for many years. Most people with insulin resistance do not develop diabetes. In some cases, pancreas eventually can't keep up with demand and blood glucose continues to rise, causing type 2 diabetes. The cause of insulin resistance is not fully understood. Experts think that major contributing factors are being overweight, especially having excess belly fat, and not getting enough exercise. Conditions are also thought to be due partly to genetic factors and ethnicity. Insulin resistance is a main feature of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome is described as a set of features that link excess fat around the waist and insulin resistance to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as other problems, such as stroke. Obesity also increases the risk of various cancers. Elevate blood glucose elevates triglyceride level Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol High blood pressure note that not everyone with Metabolic Syndrome will necessarily have all four of these features. Over time and left untreated, insulin resistance can lead to other serious conditions. Harmful effects of insulin resistance result from: consequences of elevated blood insulin itself inadequate effects of insulin despite increase in blood insulin levels elevated blood insulin levels over time can have harmful effects, such as: hardening of arteries. Studies have shown a strong association between atherosclerosis and elevated insulin, but it is unclear whether elevated insulin itself causes atherosclerosis.


INSULIN RESISTANCE TESTING

Before we answer that question, it is important that you have an understanding of how insulin works. Insulin is a hormone, which is made in your pancreas. It helps you use and store glucose for fuel. Your body uses insulin to regulate the level of sugar in your blood stream. Insulin can be compared to key which, under normal circumstances, can open cells to let blood glucose enter. Insulin travels in your blood stream to cell walls, where it attaches to insulin receptors, which can be compared to keyholes on the side of cell. When you have insulin resistance, keyholes are not sensitive to insulin, message do not get into the headquarters of the cell in an efficient way. It takes more insulin to keep blood glucose in normal range. The body can over - produce insulin for many years. If you have a tendency toward Type 2 Diabetes, eventually your pancreas will not be able to keep up with your demand for these large amounts of insulin. As the ability to make insulin decreases, blood sugar levels start to rise. Once blood sugars is high enough, diabetes is diagnose. Genetics, along with sedentary lifestyle, smoking, excess weight, certain medications, and an unhealthy diet all contribute to insulin resistance. An Immediate family member with Type 2 Diabetes gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 lbs. Gain more than 10 lbs. In the past year, without change in eating or exercise, high blood pressure, high triglycerides history of hypoglycemia polycystic ovarian syndrome testing used at Express Lab is a two hour glucose tolerance test with serum insulin levels drawn at same time. In order to prepare for the test, you need to eat or drink nothing for at least 10 hours before the test. At test, you first drink a high glucose beverage. Your blood is drawn initially, then every half hour for two hours to check how your plasma glucose and insulin levels change in response to high glucose drink. Our Lab technicians use your test results to calculate insulin resistance score. The Score helps doctors see whether you have insulin resistance, and if you have it, how severe it is. It takes about two weeks to get your test results. Score less than 4. 0 indicates that you have insulin resistance. Exercise helps you use up blood sugar with less insulin. Over time, you train your cells to be more sensitive to insulin. You need to do something physically active every day, building up to 30 - 60 minute duration. A heart - healthy diet that provides smaller amounts of refined carbohydrates with more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats at each meal is very important. Eating many small meals is better than one or two larger ones. Make an appointment with a registered dietitian to get a plan that works for you. Even a small amount of weight loss makes a big difference. Eating a healthy, low calorie diet and exercising regularly can help.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Is Insulin Resistance?

You can't tell that you have insulin resistance by how you feel. You 'll need to get a blood test that checks your blood sugar levels. Likewise, you wonat know if you have most of the other conditions that are part of insulin resistance syndrome without seeing your doctor. The waistline over 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women. Blood pressure readings of 130 / 80 or higher fasting Glucose level over 100 mg / dL fasting triglyceride level over 150 mg / dL HDL cholesterol level over under 40 mg / dL in men and 50 mg / dL in women Skin tags Patches of dark, velvety skin call acanthosis nigricans

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

Same factors that increase the odds of getting type 2 diabetes also increase the risk of prediabetes. These factors include: weight. Being overweight is a primary risk factor for prediabetes. The more fatty tissue you have, especially inside and between muscle and skin around your abdomen, more resistant your cells become to insulin. Waist size. Large waist size can indicate insulin resistance. The risk of insulin resistance goes up for men with waists larger than 40 inches and for women with waists larger than 35 inches. Diet. Eating red meat and processed meat, and drinking sugar - sweetened beverages, is associated with a higher risk of prediabetes. A diet high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and olive oil is associated with a lower risk of prediabetes. Inactivity. The less active you are, greater your risk of prediabetes. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up sugar for energy and makes the body use insulin more effectively. Age. Although diabetes can develop at any age, risk of prediabetes increases after age 45. Family history. Your risk of prediabetes increases if you have a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes. Race or ethnicity. Although it's unclear why, certain people, including Black, Hispanic, American Indian and Asian American people, are more likely to develop prediabetes. Gestational diabetes. If you have diabetes while pregnant, you and your child are at higher risk of developing prediabetes. If you 've had gestational diabetes, your doctor will likely check your blood sugar levels at least once every three years. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Women with this common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity have a higher risk of prediabetes. Sleep. People with obstructive sleep apnea, condition that disrupts sleep repeatedly, have increased risk of insulin resistance. Tobacco smoke. Smoking may increase insulin resistance. Smokers also seem to carry more weight around middle. High blood pressure, low levels of High - density lipoprotein cholesterol, good cholesterol, high levels of triglyceride type of fat in your blood. When these conditions occur with obesity, they are associated with insulin resistance. The combination of three or more of these conditions is often called metabolic syndrome.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prevention

Cardiometabolic Epidemic Prevalence of Diabetes has reached Epidemic proportions, affecting over 25 million people in the United States alone. In 2010 8. 3% of adult Americans had diagnosed with Diabetes, 3. 5% had undiagnosed Diabetes, and 38. 2% had prediabetes. 1 Whats more, situation appears to be getting worsewith annual rate of new cases more than tripling over the past 20 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that AS many AS 1 in 3 individuals will develop Diabetes by 2050 if current trends continue. 2 dramatic increase in Diabetes Prevalence over time has parallelled an increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity. 1 on basis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 - 2006 data, about one - third of men and women have metabolic syndrome, cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors related to overweight / Obesity and Insulin Resistance. 1 Heart Disease and stroke are serious Complications of Diabetes. Although death rates for heart attack and stroke have been decreasing, adults with Diabetes are still twice AS likely to die from these diseases AS people who do not have Diabetes. 2 3 Vascular Complications are responsible for the bulk of costs, and are the main cause of suffering and death, for patients with Diabetes. Key studies such AS Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study have established beyond question that better blood glucose control can dramatically reduce these complications in diabetic patients. 4 5 However, chronic Vascular Disease and inflammation that lead to such devastating complications begin years before the hyperglycemic threshold necessary for Diabetes to be diagnose. Here, root of damage lies in Insulin Resistance often result of obesity and inactivitycharacterized by impaired tissue responsiveness to metabolic effects of Insulin in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Insulin Resistance can, for a while, be tolerated by increased production of Insulin from the pancreas, while putting pancreatic beta cells under considerable strain in the process. Insulin Resistance alone, aside from predisposing to Diabetes, is associated with early cardiovascular mortality, renal dysfunction, deterioration of retina, and neuropathy. 6 in fact, importance of Obesity AS risk factor for Heart Disease is related to its promotion of Insulin - resistant state. Furthermore, people with MetS have a 2 - fold increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes and 1. 5 - fold increase in risk of death. 7 prediabetes affects more than 87 million US adults aged 20 years or over, with a lifetime risk for conversion to Diabetes of 30% to 50%. 1 8 by time prediabetes has develop, untreated patients are AT very high risk of developing full - blown Diabetes, with an even higher risk of cardiovascular events, complications, and death. Lastly, 20% to 30% of adults in the general population in Western countries have non - alcoholic fatty liver Disease, condition associated with Insulin Resistance that confers increased risk for fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver, liver cancer, and heart Disease, with a prevalence of AS high AS 70% to 90% of people who are obese or who have Diabetes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas within a few minutes after we eat. Normally, this hormone helps our bodies store glucose, sugar that is used for energy. Insulin works by activating protein, GLUT4, to bind to glucose, which allows sugar to enter into the liver, muscle, and fat cells. If you have insulin resistance, your pancreas will release enough insulin, but your body will not adequately respond to the hormone.S As a result, you may have less energy and your blood glucose levels may increase. Often, with insulin resistance, pancreas begins to release higher amounts of insulin to stabilize blood glucose. Over time, this results in hyperinsulinemia, which is too much insulin in the blood. Hyperinsulinemia does not effectively lower glucose; instead, it makes it more difficult for the body to use stored energy.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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