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Kidney tumour

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Kidney tumour

Other namesKidney tumors, renal tumours
SpecialtyOncology , nephrology

You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. Tubes inside filter and clean your blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney Cancer forms in lining of tiny tubes inside your kidneys. Kidney Cancer becomes more likely as you age. Risk Factors include smoking, having certain genetic conditions, and misusing Pain medicines for long time. You may have no symptoms at first. They may appear as cancer grows. See your health care provider if you notice blood in your urine lump in your abdomen Weight Loss for no reason Pain in your side that does not go away Loss of appetite tests to diagnose Kidney Cancer include blood, urine, and imaging tests. You may also have a biopsy. Treatment depends on your age, your overall health and how advanced the cancer is. It might include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, biologic, or targeted therapies. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. Target therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosis

About 2 out of 5 people with kidney Cancer, where cancer has invaded kidneys' collecting system, have blood in their urine. But there are many conditions that may cause blood in urine. Check with your healthcare provider. Blood in urine can be found by doing a test called urinalysis. For this test, small sample of your urine is tested in the lab to see if it has blood. Your provider may do a special kind of urine test. It checks for cancer cells in urine. A CT scan uses a series of X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the inside of the body. This test can confirm diagnosis of kidney Cancer. During the test, you lie still on the table as it slides into CT scanner. CT scan is painless. You may be asked to hold your breath 1 or more times during the scan. In some cases, you will be asked to drink contrast dye 4 to 6 hours before the scan. Then you may be asked not to eat anything until the second set of pictures is take. Dye lets your healthcare provider see certain parts of your body more clearly. Dye will pass through your body and exit through your bowel movements. Dye may be given by injection into the vein as well. When dye is inject, you may have a warm feeling from your chest to your groin. Tell your healthcare provider if you have ever had reaction to contrast dye. This includes hives, trouble breathing, or becoming suddenly hot. Special medicines can be given before test to help prevent these kinds of reactions. MRI uses radio waves, large magnets, and computers to create detailed images of the body. An MRI can show if cancer has spread to your spine or brain. During the test, you lie still on the table as it passes into the scanner tube. If you ca handle small enclosed spaces, you may be given sedative before having this test. The scanner takes 2 to 15 minutes to make an image. You may need more than 1 set of images. The test may last an hour or more. The MRI test is painless. But it is noisy. You can bring earphones and MP3 device, or ask for earplugs. Ultrasound tests use sound waves to create images on a computer screen. Gel is put on the skin of your lower back. A Technicians then use a handheld wand to press on skin above your kidneys. This test can help show if a kidney tumor is a fluid-fill sac or a solid tumor. A Solid tumor is more likely to be Cancer. This test used special dye and X-rays to look at kidneys, ureters, and bladder. During this test, your healthcare provider injects dye into 1 of your veins. X-rays are taken as dye passes through your urinary tract.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Epidemiology

Table

RankCountryAge-standardised rate per 100,000
1Belarus16.8
2Latvia15.2
3Lithuania14.8
4Czech Republic14.7
5Estonia14.6
6Slovakia13.4
7France (metropolitan)12.5
8Hungary12.4
9Iceland11.9
10Croatia11.7
11Uruguay11.4
12Ireland11.3
13US10.9
14Slovenia10.5
15=Canada10.2
15=Norway10.2
15=UK10.2
18Russia10.0
19Australia9.8
20=Belgium9.4
20=Singapore9.4

How common is Kidney Cancer? American Cancer Societys most recent estimates for Kidney Cancer in the United States for 2020 are: About 73 750 New Cases of Kidney Cancer will be diagnose. About 14 830 people will die from this disease. These numbers include all types of Kidney and renal pelvis cancers. Most people with Kidney Cancer are older. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 64, with most people being diagnosed between the ages of 65 and 74. Kidney Cancer is very uncommon in people younger than age 45. Kidney Cancer is about twice as common in men than in women and it is more common in African Americans and American Indian / Alaska Natives. Life Risk of Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women. Overall, lifetime Risk For Developing Kidney Cancer in men is about 1 in 46. The life risk for women is about 1 in 82. A number of factors also affect people's risk. New Cases and death Rates For reasons that are not totally clear, rate of New Kidney cancers has been rising since the 1990s, although this seems to have levelled off in the past few years. Part of this rise was probably due to the use of newer imaging tests such as CT scans, which pick up some cancers that might never have been found otherwise. Death rates for these cancers have remained stable for many years. Survival Rates for people diagnosed with Kidney Cancer are discussed in Survival Rates For Kidney Cancer. Visit American Cancer Societys Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2020. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2020. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2016, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https: / SEER. Cancer. Gov / csr / 1975_2016 /, based on November 2018 SEER Data submission, posted to SEER web Site, April 2019. Life Risk of Being diagnosed with Cancer by Site and Race / Ethnicity: males, 21 SEER Areas, 2014-2016 https: / SEER. Cancer. Gov / csr / 1975_2016 / results_merged / topic_lifetime_risk. Pdf. Access January 24 2020. Females, 21 SEER Areas, 2014-2016 https: / SEER. Cancer. Gov / csr / 1975_2016 / results_merged / topic_lifetime_risk. Pdf access January 24 2020.


How common is kidney cancer?

About 73 750 new cases of kidney cancer will be diagnose. About 14 830 people will die from this disease. These numbers include all types of kidney and renal pelvis cancers. Most people with kidney cancer are older. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 64, with most people being diagnosed between the ages of 65 and 74. Kidney cancer is very uncommon in people younger than age 45. Kidney cancer is about twice as common in men than in women and it is more common in African Americans and American Indian / Alaska Natives.


What Is the Renal Pelvis?

Smoking is the most important risk factor for kidney and renal pelvis cancers. Other risk factors include having high blood pressure. It is not know whether the increased risk is due to high blood pressure itself or medicines used to treat it. Being overweight or having obesity. Taking certain pain medicines for a long time. Having certain genetic conditions. Having long-lasting infection with Hepatitis C. Having kidney stones. Having sickle cell trait, which is asociated with a very rare form of kidney cancer. Being exposed to a chemical called trichloroethylene, which is used to remove grease from metal.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Table2

RankCountryAge-standardised rate per 100,000
1Belarus24.0
2Estonia21.3
3=Czech Republic20.7
3=Latvia20.7
5Lithuania20.2
6Slovakia18.3
7France (metropolitan)17.5
8Croatia17.0
9=Hungary16.6
9=Singapore16.6
11Slovenia15.9
12Ireland15.8
13Norway15.7
14Uruguay15.6
15Iceland14.9
16US14.4
17Greece14.1
18Russia13.6
19Canada13.5
20=Spain13.2
20=UK13.2

Table3

RankCountryAge-standardised rate per 100,000
1Belarus11.6
2Latvia11.2
3Lithuania11.0
4Estonia9.7
5Czech Republic9.5
6Slovakia9.3
7Iceland8.9
8Hungary8.8
9Uruguay8.0
10France (metropolitan)7.9
11US7.8
12=Russia7.4
12=UK7.4
14=Canada7.2
14=Croatia7.2
14=Malta7.2
14=Samoa7.2
18Ireland7.1
19Australia6.9
20=Belgium6.8
20=Ukraine6.8
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Kidney cancer is cancer that begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine. In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Other less common types of kidney cancer can occur. Young children are more likely to develop the kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One reason for this may be the fact that imaging techniques such as computerized tomography scans are being used more often. These tests may lead to accidental discovery of more kidney cancers. Kidney cancer is often discovered at an early stage, when cancer is small and confined to the kidney.


Kidney (Renal) Cancer: Introduction

Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine, protected by the lower ribcage. Although the body has two kidneys, only part of one kidney is necessary to function. The main job of kidneys is to filter blood and remove excess water, salt and other substances from the body. Most of these fluids run though tubes call Renal tubules, which filter fluids in kidney before waste is discharged into the bladder. Most Kidney tumors form when cells that line these tubules, Renal cells, mutate and grow out of control. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Obesity, Smoking, Kidney Dialysis, High Blood pressure, family history of Kidney cancer or Kidney disease

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms

Back pain is common in people over 40 years old. This is usually due to musculoskeletal injury or disk degeneration. Back pain is also a less common symptom of Kidney Cancer. About 41 percent of people with RCC report back pain. But most people do experience back pain until cancer is in later stages. Pain can range from dull ache to sharp stab on one side of your flank or below the ribs on your back. Your flank is the area between your lower back and the bottom of backside of your ribs. It may also feel like side pain to some people. The type of pain associated with RCC can vary. Some people report pressure instead of ache or sharp pain. See a doctor if you have any sudden pain that is persistent and lasts more than a few days. Mention any other symptoms during your visit to help your doctor determine the likely cause.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of getting disease such AS Cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be change. Others, like your age or family history, ca change. But having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get disease. And some people who get disease may have few or no known risk factors. Even if a person with Kidney Cancer has a risk factor, it is often very hard to know how much that risk factor contributes to cancer. Scientists have found several risk factors that could make you more likely to develop Kidney Cancer. Smoking Smoking increases the risk of developing renal Cell carcinoma. The increase risk seems to be related to how much you smoke. Risk drops if you stop smoking, but it takes many years to get to the risk level of someone who never smoke. Obesity People who are very overweight have a higher risk of developing RCC. Obesity may cause changes in certain hormones that can lead to RCC. High blood pressure risk of Kidney Cancer is higher in people with high blood pressure. This risk does not seem to be lower even if someone is taking medicine to treat high blood pressure. Family history of Kidney Cancer People with strong family history of renal Cell Cancer have a higher chance of developing this cancer. This risk is highest for people who have a brother or sister with cancer. It is not clear whether this is due to share genes, something that both people are exposed to in the environment, or both. Workplace exposures Many studies have suggested that workplace exposure to certain substances, such AS trichloroethylene, increases the risk for RCC. Gender RCC is about twice as common in men as AS in women. Men are more likely to be smokers and are more likely to be exposed to cancer-causing chemicals at work, which may account for some of the difference. Race African Americans have a slightly higher rate of RCC than do whites. The reasons for this are not clear. Certain medicines Acetaminophen: Some studies have suggested that Acetaminophen, common pain medicine, may be linked to an increase in risk of RCC. Advanced Kidney disease People with Advanced Kidney disease, especially those needing dialysis, have a higher risk of RCC. Genetic and hereditary risk factors Some people inherit genes that can increase their chances of developing certain types of Cancer. DNA in each of your cells that you get from your parents may have changes that give you this risk. Some rare inherited conditions can cause Kidney Cancer. It is important that people who have hereditary causes of RCC see their doctors often, especially if they have already been diagnosed with RCC. Some doctors recommend regular imaging tests to look for new kidney tumors in these people.


What causes kidney cancer?

The outlook for people with kidney Cancer varies. It depends on how quickly cancer is caught and how it responds to treatment. Approximately 65 percent of kidney and renal pelvis cancers are diagnosed before they have spread. Cancer can spread, or metastasize, to other kidney, but it is most likely to spread to the lungs. Metastatic Cancer is harder to treat. Survival rates for kidney cancer are higher when the condition is treated in its earlier stages. For example, American Cancer Society reports that observe five-year survival rate for stage 1 kidney Cancer is 81 percent. Keep in mind that observe survival rates are estimates.


General

High blood pressure: People with high blood pressure are more likely to develop kidney cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

Factors that can increase the risk of kidney Cancer include: older age. Your risk of kidney Cancer increases as you age. Smoking. Smokers have a greater risk of kidney cancer than nonsmokers do. Risk decreases after you quit. Obesity. People who are obese have a higher risk of kidney Cancer than people who are considered to have healthy weight. High blood pressure. High blood pressure increases your risk of kidney Cancer. Treatment for kidney failure. People who receive long-term dialysis to treat chronic kidney failure have greater risk of developing kidney Cancer. Certain inherited syndromes. People who are born with certain inherited syndromes may have an increased risk of kidney Cancer, such as those who have von Hippel-Lindau disease, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma or familial renal Cancer. Family history of kidney Cancer. The risk of kidney cancer is higher if close family members have had the disease.


What causes kidney cancer?

It is not completely clear what causes kidney cells to change and become cancerous, but certain risk factors are linked to disease. A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of getting disease. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors can be change; but others cannot be change. Having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean you will get cancer, but it may increase your risk. A person may be able to lower their risk of kidney cancer by avoiding those risk factors that can be control. For example, stopping smoking may lower risk, and controlling body weight and high blood pressure may help as well. Avoiding contact with harmful chemicals is also important.


General

High blood pressure: People with high blood pressure are more likely to develop kidney cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prevention

In many cases, cause of kidney cancer is not know. In some other cases, even when the cause is known, it may not be preventable. But there are some ways you may be able to reduce your risk of this disease. Cigarette smoking is responsible for a large percentage of cases, so stopping smoking may lower your risk. Obesity and high blood pressure are also risk factors for renal cell cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight by exercising and choosing a diet high in fruits and vegetables may also reduce your chance of getting this disease. Avoiding exposure to harmful substances such as trichloroethylene at work, may also reduce your risk for renal cell cancer. Cigarette smoking is responsible for a large percentage of cases, so stopping smoking may lower your risk. Obesity and high blood pressure are also risk factors for renal cell cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight by exercising and choosing a diet high in fruits and vegetables may also reduce your chance of getting this disease. Avoiding exposure to harmful substances such as trichloroethylene at work, may also reduce your risk for renal cell cancer.


General

High blood pressure: People with high blood pressure are more likely to develop kidney cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Is Kidney Cancer?

Kidney Cancer-also called renal Cancer-is disease in which kidney cells become malignant and grow out of control, forming tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear on lining of tiny tubes in the kidney. This type of Kidney Cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. The good news is that most kidney cancers are found before they spread to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detect. Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They lie in your lower abdomen on each side of your spine. Their main job is to clean your blood, removing waste products and making urine. Doctors don't know the causes of Kidney Cancer. But certain factors appear to increase the risk of getting Kidney Cancer. For example, Kidney Cancer occurs most often in people older than age 40. There are some other risk factors for Kidney Cancer: smoking. If you smoke cigarettes, your risk for Kidney Cancer is twice that of nonsmokers. Smoking cigars may also increase your risk. Being male. Men are about twice as likely as women to get Kidney Cancer. Being obese. Extra weight may cause changes to hormones that increase your risk. Using certain pain medications for a long time. This includes over-counter drugs in addition to prescription drugs. Having advanced Kidney disease or being on long-term dialysis, treatment for people with kidneys that have stopped working. Having certain genetic conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau disease or inheriting papillary renal cell carcinoma Having family history of Kidney Cancer. Risk is especially high in siblings. Being exposed to certain chemicals, such as asbestos, cadmium, benzene, organic solvents, or certain herbicides, having high blood pressure. Doctors don't know whether high blood pressure or medication used to treat it is the source of increased risk. Being black. The risk in blacks is slightly higher than in whites. No one knows why. Having lymphoma. For unknown reason, there is an increased risk of Kidney Cancer in patients with lymphoma. Having these risk factors does not mean you will get Kidney Cancer. And it's also true that you can have none of them and still get disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Continued

Following surgery for RCC, our patients often question how they are going to cope with one kidney. They worry about possible recurrence in other Kidney, how often they need to be assessed and for how long. It is generally agreed that these patients should be followed in the postoperative period not just because of possible recurrent or Metastatic disease, but for other reasons, such as renal function and blood pressure. Pre-existing or concomitant parenchymal Kidney disease requires stricter follow-up. Partial nephrectomy in the solitary Kidney raises risk for potential progressive renal impairment due to glomerular sclerosis as result of hyperfiltration in reduced renal mass. 1 patient from case 1 is currently under this type of surveillance. Several authors have emphasized the need to individualize surveillance based on tumour stage, grade, tumour volume and type of surgery, whether Partial or total nephrectomy. 1-5 Ljungberg and colleagues state that tumour stage is the best predictor of prognosis; these authors use it with tumour grade and DNA ploidy to propose individualized cost-conscious follow-up protocol. 3 time to disease Recurrence or progression is important in planning surveillance. In literature, most tumour recurrences occur within 5 years. 1-5 Some authors advocate follow-up for the first 5 years, others for 10 years. Give various case reports of Recurrence 10 years or longer after initial nephrectomy 8-11 and our 3 cases, it would appear that follow-up for life is reasonable. However, this surveillance pattern should be individualized and cost-conscious. As several authors have pointed out, RCC has notoriety of spreading to unusual sites. 1-4 8 10-12 However, common sites, such as lungs, liver, brain and bone, can be monitored easily and there are reports of successful resection of isolated metastases from these organs. Contralateral Kidney involvement with tumour, as in patient in case 1, has been reported to occur in 0. 4 % to 12. 9 %. 13 Positive surgical margins and multifocality were good predictors in clear cell RCC and nuclear grade For recurrent papillary RCC. 13 patients in case 1 had 5-cm tumour, of the cystic clear cell variety, with margins negative and no multifocality relapse in solitary leave Kidney 13 years after initial right nephrectomy. She is currently disease-free 4 years after Partial nephrectomy. The rarity of this case is support in literature. 1 8 13 This case underscores the need for judicious follow-up of the abdomen. We have found ultrasound easily accessible and relatively non-invasive in early detection even in remote area hospitals. When detected early, small tumours are better defined with CT scan and are amendable to Partial nephrectomy. Preservation of renal function and elimination of Cancer are achievable. Compute tomography scans are the preferred diagnostic imaging modality for patients with retroperitoneal relapse, tumours larger than 10 cm, involvement of perinephric fat, renal vein and regional lymph nodes. 1-4 patients in case 3, followed with yearly chest X-rays, were found to have pulmonary Metastasis 11 years post-nephrectomy.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Where can I find support?

Traditional chemotherapy is not used to treat Kidney Cancer. These cancers respond better to other types of anti-Cancer drugs, like target therapies and immunotherapies. Target therapy or immunotherapy is sometimes used before surgery to shrink large tumor. It may also be used after surgery in patients who are at high risk for recurrence. You can learn more about target therapy and immunotherapy in the next section below, called Systemic Treatment: Stage IV or Metastatic Kidney Cancer. Risk assessment tool can help you and your doctor assess how likely you are to have recurrence within five years of surgery and the benefits and risks of additional treatment.


What is Kidney Cancer?

Some people learn they have kidney cancer after seeing a doctor because they have had health concerns such as: blood in urine pain or pressure in side or back swelling in ankles and legs, high blood pressure, low red blood cell count, high red blood cell count feeling very tired loss of appetite unexplained weight loss recurring fever rapid enlargement in veins around testicle if you have these symptoms, it do not mean you have kidney cancer. They are more commonly seen in people who have other health problems. But, your doctor may recommend additional tests.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Surgery

If surgery leaves you with only one kidney, you should avoid a few things. For example, avoid major contact sports, or NSAIDs. In rare cases, these drugs can cause kidney damage. Depending on how well your kidney functions, you may need to avoid dyes used in some imaging tests. You may also want to limit salt and protein in your diet. Your urologist may recommend you see a nephrologist to monitor your kidney function after surgery. Treating problems like high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and obesity, can help prevent future kidney damage.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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