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Labeled Brain Diagram

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

One particularly fascinating area in the frontal lobe is called the primary motor cortex. This strip running along side the brain is in charge of voluntary movements like waving goodbye, wiggling your eyebrows, and kissing. It is an excellent example of the way that various regions of the brain are highly specialized. Interestingly, each of our various body parts has a unique portion of primary motor cortex devoted to it. Each individual finger has about as much dedicated brain space as your entire leg. Your lips, in turn, require about as much dedicated brain processing as all of your fingers and your hand combine! Because the cerebral cortex in general, and frontal lobe in particular, are associated with such sophisticated functions as planning and being self - aware, they are often thought of as a higher, less primal portion of the brain. Indeed, other animals such as rats and kangaroos, while do have frontal regions of their brain, do not have the same level of development in cerebral cortices. Closer animals to humans on evolutionary treethink chimpanzees and gorillas, more developed this portion of their brain. The brain's parietal lobe is located immediately behind the frontal lobe, and is involved in processing information from body senses. It contains a somatosensory cortex, which is essential for processing sensory information from across the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain. The Somatosensory cortex is organized topographically, which means that spatial relationships that exist in the body are maintained on the surface of the somatosensory cortex. For example, portion of the cortex that processes sensory information from the hand is adjacent to the portion that processes information from the wrist. The temporal lobe is located on the side of the head, and is associated with hearing, memory, emotion, and some aspects of language. The auditory cortex, main area responsible for processing auditory information, is located within the temporal lobe. The Wernickes area, important for speech comprehension, is also located here. Whereas individuals with damage to Brocas area have difficulty producing language, those with damage to Wernickes area can produce sensible language, but they are unable to understand it. The occipital lobe is located at the very back of the brain, and contains the primary visual cortex, which is responsible for interpreting incoming visual information. The occipital cortex is organized retinotopically, which means there is a close relationship between the position of an object in person's visual field and the position of that object's representation in the cortex. You will learn much more about how visual information is processed in occipital lobe when you study sensation and perception.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Materials and Methods

Neuronal circuits are the basis for brain function. Therefore, reconstruction of neuronal wiring diagrams is key to understanding circuit function. Fluorescence Imaging is a powerful approach to visualizing three - dimensional structure of neuronal morphology. In particular, fluorescent proteins are useful for labeling genetically - defined neuronal populations. In recent years, number of tissue - clearing methods have been develop, and these have been optimized for use with fluorescent proteins and deep - tissue antibody staining. These new tools have expanded the scale of available technologies for fluorescence Imaging to whole - organ and whole - organism levels. It is still difficult, however, to dissect and trace individual neurons from Brain Sample label with a single type of fluorescent protein. One way to overcome this problem is to improve spatial resolution. Recently, we developed a tissue - clearing agent for high - resolution three - dimensional fluorescence Imaging, named SeeDB2. Seedb2 was designed to minimize spherical aberrations, allowing for high - resolution imaging including super - resolution microscopy. In this approach, there was much improvement in z - resolution, critical factor for dissection of neuronal fibers crossing over along z - axis. Similarly, expansion microscopy is also a promising new approach Use to improve resolution in three - dimensional fluorescence Imaging. Another approach to dissection of neuronal circuits is multicolor labeling. To facilitate dissection of individual neurons, transgenic multicolor labeling method, Brainbow, has been develop, in which three different fluorescent proteins are expressed in a stochastic manner. Brainbow uses the Cre - loxP System to express one of three fluorescent protein genes stochastically in transgene. When multiple copies of transgene cassette are introduce, stochastic choices will result in combinatorial expression of these three genes with different copy numbers, producing dozens of color hues. Although the Brainbow concept is powerful for discriminating between numerous neurons using light microscopy, existing Brainbow methods are of limited use for neuronal tracing. This is because stochastic and combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins is possible only at low copy number range for transgenes, so that expression levels of fluorescent proteins were not sufficiently high for bright and high - resolution imaging of axons and dendrites. Therefore, many previous studies were forced to use subsequent antibody staining to produce reliable neuronal tracing. In the present study, we utilize the Tet - Off System to develop a multicolor labeling method with enhanced expression. As vector - mediate gene transfer has become a versatile tool in modern neuroscience, we aim to perform multicolor labeling using these tools. As proof - of - concept experiment, we demonstrated the ability to trace axons of individual neurons on a scale of several millimeters in the mouse olfactory System. To improve the stability of fluorescence labels after harsh tissue - clearing treatment, we also developed the Tetbow System with chemical tags. When combined with advances in the growing field of tissue - clearing techniques, these new multicolor labeling strategies should facilitate neuronal tracing at higher densities and resolutions.


Figure 1figure supplement 1.

In utero electroporation was used to label M / T cells at E12 and mice were analyzed at P8. Whole brains were cleared with SeeDB2G and imaged with confocal microscopy. Low and high magnification images in axons of M / T cells are show. High magnification images show axon collaterals in the piriform cortex. Tetbow constructs were introduce. Maximal intensity projection images of confocal images are show. Cag - iCre, EF1a - BbTagBY, and EF1a - BbChT were introduce. In utero electroporation was performed at E15 and mice were analyzed at P21. Experiments were performed in parallel, and image acquisition conditions were the same in and. Note, however, that Brainbow constructs use EF1a promoter and membrane - bound XFPs, whereas Tetbow uses TRE promoter and cytosolic XFPs. We also tested CAG - Brainbow3. 0 in the cerebral cortex, but labeling signals were much lower than Tetbow. The scale bars are 1 mm and 20 M. Three samples were image in the same condition. A representative sample is shown for. The brightest sample is shown in, as we could not find clear signals at axons in two remaining samples after clearing. Ob, olfactory bulb; OT, olfactory tubercle, PC, piriform cortex.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Andrew Worth and Greg Millington of Neuromorphometrics, Inc., For their dedication to meticulous, consistent, and accurate manual labeling of brain image data. We are extremely grateful to Michael Milham, Bennett Landman, and Satrajit Ghosh for making multi - modal scan available for this Project and for their shared interest in open data and open science. Arno Klein would also like to thank Deepanjana and Ellora for their continued support. This work was funded by NIMH R01 Grant MH084029. The OASIS Project was funded by Grants P50 AG05681, P01 AG03991, R01 AG021910, P50 MH071616, U24 RR021382, and R01 MH56584. The Mmrr Project was funded by NIH Grants NCRR P41RR015241 1R01NS056307 1R21NS064534 - 01A109, and 1R03EB012461 - 01. The Nki Project was funded primarily by R01 MH094639. The HLN Project was funded by NIH Grant EB000461.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Label Editing Procedure

Regions in DKT cortical labeling protocol. Cortical regions of interest included in DKT protocol are displayed on the left hemisphere of FreeSurfer fsaverage average Brain template. Top: regions overlaid on lateral and medial views of inflated cortical surface. Unlabeled area at Center of medial view corresponds to non - cortical areas along the midline of prosencephalon. Bottom: regions overlaid on lateral, medial, dorsal, and ventral views of pial surfaces. Surface was automatically labelled with DKT40 classifier atlas then manually edited as needed. Fsaverage data is included in FreeSurfer distribution in $FREESURFER_HOME / subjects / fsaverage and the DKT - label version is available at http: / Mindboggle. Info / data. Sulci in DKT protocol. Sulci that form region boundaries are drawn and labelled on inflated fsaverage leave hemisphere lateral, medial, and ventral cortical surface. The Map of surface curvature is indicated by red - green colormap. Convex curvature corresponding to gyral crowns are shown in green; concave curvature corresponding to sulcal fundi are shown in red. The Mask area at the Center of medial view corresponds to non - cortical areas along the midline of prosencephalon. *, *, And * indicate approximate locations of transverse occipital sulcus, temporal incisure, and primary intermediate sulcus, respectively. These landmarks are not clearly distinguishable on fsaverage inflated surface. Label editing example. Typical manual editing is demonstrate. In upper left, pial surface of the right hemisphere is shown with labels generated from the DKT40 classifier atlas. Yellow arrowheads indicate double parallel cingulate sulcus. Atlas failed to extend rostral and caudal anterior cingulate regions dorso - rostrally to this sulcus, common error when parallel cingulate sulcus is present. To correct error,s rater switches to inflated surface view, and displays only region outlines, which make cortical curvature Map viewable. Rater then uses curvature information to draw line connecting vertices along fundus of parallel cingulate sulcus. Additional lines are drawn to subdivide cingulate gyrus and new regions are filled and labelled appropriately. The Yellow highlighted outline on the lower right panel indicates last selected region and the light blue cursor mark within that region indicates last selected surface vertex. Comparison of DK and DKT40 classifier Atlases. Comparison of Automatic labeling of FreeSurfer fsaverage cortical surface by DK and DKT40 Atlases. Lateral, medial, ventral, and dorsal views of the left hemisphere surface are show. Regions in color overlaid atop red - green surface 2 indicate areas that were labelled differently by classifiers; where there are mismatches, DKT40 labels are shown with the same colors as in Figure Figure1. 1. Areas denoted by letters mark approximate location of regions in DK protocol that were removed in DKT protocol, including banks of superior temporal sulcus b, frontal pole f, and temporal pole T. Additional, relatively large mismatch areas are denoted by numbers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Cerebrum

White matter is composed of myelinated axons and glia and connects distinct areas of the cortex. White matter is one of two components of the central nervous system. It consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons and forms the bulk of deep parts of the cerebrum and superficial parts of the spinal cord. In freshly cut brain, tissue of white matter appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue containing capillaries. Axons of white matter transmit signals from various grey matter areas of the cerebrum to each other and carry nerve impulses between neurons. While grey matter is primarily associated with processing and cognition, white matter modulates distribution of action potential acting as relay and coordinating communication between different brain regions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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