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Leuresthes tenuis

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Last Updated: 24 November 2020

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Leuresthes tenuis

Scientific classification
Class:Actinopterygii
Family:Atherinopsidae
Genus:Leuresthes
Kingdom:Animalia
Order:Atheriniformes
Phylum:Chordata
Species:L. tenuis
Synonyms
Atherinopsis tenuis Ayres, 1860, Leuresthes crameri Jordan & Evermann, 1896

Classification / Names Common Names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa Actinopterygii > Atheriniformes > atherinopsidae > atherinopsinae Etymology: Leuresthes: Greek, leyros,-on = smooth + Greek, esthes = suit, something used to wrap. More on author: Ayres. Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay, USA to Baja California Sur, Mexico. Length at first Maturity / Size / Weight / Age Maturity: L M 11. 9 range?- Cm Max Length: 19. 0 cm TL male / unsexed; Max. Report Age: 8 years short description Morphology | Morphometrics Dorsal spines: 4-8; Dorsal soft rays: 8-10; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 20-24; Vertebrae: 47-50. Branchiostegal rays: 6. Biology Glossary adults inhabit inshore waters, usually at or near surface along open coast and in bays. Oviparous, with planktonic primarily neustonic Larvae. Eggs are deposited on sand at night by female parents just below the high spring tide line. Minimum depth report taken from Ref. 57178. Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae Demersal spawners. They spawn at night on sand beaches at high tides in spring and summer. Eggs are buried in moist sand by female parents and hatched about 15 days later during the next series of high tides. Females spawn 4 to 8 times during the season. Main reference Upload your References | References | Coordinator | Collaborators Eschmeyer, WN, ES Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. Field guide to the Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Xii + 336 P. IUCN Red List Status not evaluate cite not evaluate CMS not evaluate Threat to humans Harmless more information Countries FAO areas Ecosystems Occurrences Introductions Stocks Ecology Diet Food items Food consumption Ration Common Names Synonyms Metabolism Predators Ecotoxicology Reproduction Maturity Spawning Spawning aggregation Fecundity Eggs Egg Development Age / Size Growth Length-Weight Length-Length Length-frequencies Morphometrics Morphology Larvae Larval dynamics Recruitment Abundance References Aquaculture Aquaculture profile strain Genetics Allele frequencies Heritability Diseases Processing Mass conversion Collaborators picture Stamps, Coins Misc. Sounds like Ciguatera Speed Swim. Type Gill area Otoliths brain Vision

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Breeding

In Categories, Current Issue, Fall 2010, Life & Physical Sciences November 22 2011 California Grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, may have the most curious reproductive strategy of any fish. California Grunion stands apart from its relatives because it mat completely out of water, leaving fertilized eggs buried in sand to incubate until the next season tide. 1 To understand the evolution of this unique behavior, one must consider the advantages of terrestrial spawning over aquatic-base reproduction cycles. California Grunion have adapted to use terrestrial environment to their reproductive advantage-question is: why? Grunion reproduction occurs in large nocturnal spawning runs, where thousands of Grunion ride tidal waves to shore to mate upon sand. 2 Local citizen scientists know As Grunion Greeters have record that Grunion runs may occur on any night of high-tide lunar season in any patch of smooth sand. Between February and March, spawning occurs in coordination with lunar tides, which enable Grunion to coast to shore and mate. 1 When on shore, female Grunion burrows tail-first about five centimeters into the soft sand. Male Grunion then wrap around the head of the female, depositing milt on her eggs. Once the reproductive process is complete, both male and female Grunions return to the ocean. Turbulence generated by waves then covers fertilized eggs, placing them under about fifteen centimeters of sand over the next couple of days. 2 As adult grunions return to the ocean, fertilized embryos remain buried under moist sand. Maturing underneath sand, embryos rely on lunar tides to carry them out to sea as soon as ten days 1st in 1999, Karen Martin and her research team discovered that California Grunion is able to prolong incubation for at least thirty-five days, hatching when exposed to motor agitation and liquid. 3 After hatching, Grunion larvae stay relatively close to the shoreline for approximately forty days, feeding off of plankton until reaching juvenile status. 1 it is rare for Grunion to die out of water unless stranded by obstruction or strong wave. 1 Grunion may, at most, survive approximately one hour above water-most fish succumb within thirty minutes. 4 If place under force terrestrial exercise, Grunion demonstrates high blood lactate level, suggesting use of Anaerobic metabolism. 4 Anaerobic metabolism is the ability of an organism to create energy without use of oxygen. When under low-oxygen conditions, organism will generate high amounts of lactate as a by-product of producing energy. Karen Martin and colleagues also tested the possibility of Anaerobic metabolism by catching male and female grunions after mating, freezing them on-site in liquid nitrogen to analyze blood lactate levels in the lab. No significant difference was find, indicating that Grunion does not breathe air. 4 grunions live an amphibian-like lifestyle. California Grunion has evolved to fit an interesting niche: it lives an amphibian-like lifestyle, emerging from the ocean to improve chances for its offspring survival. In aquatic environments, eggs exist largely at mercy of elements.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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