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Ceramics show here derive from southern Levant, region that today includes Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. Levantine vessels like these helped Sir Flinders Petrie invent the seriation dating technique, which places pottery into chronological sequence based on changes in shape and decoration, and which is now used by archaeologists worldwide. As Petrie and his followers identify, many of the vessels in this display are highly diagnostic of their time periods. Vessels display at the museum span nearly four thousand years, with earliestsuch as tall cornet dating from the Chalcolithic Period, ca. 4500-3300 BCE. The Early Bronze Age was characterized by the dawn of urbanism in Levant and close economic interaction with Egypt ceramics; this is attest by small Abydos Ware juglet. The Middle and Late Bronze Ages saw the first widespread use of the potters wheel, allowing potters to make innovative shapes with carinations, or sharp changes of direction in vessel profile. Typical examples from these periods include Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware jug and oil lamp, respectively. The Iron Age, which ended in the middle of the first millennium BCE, is represented by tiny juglet; such vessels were in use during the time of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, known from the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament. Although their original findspots are unknown, it is very likely that most, if not all, of the vessels display at the museum come from funerary contexts. This is because ceramics from tombs and burials are generally found intact, or nearly so, quite unlike broken pottery sherds typically found in excavations. Whether or not vessels would have been used before placement for burial is unclear, but likely they were left as grave offerings for death. Some, like oil lamp, may even have been used inside tombs as part of funerary rituals. Most of the objects in this display were donated to the museum by Frank and Joan Mount, who collected these artifacts while living and traveling in the Middle East in the 1960s.
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GAZA-nafez Abeds cramp workroom is filled with sculptures and Mosaics with patterns from the Byzantine, Greek and Roman periods. It is an emporium of Middle Eastern antiquity tucked away in GAZA. And none of it is real. Abed, 55, is a self-taught archaeologist, preserver and restorer who crafts reproductions of ancient pieces he finds or has seen in museums. He gives his work so much authenticity that international experts have been wowed by his skills. A fair-haired, intense man, he spends almost all his time in his studio, built on the roof of his unfinished house in a refugee camp in northern GAZA. Its windows are covered in plastic to keep out rain that blows in from the nearby Mediterranean. Museum of Mosaics is written on the wooden door that leads into his workroom. On a large table in the middle of the dark room stands a statue of Alexander Great, looking as if it truly dates from 300 BC, amid oil-fire lamps and copies of coins dating back more than 2 500 years. My fixation with Archaeology runs in my veins, says the father of seven, who trained as a blacksmith before deciding 30 years ago to dedicate himself to more refined art. I spend more than 10 hours a day here, sitting among my work and reproductions, he says with a sense of wistfulness. His room was lit by one small lamp, pluged into an extension cable that stretched from the floor below. It was Abeds father who got him start, imbuing him with love of antiquity and the rich ancient history of GAZA, where blind Biblical hero Samson live. Over millennia, GAZA has served as a trading port for ancient Egyptians, Philistines, Romans and Crusaders. Beneath its sands lie ruins from Alexander's Great siege of the City, Emperor Hadrian's visit, Mongol raids and the arrival of Islamic armies 1 400 years ago. Napoleon and Ottomans camped here and the British armies pass through in World War One. Abed frequently tours Gaza beaches looking for ancient remains. Sometimes he restores pieces he finds and other times he uses clay in reproduction, treating material in such a way that it looks to be centuries old. Via extensive reading on Archaeology in Arabic and English, he has developed a range of techniques for restoration and aging. To the visitor's eye, everything looks ancient. Some clients, some visitors, including scientists who have visited me, thought some of the pieces were real before I told them they were imitations made by my own hand, he say.
If history is a matter of dispute in the Middle East, so too is some Archaeology underway to document and preserve remnants of that history. The Israeli military has an Archaeology unit that is responsible for Excavations in most of the West Bank, land captured by Israel in 1967 and sought by Palestinians for an independent State. According to the Israeli-Palestinian agreement, status of the West Bank and artifacts found there are to be negotiated in eventual peace talks. Until then, military archaeologists will continue to dig and grant excavation permits to Israeli academics to dig in the West Bank. Our work is mainly to preserve the history of the area, say Benny Har-Even, military's deputy Staff Officer for Archaeology, walking among the ruins of a village dating to 2 century BC nearby, Palestinian workers army employ laid cement to reinforce row of stones, preparing the site as a tourist destination. Military's archaeologists see their job as a race to save some 3 000 known archeological sites in the area. We need to take care of them, to protect them, to try to avoid bandits destroying them, Har-Even say. But some aspects of Israeli Archaeology in the West Bank are not made public by the army, according to Israeli archaeologist Rafi Greenberg of Emek Shaveh, left group of archaeologists critical of digging. They do not publish list of excavations or list of excavators or list of finds or the location of their storerooms, say Greenberg. That's all kept as a state secret. The group accuses Israel of using Archaeology to strengthen its control of the West Bank, and it is suing in court to find out which Israeli academics were granted permits to excavate there, among other information. An Israeli judge ruled in November that the identity of those archaeologists would remain classified, to protect them from boycott by colleagues around the world who object to cooperation with Israel's military occupation of the West Bank. If it's wrong, then don't do it. And if it's right, tell everybody about it, he say. But this approach that we are not going to let on, raises suspicions. What can you say? If someone is not going to be transparent, they've got something to hide. In an interview, one archaeologist from Israeli University who excavate in the West Bank, and who has published many books about his finds, asked not to be identified out of fear that drawing attention could lead to being boycott. I don't think I am doing something wrong, archaeologists say. I think I am salvaging data. Army's archaeologists say their work is necessary to protect important historical finds from being lost to the thriving market of Palestinian Antiquities thieves. But former Palestinian Authority Antiquities chief Hamdan Taha believes Israeli archaeologists are ones behaving like Antiquities thieves, digging in occupied land under the cloak of anonymity. It provides a legal framework for open looting, Taha say.
Description of individuals excavated in Ashkelon and archeological information fig. S3. ADMIXTURE CV errors for each cluster number. Fig. S4. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population shares higher genetic affinity with Caucasus / Iranian-related populations when compared to the Neolithic Levantines. Fig. S5. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population shares marginal higher genetic affinity with populations related to ancient Caucasus / Iran when compared to the Chalcolithic Levantines. Fig. S6. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population is symmetrically related to Lebanon_MBA. Fig. S7. The Bronze Age Ashkelon population is mostly symmetrically related to Jordan_EBA but shares slightly higher genetic affinity with populations related to ancient Caucasus / Iran. Fig. S8. Variation in differential affinities between Ashkelon groups. Fig. S9. The proportion of Mesolithic European WHG ancestry in ASH_IA1 individuals correlates with their position in west Eurasian PCA. Fig. S10. ASH_IA1 shares more alleles with European-related populations compared to ASH_IA2. Table S1. 14 C radiocarbon dating was performed for this study. Table S5. Ashkelon individuals and groups model using qpADM by Levant_ChL, Iran_ChL, and WHG as sources. Table S6. Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals and groups modelled by three maximized populations on west Eurasian PCA. Data file S1. Overview of skeletal material screen for in this study. Data file S2. Overview of main analysis groups used in this study.
We use qpWave and qpAdm programs of ADMIXTOOLS to test and model admixture proportions from potential source populations in tested populations. We use a basic set of seven outgroups including present-day populations that represent global genetic variation and publish ancient populations such as Natufian, which represents the Levantine gene pool outside of modern genetic variation, and European Upper Palaeolithic individual Villabruna. Distribution of square f 4-statistics of form f 4 was estimated for 2 distribution with 1 df using Q-Q plot for each analyze group. Variance for each group was estimated by the Fligner-Killeen test, which is robust against departures from normality that can be caused by small sample size.
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